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Environment Stats: compare key data on Finland & United States

Definitions

  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • CO2 Emissions per 1000: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Municipal waste generation: Kilograms of municipal waste generated per year (2000).
  • Pollution perceptions > Air pollution: Air Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Air quality: Air quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean water: Water Quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution: Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Water pollution: Water Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Proportion of land area under protection: Terrestrial areas protected to total surface area, percentage.
  • Transport CO2 emission index: CO2 Emission Index is an estimation of CO2 consumption due to traffic time. Measurement unit is grams for the return trip. To calculate an average estimation of emission in grams for one way commute to work, divide this value with 2.
  • Waste generation: Kilograms of waste generated per person per year ( 2000).
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water > Freshwater pollution: Industrial organic pollutants per available freshwater
    Units: Metric Tons of BOD Emissions per Cubic Km of Water
    Units: Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. The data from the World Bank, which represented BOD emissions (kilograms per day) were normalized by the combination of water availability per capita and water inflow availability per capita from the WaterGap2.1 model. In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.
  • Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Municipal waste generation per million: Kilograms of municipal waste generated per year (2000). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Waste > Local garbage collected: Municipal waste collected.
  • Marine fish catch per 1000: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Water > Severe water stress: Percent of country's territory under severe water stress
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: This data is derived from the WaterGap 2.1 gridded hydrological model developed by the Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany. The modellers derived, for each country, grid cell by grid cell estimates of whether the water consumption exceeds 40 percent of the water available in that particular grid cell. These were then converted to land area equivalents in order to calculate the percentage of the territory under severe water stress.
  • Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution: Noise and Light Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Endangered species > Mammal species > Number: Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened: Mammal species, threatened. Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality: Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Pollution perceptions > Pollution index: Pollution Index is an estimation of the overall pollution in the city. The biggest weight is given to air pollution, than to water pollution/accessibility, two main pollution factors. Small weight is given to other pollution types.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, total.
  • National parks > Number of parks: Number of parks.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened: Bird species, threatened. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Endangered species > Bird species: Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • National parks > Proportion of country area: Country area.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • SO2 emissions per populated area: SO2 emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Waste > Hazardous waste created: Annual generation of hazardous waste (as defined by the Basel Convention).
  • Waste > Local garbage collected per thousand people: Municipal waste collected. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened: Fish species, threatened. Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Waste generation per million: Kilograms of waste generated per person per year ( 2000). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Endangered species > Fish species > Number: Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity: Percentage of population who responded yes when asked if they believed global warming was a result of human activities. In this survey, global warming refers to the current rise in earth's temperature and not climate change as a whole.
  • Water > Percent of water resources used: Proportion of total water resources used, percentage.
  • Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number: Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons.
  • NOx emissions per populated area: NOx emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration: Dissolved oxygen concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, total.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities: Clean and Tidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, rural.
  • Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened: Plant species (higher), threatened. Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Threatened species: Number of Threatened Species (1990-99)
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Waste water treatment expenditure: Annual spending on waste water treatment (USD per person) per year (2000).
  • Waste > Population served by local garbage collection: Total population served by municipal waste collection.
  • National parks > Total area: Total area km².

