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Geography Stats: compare key data on India & Pakistan

Definitions

  • Area > Comparative: The area of various small countries expressed in comparison to various areas within the United States of America.
  • Area > Land: Total land area in square kilometres
  • Area > Land > Per capita: Total land area in square kilometres Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Area > Total: Total area in square kilometers
  • Average precipitation in depth > Mm per year: Average precipitation in depth (mm per year). Average precipitation is the long-term average in depth (over space and time) of annual precipitation in the country. Precipitation is defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid.
  • Average rainfall in depth > Mm per year: Average rainfall is the long-term average in depth (over space and time) of annual precipitation in the country. Precipitation is defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid.
  • Climate: A brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.
  • Coastline: The total length of the boundary between the land area (including islands) and the sea.
  • Geographic coordinates: This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the purpose of finding the approximate geographic center of an entity and is based on the Gazetteer of Conventional Names, Third Edition, August 1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on other sources.
  • Land area > Sq. km: Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes."
  • Land area > Square miles: Country land area.
  • Location: The country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water.
  • Natural resources: A country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance.
  • Surface area > Sq. km: Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.
  • Terrain: A brief description of the topography
  • Area > Water: Total water area in square kilometers
  • Area > Comparative to US places: This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).
  • Population density > People per sq. km: Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.
  • Elevation extremes > Highest point: Highest point above sea level
  • Total area > Sq. km: Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways."
  • Land use > Arable land: The percentage of used land that is arable. Arable land is land cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest like wheat, maize, and rice
  • Land boundaries > Border countries: Length of land boundaries by border country
  • Irrigated land: The number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.
  • Natural hazards: Potential natural disasters.
  • Rural population density > Rural population per sq. km of arable land: Rural population density is the rural population divided by the arable land area. Rural population is calculated as the difference between the total population and the urban population. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.
  • Maritime claims > Territorial sea: territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal State extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the LOS Convention (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles. A full and definitive definition can be found in the Law of the Sea (LOS) Convention.
  • Area > Land per 1000: Total land area in square kilometres. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Elevation extremes > Lowest point: This entry is derived from Geography > Elevation extremes, which includes both the highest point and the lowest point.
  • Coastline per 1000: The total length of the boundary between the land area (including islands) and the sea. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Population density: People per square kilometre, in 1999. At this time the world average was 14.42.
  • Maritime claims > Exclusive economic zone: Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the LOS Convention (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal State has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natura
  • Land area > Sq. km > Per capita: Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Map references: The name of the CIA World Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries.
  • Capital city with population: Capital cities including most recent population (estimates included). Populations are figures only within the city limits, unless otherwise specified. All populations are from 2001 t0 2005 unless otherwise specified.
  • Largest city with population: Largest cities including most recent population (estimates included). Populations are figures only within the city limits, unless otherwise specified. All populations are from 2001 t0 2005 unless otherwise specified.
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens."
  • Surface area > Sq. km per 1000: Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Environment > Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
    Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid rain).
    Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note - a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in New England.
    Aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas, smoke, or fog.
    Afforestation - converting a bare or agricultural space by planting trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that have been cut or destroyed by fire.
    Asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic in particulate form.
    Biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism, community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption.
    Bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat.
    Biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given area or volume.
    Carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits.
    Catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar.
    DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in 1972.
    Defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control, and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health.
    Deforestation - ...
    Full definition
  • Land use > Other: The percentage share of used land that is not arable or under permanent crops. This includes permanent meadows and pastures, forests and woodlands, built-on areas, roads, barren land, etc.
  • Area > Total per 1000: Total area in square kilometers. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Area > Water per 1000: Total water area in square kilometers. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Land use > Permanent crops: The percentage share of used land on which permanent crops are grown. This is land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest like citrus, coffee, and rubber. It includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber.
  • Road density > Km of road per 100 sq. km of land area: Road density (km of road per 100 sq. km of land area). Road density is the ratio of the length of the country's total road network to the country's land area. The road network includes all roads in the country: motorways, highways, main or national roads, secondary or regional roads, and other urban and rural roads.