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Biodiversity > Number: GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential)."
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness: Percentage of each country's population who claimed knowing "something" or a "great deal" about climate change when asked: "How much do you know about global warming or climate change?"
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of all greenhouse gas emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total greenhouse gas emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of greenhouse gases emitted. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution: Comfortable to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Waste > Hazardous waste created per thousand people: Annual generation of hazardous waste (as defined by the Basel Convention). Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities: Dirty and Untidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential).
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution: Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.
  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.
  • Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent: Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production.
  • Pollution > Nuclear waste: Wastes from spent fuel arising in nuclear power plants, measured in terms of heavy metal. Data for 1998 or latest available year.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates.
  • Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter). Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Wetlands of intl importance > Area: Wetlands of international importance 2002
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Proportion of land and marine area under protection: Terrestrial and marine areas protected to total territorial area, percentage.
  • Endangered species protection: Percent of CITES reporting requirements met
    Units: Percent of Requirements Met
    Units: Countries that have not ratified the CITES convention are recorded as having zero percent of their requirements met.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of sulphur hexafluoride emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total SF6 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of SF6 emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since SF6 has a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution: Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide per capita: Tons of Carbon Dioxide produced per capita in 1998 or latest available year. Carbon dioxide from energy use only. Excludes international marine bunkers.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, urban.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Waste water treatment expenditure per million: Annual spending on waste water treatment (USD per person) per year (2000). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Commitment to Development Index (environment): The Commitment to Development Index (CDI) ranks the world’s richest countries on their commitment to policies that benefit the poorer nations. The environment component of the index measures what these countries do to reduce their use of scarce natural resources. The score goes up if their "greenhouse gas" emissions are falling, their fuel taxes are high, do not subsidize the fishing industry, or have a low fossil fuel rate per capita.
  • Municipal waste treatment expenditure per million: Annual spending on municipal waste disposal (USD per person). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of sulphur hexafluoride emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total SF6 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of SF6 emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since SF6 has a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of methane emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total methane emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the amount of methane emitted, which is 21 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of methane emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total methane emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the amount of methane emitted, which is 21 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Carbon dioxide (CO2) > CO2 emissions: Amount of carbon dioxide emissions by select Western countries. Amounts are by thousand metric tons. 
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Carbon dioxide (CO2) > CO2 emissions per thousand people: Amount of carbon dioxide emissions by select Western countries. Amounts are by thousand metric tons. . Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction: Garbage Disposal Satisfaction. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat: Percentage of country's population that perceives climate change as a threat. Results are from a 2008 Gallop Poll.
  • Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management."
  • Wildness: Percent of land area having very low anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Biosphere > Reserves area: Biosphere reserves area 2002.
  • Forest area > Sq. km per 1000: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Threatened species > Mammal: Number of threatened mammal species (1997)
  • Water > Population supplied by water supply industry: Total population supplied by water supply industry.
  • Municipal waste treatment expenditure: Annual spending on municipal waste disposal (USD per person).
  • Known mammal species: Known mammal species (1992-2002).
  • World Heritage Sites (environmental): Natural sites.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day per worker). Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2).
  • Breeding birds threatened: Percentage of breeding birds threatened
    Units: Percent of Breeding Birds
    Units: The number of bird species threatened divided by known bird species in the country, expressed as a percentage.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, urban.
  • Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride."
  • Urban SO2 concentration: Urban SO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of nitrous oxide emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total NO2 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of NO2 emitted, which is 310 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Pollution > Nuclear waste efficiency: This is the amount of nuclear waste produced per unit of energy obtained. Energy obtained is measured in units equivalent to the energy obtained from using one million tons of oil. Data from 1998 or latest available year. "Nuclear Waste" is waste from spent fuel arising in nuclear power plants, measured in terms of heavy metal.
  • Sustainability-satisfying companies: Dow Jones Sustainability Group Index: percent of eligible companies in index
    Units: Percentage
    Units: For each country, the number of companies in the Sustainability Index was divided by the number of companies in the Global Index.
  • Marine areas under protection: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Water > Population connected to wastewater collecting system: Population connected to wastewater collecting system.
  • Water > Proportion of marine area under protection: Marine areas protected to territorial waters, percentage.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Environmental agreement compliance: Compliance with environmental agreements (WEF survey)
    Units: Survey Responses Ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7
    Units: Response to the statement: "Compliance with international environmental agreements is a high priority.
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2). Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Nuclear waste per million: Wastes from spent fuel arising in nuclear power plants, measured in terms of heavy metal. Data for 1998 or latest available year. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations."
  • Known mammal species per million: Known mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Wetlands of intl importance > Area per million: Wetlands of international importance 2002. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Areas under protection per million: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water > Salinisation: Electrical conductivity
    Units: Micro-Siemens/Centimeter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of water bodies; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system.
  • Areas under protection: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Marine areas under protection per million: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Biosphere > Reserves area per million: Biosphere reserves area 2002. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Fertiliser > Consumption: Fertilizer consumption per hectare of arable land
    Units: Hundreds Grams/Hectare of Arable Land
  • Urban NO2 concentration: Urban NO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Non-wildness: Percent of land area having very high anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of perfluorocarbons emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total PFCs emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of PFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since PFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction: Quality of Green and Parks. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Total natural resources rents > % of GDP: Total natural resources rents (% of GDP). Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
  • Waste water treatment expenditure, % of GDP: Annual spending on waste water treatment (USD per person) per year (2000). Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of all greenhouse gas emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total greenhouse gas emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of greenhouse gases emitted. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date: Signature.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, wood industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Expenditure pollution control as % of GDP: Expenditure on pollution controland abatement as % of GDP, 1999 .
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total: Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, textile industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Known breeding bird species per million: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of nitrous oxide emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total NO2 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of NO2 emitted, which is 310 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use: Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a countryÂ’s technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, food industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, other industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, paper and pulp industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, clay and glass industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions over a 100 year period. These numbers do not represent total HFCs emissions over 100 years, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of HFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year timeframe is used since HFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Nitrogen Oxides per capita: Kilogram weight of Nitrogen Oxides produced per capita in 1998 or latest available year.
  • CO2 Emissions: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Water > Phosphorus concentration: Phosphorus concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions over a 100 year period. These numbers do not represent total HFCs emissions over 100 years, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of HFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year timeframe is used since HFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total: Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total: Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • International agreements > Signed but not ratified: The various international environmental agreements which a country has signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Municipal waste treatment expenditure, % of GDP: Annual spending on municipal waste disposal (USD per person). Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Known breeding bird species: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, chemical industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of perfluorocarbons emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total PFCs emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of PFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since PFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters: Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters). Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, metal industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water > Suspended solids: Suspended solids
    Units: Natural Log of Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. Data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of majorwatersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries. The data in this table was transformed using the natural logarithm.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Forest area > % of land area: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
STAT Finland United States HISTORY
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $166.06 billion
Ranked 30th.
$11.13 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 67 times more than Finland
CO2 Emissions per 1000 10.86
Ranked 16th.
19.86
Ranked 4th. 83% more than Finland
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons 28.84
Ranked 50th.
2,478.03
Ranked 2nd. 86 times more than Finland

Current issues air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification
Ecological footprint 8.45
Ranked 8th.
12.22
Ranked 2nd. 45% more than Finland
Marine fish catch 104,058 tons
Ranked 53th.
3.33 million tons
Ranked 7th. 32 times more than Finland
Municipal waste generation 460 kgs per person per year
Ranked 15th.
760 kgs per person per year
Ranked 1st. 65% more than Finland
Pollution perceptions > Air pollution 11.25
Ranked 27th.
25.04
Ranked 52nd. 2 times more than Finland
Pollution perceptions > Air quality 88.75
Ranked 1st. 18% more than United States
74.96
Ranked 8th.
Pollution perceptions > Clean water 75
Ranked 6th. 39% more than United States
54.13
Ranked 22nd.
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution 10.94
Ranked 23th.
29.66
Ranked 41st. 3 times more than Finland
Pollution perceptions > Water pollution 25
Ranked 22nd.
45.87
Ranked 38th. 83% more than Finland
Proportion of land area under protection 15.1%
Ranked 102nd. 9% more than United States
13.82%
Ranked 111th.

Transport CO2 emission index 2,007.09
Ranked 15th.
7,004.01
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than Finland
Waste generation 190 kgs per person per year
Ranked 16th.
460 kgs per person per year
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than Finland
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million 5.35
Ranked 18th.
7.95
Ranked 10th. 49% more than Finland

Water > Freshwater pollution 0.61 tons/cubic km
Ranked 40th.
1.14 tons/cubic km
Ranked 30th. 87% more than Finland
Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita 42.89 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 15th. 4 times more than United States
10.22 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 44th.

Municipal waste generation per million 88.87 kgs per person per year
Ranked 5th. 33 times more than United States
2.69 kgs per person per year
Ranked 17th.
Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 61,565.71
Ranked 30th.
1.89 million
Ranked 1st. 31 times more than Finland

Waste > Local garbage collected 2.56 million tonnes
Ranked 35th.
222.86 million tonnes
Ranked 1st. 87 times more than Finland

Marine fish catch per 1000 20.14 tons
Ranked 30th. 69% more than United States
11.93 tons
Ranked 42nd.
Water > Severe water stress 2.1
Ranked 76th.
31.3
Ranked 42nd. 15 times more than Finland
Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution 26.56
Ranked 24th.
47.89
Ranked 34th. 80% more than Finland
Endangered species > Mammal species > Number 1
Ranked 194th.
37
Ranked 19th. 37 times more than Finland
Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened 1
Ranked 203th.
36
Ranked 21st. 36 times more than Finland
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality 89.06
Ranked 5th. 27% more than United States
70.34
Ranked 19th.
CO2 emissions > Kt 67,835.09 kt
Ranked 45th.
5.79 million kt
Ranked 1st. 85 times more than Finland

Pollution perceptions > Pollution index 16.68
Ranked 27th.
35.37
Ranked 47th. 2 times more than Finland
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural 100
Ranked 25th. 1% more than United States
98.76
Ranked 62nd.

National parks > Number of parks 37
Ranked 3rd.
59
Ranked 2nd. 59% more than Finland
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 12.12
Ranked 19th.
19.34
Ranked 10th. 60% more than Finland

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 11.53
Ranked 20th.
17.56
Ranked 10th. 52% more than Finland

Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened 6
Ranked 160th.
78
Ranked 9th. 13 times more than Finland
Carbon efficiency 1.28 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 62nd.
1.77 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 42nd. 38% more than Finland
CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 13.01 kt
Ranked 15th.
19.95 kt
Ranked 9th. 53% more than Finland

Endangered species > Bird species 4
Ranked 154th.
74
Ranked 7th. 19 times more than Finland

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $31,654.32
Ranked 11th.
$37,678.22
Ranked 6th. 19% more than Finland
National parks > Proportion of country area 2.7%
Ranked 18th. 24% more than United States
2.18%
Ranked 4th.
SO2 emissions per populated area 1,480 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 43th.
1,680 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 37th. 14% more than Finland
Waste > Hazardous waste created 2.16 million tonnes
Ranked 17th.
34.79 million tonnes
Ranked 2nd. 16 times more than Finland

Waste > Local garbage collected per thousand people 479.88 tonnes
Ranked 29th.
754.15 tonnes
Ranked 5th. 57% more than Finland

Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened 6
Ranked 179th.
236
Ranked 1st. 39 times more than Finland
Waste generation per million 36.71 kgs per person per year
Ranked 8th. 23 times more than United States
1.63 kgs per person per year
Ranked 16th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 61,843.96
Ranked 52nd.
5.43 million
Ranked 2nd. 88 times more than Finland

CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita 13.01 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 17th.
19.9 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 11th. 53% more than Finland

Endangered species > Fish species > Number 5
Ranked 172nd.
164
Ranked 1st. 33 times more than Finland
Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 55,320.74
Ranked 37th.
1.85 million
Ranked 2nd. 33 times more than Finland

Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction 14.06
Ranked 27th.
26.97
Ranked 48th. 92% more than Finland
Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity 53%
Ranked 72nd. 8% more than United States
49%
Ranked 88th.
Water > Percent of water resources used 1.49%
Ranked 76th.
15.57%
Ranked 37th. 10 times more than Finland

Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number 1
Ranked 157th.
244
Ranked 12th. 244 times more than Finland

Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption 593.4
Ranked 50th.
1,627.68
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than Finland

NOx emissions per populated area 0.19 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 90th.
1.29 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 13th. 7 times more than Finland
Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration 11.19 mls/litre
Ranked 2nd. 21% more than United States
9.26 mls/litre
Ranked 33th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 11.53
Ranked 20th.
17.56
Ranked 10th. 52% more than Finland

Forest area > Sq. km 225,000 km²
Ranked 25th.
3.03 million km²
Ranked 4th. 13 times more than Finland

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.30
Ranked 143th.
$0.40
Ranked 107th. 32% more than Finland

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural 100
Ranked 28th. About the same as United States
99.59
Ranked 40th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt 64,123.66
Ranked 46th.
5.83 million
Ranked 2nd. 91 times more than Finland

Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities 84.38
Ranked 1st. 40% more than United States
60.34
Ranked 16th.
Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people 116.62
Ranked 43th. 22 times more than United States
5.22
Ranked 48th.

Water > Availability 18.01 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 30th. 3 times more than United States
7.09 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 47th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural 100
Ranked 26th. 6% more than United States
94.03
Ranked 85th.

Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened 2
Ranked 166th.
270
Ranked 13th. 135 times more than Finland
Threatened species 17
Ranked 106th.
854
Ranked 1st. 50 times more than Finland
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $42,088.74
Ranked 9th. 2% more than United States
$41,448.39
Ranked 10th.

Waste water treatment expenditure $52.20
Ranked 11th.
$105.00
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Finland
Waste > Population served by local garbage collection 100%
Ranked 19th. The same as United States
100%
Ranked 24th.

National parks > Total area 8,873
Ranked 8th.
210,000
Ranked 2nd. 24 times more than Finland
Biodiversity > Number 0.17
Ranked 172nd.
94.22
Ranked 2nd. 554 times more than Finland

Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $226.79 billion
Ranked 34th.
$12.91 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 57 times more than Finland

Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness 98%
Ranked 2nd. 1% more than United States
97%
Ranked 3rd.
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 74,555.64
Ranked 22nd.
6.8 million
Ranked 1st. 91 times more than Finland

Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution 91.67
Ranked 2nd. 17% more than United States
78.17
Ranked 11th.
Waste > Hazardous waste created per thousand people 407.13 tonnes
Ranked 9th. 3 times more than United States
117.72 tonnes
Ranked 5th.

Protected area 6%
Ranked 71st.
13.4%
Ranked 26th. 2 times more than Finland
Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities 15.62
Ranked 27th.
39.66
Ranked 44th. 3 times more than Finland
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum 0.17
Ranked 176th.
94.22
Ranked 2nd. 553 times more than Finland

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.42
Ranked 132nd.
$0.51
Ranked 109th. 21% more than Finland

Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution 73.44
Ranked 4th. 41% more than United States
52.11
Ranked 26th.
Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters 107
Ranked 54th.
2,800
Ranked 6th. 26 times more than Finland

Acidification 1.19%
Ranked 41st.
13.74%
Ranked 25th. 12 times more than Finland
Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent 5,470
Ranked 84th.
810,280
Ranked 2nd. 148 times more than Finland

Pollution > Nuclear waste 71
Ranked 11th.
2,100
Ranked 1st. 30 times more than Finland
Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters 20,137.77
Ranked 35th. 2 times more than United States
9,199.18
Ranked 55th.

Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 15.22
Ranked 152nd.
17.78
Ranked 140th. 17% more than Finland

Wetlands of intl importance > Area 139 thousand hectares
Ranked 58th.
1,190 thousand hectares
Ranked 14th. 9 times more than Finland
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number 6,046
Ranked 6th.
6,770
Ranked 5th. 12% more than Finland
CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP 0.48 kg/PPP$
Ranked 47th.
0.56 kg/PPP$
Ranked 36th. 17% more than Finland

Proportion of land and marine area under protection 15.17%
Ranked 82nd. About the same as United States
15.14%
Ranked 83th.