  • Maritime claims > Contiguous zone: This entry is derived from Geography > Maritime claims, which includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions:
    territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles; the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the mean low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal state; where the coasts of two states are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither state is entitled to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line, every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baseline from which the territorial seas of both states are measured; the UNCLOS describes specific rules for archipelagic states.
    contiguous zone - according to the UNCLOS (Article 33), this is a zone contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, over which it may exercise the control necessary to: prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea; punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea; the contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured (e.g., the US has claimed a 12-nautical mile contiguous zone in addition to its 12-nautical mile territorial sea); where the coasts of two states are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither state is entitled to extend its contiguous zone beyond the median line, every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baseline from which the contiguous zone of both states are measured.
    exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the UNCLOS (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal state has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other ...
    Full definition
  • Environment > International agreements > Party to: This entry is derived from Geography > Environment > International agreements, which separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Surface area > Sq. km > Per capita: Surface area is a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Land boundaries > Total: The total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries
  • Highest point: Name of country’s highest point.
  • Precipitation: Average Annual Precipitation in Largest City (mm, 1931-1960)
  • Irrigated land > Per capita: The number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Note: This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.
  • Irrigated land per million: The number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Capital: Country capital.
  • Border to area ratio: The ratio of a country's land border to its surface area.
  • Marine Coastline: Length of each country's coastline in kilometers.
  • Highest point elevation: Name of country’s highest point.
  • Environment > International agreements > Signed, but not ratified: This entry is derived from Geography > Environment > International agreements, which separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Highest town: Name of country’s highest permanent settlement, which is occupied year-round.
  • Northernmost point: Northernmost point.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Forested Land: Forested land as a proportion of total land area, estimate by FAO
  • Maritime claims > Contiguous zone per million people: This entry is derived from Geography > Maritime claims, which includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions:
    territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles; the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the mean low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal state; where the coasts of two states are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither state is entitled to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line, every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baseline from which the territorial seas of both states are measured; the UNCLOS describes specific rules for archipelagic states.
    contiguous zone - according to the UNCLOS (Article 33), this is a zone contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, over which it may exercise the control necessary to: prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea; punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea; the contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured (e.g., the US has claimed a 12-nautical mile contiguous zone in addition to its 12-nautical mile territorial sea); where the coasts of two states are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither state is entitled to extend its contiguous zone beyond the median line, every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baseline from which the contiguous zone of both states are measured.
    exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the UNCLOS (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal state has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other ...
    Full definition. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Area > Water > Per capita: Total water area in square kilometers Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Area > Total > Per capita: Total area in square kilometers Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Maritime claims > Continental shelf: This entry is derived from Geography > Maritime claims, which includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions:
    territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles; the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the mean low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal state; where the coasts of two states are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither state is entitled to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line, every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baseline from which the territorial seas of both states are measured; the UNCLOS describes specific rules for archipelagic states.
    contiguous zone - according to the UNCLOS (Article 33), this is a zone contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, over which it may exercise the control necessary to: prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea; punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea; the contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured (e.g., the US has claimed a 12-nautical mile contiguous zone in addition to its 12-nautical mile territorial sea); where the coasts of two states are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither state is entitled to extend its contiguous zone beyond the median line, every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baseline from which the contiguous zone of both states are measured.
    exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the UNCLOS (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal state has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other ...
    Full definition
  • Maritime claims > Continental shelf per million people: This entry is derived from Geography > Maritime claims, which includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions:
    territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles; the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the mean low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal state; where the coasts of two states are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither state is entitled to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line, every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baseline from which the territorial seas of both states are measured; the UNCLOS describes specific rules for archipelagic states.
    contiguous zone - according to the UNCLOS (Article 33), this is a zone contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, over which it may exercise the control necessary to: prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea; punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea; the contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured (e.g., the US has claimed a 12-nautical mile contiguous zone in addition to its 12-nautical mile territorial sea); where the coasts of two states are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither state is entitled to extend its contiguous zone beyond the median line, every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baseline from which the contiguous zone of both states are measured.
    exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the UNCLOS (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal state has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other ...