Endangered species protection 82.6%
Ranked 51st.
87.5%
Ranked 39th. 6% more than Finland
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 2.4
Ranked 38th.
43.12
Ranked 3rd. 18 times more than Finland

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 5.83
Ranked 24th.
45.38
Ranked 1st. 8 times more than Finland

Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution 8.33
Ranked 26th.
21.83
Ranked 49th. 3 times more than Finland
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million 0.0321
Ranked 173th.
0.31
Ranked 97th. 10 times more than Finland

Pollution > Carbon Dioxide per capita 12
Ranked 7th.
20
Ranked 1st. 67% more than Finland
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban 100
Ranked 35th. About the same as United States
99.77
Ranked 56th.

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 100%
Ranked 28th. 1% more than United States
98.6%
Ranked 40th.

Waste water treatment expenditure per million $10.08
Ranked 5th. 27 times more than United States
$0.37
Ranked 14th.
Commitment to Development Index (environment) 7.4
Ranked 4th. 72% more than United States
4.3
Ranked 23th.
Municipal waste treatment expenditure per million $1.54
Ranked 6th. 24 times more than United States
$0.06
Ranked 18th.
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 31.24
Ranked 23th.
14,037.64
Ranked 1st. 449 times more than Finland

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 4,327.14
Ranked 30th.
661,699
Ranked 1st. 153 times more than Finland

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people 0.807
Ranked 26th.
2.14
Ranked 6th. 3 times more than Finland

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Carbon dioxide (CO2) > CO2 emissions 63,688.56
Ranked 20th.
5.7 million
Ranked 1st. 89 times more than Finland

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Carbon dioxide (CO2) > CO2 emissions per thousand people 11.87
Ranked 6th.
18.42
Ranked 2nd. 55% more than Finland

Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction 85.94
Ranked 1st. 18% more than United States
73.03
Ranked 12th.
Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat 39%
Ranked 85th.
63%
Ranked 30th. 62% more than Finland
Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 5,330
Ranked 77th.
456,210
Ranked 2nd. 86 times more than Finland

Wildness 30.04%
Ranked 38th.
35.89%
Ranked 32nd. 19% more than Finland
Biosphere > Reserves area 770 thousand hectares
Ranked 40th.
31,570 thousand hectares
Ranked 3rd. 41 times more than Finland
Forest area > Sq. km per 1000 42.89 km²
Ranked 14th. 4 times more than United States
10.26 km²
Ranked 44th.

Threatened species > Mammal 4
Ranked 141st.
35
Ranked 14th. 9 times more than Finland
Water > Population supplied by water supply industry 90%
Ranked 23th. 6% more than United States
85%
Ranked 25th.
Municipal waste treatment expenditure $8.00
Ranked 18th.
$18.10
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Finland
Known mammal species 60
Ranked 127th.
428
Ranked 4th. 7 times more than Finland
World Heritage Sites (environmental) 1
Ranked 79th.
12
Ranked 1st. 12 times more than Finland
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 2.29
Ranked 66th.
530.05
Ranked 2nd. 231 times more than Finland

Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.145
Ranked 50th. 2% more than United States
0.142
Ranked 52nd.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters 2.48
Ranked 69th.
479.29
Ranked 3rd. 193 times more than Finland
Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 15,932
Ranked 45th.
1.5 million
Ranked 1st. 94 times more than Finland
Breeding birds threatened 1.21%
Ranked 107th.
8.31%
Ranked 15th. 7 times more than Finland
Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 5.02
Ranked 11th.
6.29
Ranked 8th. 25% more than Finland

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 4.77
Ranked 27th.
6.97
Ranked 13th. 46% more than Finland

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 1.64
Ranked 43th.
4.17
Ranked 16th. 3 times more than Finland

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt 26,934.12
Ranked 32nd.
1.95 million
Ranked 2nd. 72 times more than Finland

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt 8,789.8
Ranked 64th.
1.29 million
Ranked 1st. 147 times more than Finland

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million 240.15
Ranked 34th.
1,126.51
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than Finland

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number 15
Ranked 52nd.
787
Ranked 2nd. 52 times more than Finland
Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban 100
Ranked 30th. About the same as United States
99.8
Ranked 43th.

Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 1,030
Ranked 37th.
108,420
Ranked 3rd. 105 times more than Finland

Urban SO2 concentration 4.38 micrograms/m3
Ranked 137th.
15.43 micrograms/m3
Ranked 114th. 4 times more than Finland
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 996.39
Ranked 9th. 3% more than United States
971.54
Ranked 10th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$ $38.43 billion
Ranked 28th.
$1.99 trillion
Ranked 1st. 52 times more than Finland

Pollution > Nuclear waste efficiency 2.2
Ranked 9th. 2 times more than United States
0.9
Ranked 13th.
Sustainability-satisfying companies 84.9%
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than United States
19.8%
Ranked 14th.
Marine areas under protection 3
Ranked 68th.
229
Ranked 1st. 76 times more than Finland
Water > Population connected to wastewater collecting system 81%
Ranked 19th. 13% more than United States
71.4%
Ranked 14th.

Water > Proportion of marine area under protection 15.65%
Ranked 40th.
30.4%
Ranked 19th. 94% more than Finland

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$ $43.72 billion
Ranked 21st.
$132.56 billion
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than Finland

Environmental agreement compliance 6.72
Ranked 1st. 29% more than United States
5.22
Ranked 20th.
Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000 3.08
Ranked 16th.
5.38
Ranked 8th. 74% more than Finland
Pollution > Nuclear waste per million 13.78
Ranked 5th. 81% more than United States
7.61
Ranked 10th.
Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 17.8
Ranked 146th.
21.34
Ranked 131st. 20% more than Finland

Known mammal species per million 11.54
Ranked 75th. 8 times more than United States
1.49
Ranked 135th.
Wetlands of intl importance > Area per million 26.73 thousand hectares
Ranked 35th. 6 times more than United States
4.14 thousand hectares
Ranked 76th.
Areas under protection per million 51.79
Ranked 17th. 4 times more than United States
12
Ranked 40th.
Water > Salinisation 50.49
Ranked 139th.
375.65
Ranked 98th. 7 times more than Finland
Areas under protection 270
Ranked 25th.
3,481
Ranked 7th. 13 times more than Finland
Marine areas under protection per million 0.575
Ranked 45th.
0.789
Ranked 36th. 37% more than Finland
Biosphere > Reserves area per million 148.06 thousand hectares
Ranked 18th. 35% more than United States
109.76 thousand hectares
Ranked 25th.
Fertiliser > Consumption 1,407.48 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 40th. 26% more than United States
1,117.48 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 48th.
Urban NO2 concentration 30.69 micrograms/m3
Ranked 119th.
60.57 micrograms/m3
Ranked 45th. 97% more than Finland
Non-wildness 3.7%
Ranked 66th.
6.59%
Ranked 49th. 78% more than Finland
Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.17%
Ranked 38th.
0.21%
Ranked 31st. 24% more than Finland

Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.16
Ranked 35th. 14% more than United States
0.14
Ranked 47th.

Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction 18.33
Ranked 25th.
28.29
Ranked 49th. 54% more than Finland
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 0.75
Ranked 29th.
5,660.73
Ranked 1st. 7551 times more than Finland

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$ $43.75 billion
Ranked 21st.
$152.63 billion
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than Finland

Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 10.63%
Ranked 9th.
13.9%
Ranked 5th. 31% more than Finland

Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction 81.67
Ranked 3rd. 14% more than United States
71.71
Ranked 11th.
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$ $31.27 million
Ranked 87th.
$20.07 billion
Ranked 2nd. 642 times more than Finland

Total natural resources rents > % of GDP 0.9%
Ranked 123th.
1.73%
Ranked 104th. 93% more than Finland

Waste water treatment expenditure, % of GDP 4.29e-08%
Ranked 4th. 40 times more than United States
1.06e-09%
Ranked 14th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 100
Ranked 28th. 1% more than United States
98.6
Ranked 40th.

Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.16 kg per day per worker
Ranked 36th. 23% more than United States
0.13 kg per day per worker
Ranked 47th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI 14.07%
Ranked 14th. 1% more than United States
13.96%
Ranked 18th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI 0.12%
Ranked 52nd. 9% more than United States
0.11%
Ranked 53th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people 13.9
Ranked 9th.
21.99
Ranked 3rd. 58% more than Finland

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI 24.76%
Ranked 52nd. 97% more than United States
12.6%
Ranked 108th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 4.32%
Ranked 40th. 5 times more than United States
0.816%
Ranked 102nd.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources 2.31%
Ranked 100th.
17.12%
Ranked 61st. 7 times more than Finland
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date June 4, 1992 June 12, 1992
Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 7.26%
Ranked 9th. 76% more than United States
4.13%
Ranked 27th.

Expenditure pollution control as % of GDP 1.1% of GDP
Ranked 11th.
1.6% of GDP
Ranked 3rd. 45% more than Finland
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal 13.73%
Ranked 78th. 8% more than United States
12.7%
Ranked 83th.

Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total 10.24%
Ranked 92nd.
56.37%
Ranked 20th. 6 times more than Finland

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal 83.6%
Ranked 1st. 82% more than United States
46.05%
Ranked 20th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$ 0.0
Ranked 150th.
0.0
Ranked 95th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI 16.02%
Ranked 28th. 15 times more than United States
1.07%
Ranked 91st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$ 0.0
Ranked 181st.
$276.06 billion
Ranked 3rd.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million 0.425
Ranked 38th.
1.7
Ranked 6th. 4 times more than Finland

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total 43.55%
Ranked 22nd. 22% more than United States
35.82%
Ranked 33th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 141st.
0.0
Ranked 87th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 8.58%
Ranked 40th.
13.13%
Ranked 15th. 53% more than Finland

Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.76%
Ranked 56th.
4.29%
Ranked 53th. 55% more than Finland

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI 16.01%
Ranked 27th. 17 times more than United States
0.93%
Ranked 90th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 6.74%
Ranked 11th. 65% more than United States
4.09%
Ranked 21st.

Known breeding bird species per million 46.73
Ranked 36th. 26 times more than United States
1.77
Ranked 140th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total 14.21%
Ranked 77th.
23.72%
Ranked 58th. 67% more than Finland

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt 25,595.66
Ranked 54th.
2.16 million
Ranked 1st. 84 times more than Finland

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 5,343.98
Ranked 26th.
300,522.75
Ranked 2nd. 56 times more than Finland

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 4.12%
Ranked 102nd.
10.03%
Ranked 47th. 2 times more than Finland

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total 41.39%
Ranked 149th. 4% more than United States
39.68%
Ranked 152nd.

Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions 26.57%
Ranked 44th.
42.06%
Ranked 31st. 58% more than Finland

Water pollution > Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.8%
Ranked 46th.
4.65%
Ranked 42nd. 66% more than Finland

Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use 1.76
Ranked 91st.
2.49
Ranked 52nd. 41% more than Finland

PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 19.14 mcg/m³
Ranked 149th.
22.63 mcg/m³
Ranked 140th. 18% more than Finland

Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions 9.02%
Ranked 57th.
12.02%
Ranked 51st. 33% more than Finland

Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions 51.38%
Ranked 6th. 1% more than United States
51.06%
Ranked 7th.

Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 15.45%
Ranked 1st. 90% more than United States
8.14%
Ranked 11th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal 2.67%
Ranked 132nd.
41.26%
Ranked 107th. 15 times more than Finland

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent -40.558
Ranked 34th.
-990.062
Ranked 41st. 24 times more than Finland

Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 4.37%
Ranked 39th. 13% more than United States
3.86%
Ranked 46th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 1,163.96
Ranked 19th.
122,967.12
Ranked 1st. 106 times more than Finland

Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 3.93%
Ranked 15th.
4.24%
Ranked 14th. 8% more than Finland

Pollution > Nitrogen Oxides per capita 51
Ranked 6th.
80
Ranked 3rd. 57% more than Finland
CO2 Emissions 56,618.7
Ranked 47th.
5.76 million
Ranked 1st. 102 times more than Finland
Water pollution > Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 15.55%
Ranked 1st. 87% more than United States
8.33%
Ranked 14th.

Water > Phosphorus concentration 0.01 mls/litre
Ranked 138th.
0.08 mls/litre
Ranked 127th. 8 times more than Finland
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI 10.69%
Ranked 63th.
-1.36%
Ranked 115th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 217.02
Ranked 8th.
397.53
Ranked 1st. 83% more than Finland

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP $0.34
Ranked 58th.
$0.42
Ranked 44th. 24% more than Finland

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP $0.36
Ranked 58th.
$0.44
Ranked 44th. 22% more than Finland

Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 7.56%
Ranked 35th.
13.95%
Ranked 9th. 85% more than Finland

Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total 59.47%
Ranked 109th.
74.74%
Ranked 90th. 26% more than Finland

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$ $29.19 billion
Ranked 30th.
$-194,522,724,898.49
Ranked 131st.

Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total 30.35%
Ranked 89th. 65% more than United States
18.38%
Ranked 102nd.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.01%
Ranked 144th.
0.14%
Ranked 86th. 14 times more than Finland

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$ $327.97 million
Ranked 37th.
$16.10 billion
Ranked 7th. 49 times more than Finland

International agreements > Signed but not ratified none of the selected agreements Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP 84.82%
Ranked 72nd.
88.62%
Ranked 31st. 4% more than Finland
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 153th.
1.93%
Ranked 52nd.

Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP 86.17%
Ranked 48th. The same as United States
86.15%
Ranked 49th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.19%
Ranked 127th.
0.31%
Ranked 80th. 63% more than Finland

Municipal waste treatment expenditure, % of GDP 5.92e-09%
Ranked 3rd. 35 times more than United States
1.71e-10%
Ranked 18th.
Known breeding bird species 243
Ranked 44th.
508
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Finland
Water pollution > Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 4.81%
Ranked 14th. 40% more than United States
3.44%
Ranked 21st.

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million -7.597
Ranked 40th. 2 times more than United States
-3.227
Ranked 33th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 48.7%
Ranked 10th.
50.59%
Ranked 7th. 4% more than Finland

Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 8.74%
Ranked 42nd.
13.05%
Ranked 12th. 49% more than Finland

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 0.14
Ranked 31st.
18.3
Ranked 7th. 131 times more than Finland

Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.1% of GNI
Ranked 134th.
0.35% of GNI
Ranked 85th. 3 times more than Finland

Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 40.1%
Ranked 6th. 4 times more than United States
10.61%
Ranked 35th.

Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters 58.55%
Ranked 7th. 29 times more than United States
2%
Ranked 95th.

Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 1.03%
Ranked 50th.
3.45%
Ranked 28th. 3 times more than Finland

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion 51.86%
Ranked 35th. 11% more than United States
46.87%
Ranked 45th.

Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.22% of GNI
Ranked 131st.
0.34% of GNI
Ranked 93th. 55% more than Finland

Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.35%
Ranked 49th.
5.42%
Ranked 40th. 2 times more than Finland

Water > Suspended solids 1.17 mls/litre
Ranked 141st.
4.19 mls/litre
Ranked 95th. 4 times more than Finland
Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area 3.37%
Ranked 45th.
67.57%
Ranked 3rd. 20 times more than Finland
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area 9.3%
Ranked 102nd.
27.08%
Ranked 26th. 3 times more than Finland
Forest area > % of land area 73.87% of land area
Ranked 9th. 2 times more than United States
33.08% of land area
Ranked 83th.

Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 8.69%
Ranked 16th.
9.62%
Ranked 13th. 11% more than Finland

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 1,288
Ranked 46th.
348,460
Ranked 1st. 271 times more than Finland

SOURCES: The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Living Planet Report 2000, Gland, Switzerland: 2000, and Redefining Progress.; FAOSTAT on-line database; OECD Environmental Data Compendium: 2002; pollution; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; traffic; International Energy Agency. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2001, Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001 (for BOD emissions)and Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGap 2.1, 2000 (for data on waterquantity). via ciesin.org; World Development Indicators database; OECD Environmental Data Compendium: 2002. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, ""Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited"" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; FAOSTAT on-line database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGap 2.1, 2000 via ciesin.org; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wikipedia: List of national parks (Africa); Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Data Version 1.1, B1Illustrative Marker Scenario with model IMAGE; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase database, www.fishbase.org.; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. version (07/2008). Accessed: 28 September 2008.; Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited; Wikipedia: Climate change opinion by country; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environmental Monitoring System/Water Quality Monitoring System, with data for an additional 29 countries from Prescott-Allen,R. The Well being of Nations, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGAP 2.1B, 2001 via ciesin.org; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2003; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, ""Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility"" (2006).; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. 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Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Jacaranda Atlas; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).; Food and Agriculture Organisation, AQUASTAT data.; Stockholm Environment Institute at York, Acidification in Developing Countries: Ecosystem Sensitivity and the Critical Loads Approach at the Global scale, 2000 via ciesin.org; World Resources Institute.; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France, OECD Environmental Data Compendium; World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department; World Resources Institute; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Report on National Reports Required Under Article VIII, Paragraph 7(a), of the Convention, Eleventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Gigiri, Kenya, April 2000; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2003. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: Commitment to Development Index (Commitment to Development Index) (http://www.cgdev.org/doc/CDI%202012/CDI%20Postcard_2012.pdf); OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2002. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency (IEA Statistics \xA9 OECD/IEA, http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp).; Wild Areas Project (WAP), joint Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and CIESIN project to map the lastwild places on the earth's surface. via ciesin.org; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2002; Wikipedia: Table of World Heritage Sites by country (Table of World Heritage Sites); World Bank and UNIDO's industry database.; Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication; 2000 IUCN Red List, and World Resources Institute,World Resources 2000-2001, Washington, DC: WRI, 2000. Original sources: World Conservation Monitoring Center, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other sources.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Resources Institute, World Resources 1998-99; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2000; WHO,Air Management Information System-AMIS 2.0, 1998; and Global Urban Observatory, Citibase, 1999. via ciesin.org; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Statistics Division's National Accounts Statistics.; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France, OECD Environmental Data Compendium, 1999; Assessment of the Country Allocation of the Dow Jones Sustainability Group Index, SAM SustainabilityGroup via ciesin.org; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank staff estimates. The conceptual underpinnings of the savings measure appear in Hamilton and Clemens' ""Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries"" (1999).; Michael E. Porter et al, The Global Competitveness Report 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. via ciesin.org; Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France, OECD Environmental Data Compendium. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. ""Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS),"" World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).; World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2001. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001. via ciesin.org; Wild Areas Project (WAP), joint Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and CIESIN project to map the last wild places on the earth's surface. Accessed via ciesin.org; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; Kiran D. Pandey and others' ""The Human Costs of Air Pollution: New Estimates for Developing Countries"" (2006).; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2003. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; United Nations Statistics Division Original html; World Bank staff estimates based on sources and methods in Arundhati Kunte and others' ""Estimating National Wealth: Methodology and Results"" (1998).; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data files.; Wikipedia: List of parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (List of parties) (Parties & Observers , UNFCCC, 1 June 2011); OECD Environmental Indicators, p. 104. See also Myriam Linster and Frederique Zegel, 'Pollution Abatement and Control in OECD Countries', OECD Working Group on Environmental Information and Outlooks at www.oecd.org; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environmental Monitoring System/Water Quality Monitoring System, with data for an additional 29 countries from Prescott-Allen, R. The Well being of Nations, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001; World Bank staff estimates.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; World Bank staff estimates based on Samuel Fankhauser's ""Valuing Climate Change: The Economics of the Greenhouse"" (1995).; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2002. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.