    Full definition. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Northernmost point latitude: Latitude.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Land boundaries > Total > Per capita: The total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Per capita: This entry provides the annual quantity of water in cubic kilometers removed from available sources for use in any purpose. Water drawn-off is not necessarily entirely consumed and some portion may be returned for further use downstream. Domestic sector use refers to water supplied by public distribution systems. Note that some of this total may be used for small industrial and/or limited agricultural purposes. Industrial sector use is the quantity of water used by self-supplied industries not connected to a public distribution system. Agricultural sector use includes water used for irrigation and livestock watering, and does not account for agriculture directly dependent on rainfall. Included are figures for total annual water withdrawal and per capita water withdrawal.
  • Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Total: This entry provides the annual quantity of water in cubic kilometers removed from available sources for use in any purpose. Water drawn-off is not necessarily entirely consumed and some portion may be returned for further use downstream. Domestic sector use refers to water supplied by public distribution systems. Note that some of this total may be used for small industrial and/or limited agricultural purposes. Industrial sector use is the quantity of water used by self-supplied industries not connected to a public distribution system. Agricultural sector use includes water used for irrigation and livestock watering, and does not account for agriculture directly dependent on rainfall. Included are figures for total annual water withdrawal and per capita water withdrawal.
  • Continent or sub continent: Within Continent / Subcontinent.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Per capita: This entry is derived from Geography > Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural , which provides the annual quantity of water in cubic kilometers removed from available sources for use in any purpose. Water drawn-off is not necessarily entirely consumed and some portion may be returned for further use downstream. Domestic sector use refers to water supplied by public distribution systems. Note that some of this total may be used for small industrial and/or limited agricultural purposes. Industrial sector use is the quantity of water used by self-supplied industries not connected to a public distribution system. Agricultural sector use includes water used for irrigation and livestock watering, and does not account for agriculture directly dependent on rainfall. Included are figures for total annual water withdrawal and per capita water withdrawal.
  • Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Total: This entry is derived from Geography > Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural , which provides the annual quantity of water in cubic kilometers removed from available sources for use in any purpose. Water drawn-off is not necessarily entirely consumed and some portion may be returned for further use downstream. Domestic sector use refers to water supplied by public distribution systems. Note that some of this total may be used for small industrial and/or limited agricultural purposes. Industrial sector use is the quantity of water used by self-supplied industries not connected to a public distribution system. Agricultural sector use includes water used for irrigation and livestock watering, and does not account for agriculture directly dependent on rainfall. Included are figures for total annual water withdrawal and per capita water withdrawal.
  • Forest area > % of land area: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens."
  • Terrestrial protected areas > % of total land area: Terrestrial protected areas (% of total land area). Terrestrial protected areas are totally or partially protected areas of at least 1,000 hectares that are designated by national authorities as scientific reserves with limited public access, national parks, natural monuments, nature reserves or wildlife sanctuaries, protected landscapes, and areas managed mainly for sustainable use. Marine areas, unclassified areas, littoral (intertidal) areas, and sites protected under local or provincial law are excluded.
  • Land boundaries > Total per million: The total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Per capita per million people: This entry provides the annual quantity of water in cubic kilometers removed from available sources for use in any purpose. Water drawn-off is not necessarily entirely consumed and some portion may be returned for further use downstream. Domestic sector use refers to water supplied by public distribution systems. Note that some of this total may be used for small industrial and/or limited agricultural purposes. Industrial sector use is the quantity of water used by self-supplied industries not connected to a public distribution system. Agricultural sector use includes water used for irrigation and livestock watering, and does not account for agriculture directly dependent on rainfall. Included are figures for total annual water withdrawal and per capita water withdrawal. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Per capita per million people: This entry is derived from Geography > Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural , which provides the annual quantity of water in cubic kilometers removed from available sources for use in any purpose. Water drawn-off is not necessarily entirely consumed and some portion may be returned for further use downstream. Domestic sector use refers to water supplied by public distribution systems. Note that some of this total may be used for small industrial and/or limited agricultural purposes. Industrial sector use is the quantity of water used by self-supplied industries not connected to a public distribution system. Agricultural sector use includes water used for irrigation and livestock watering, and does not account for agriculture directly dependent on rainfall. Included are figures for total annual water withdrawal and per capita water withdrawal. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Total per million people: This entry is derived from Geography > Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural , which provides the annual quantity of water in cubic kilometers removed from available sources for use in any purpose. Water drawn-off is not necessarily entirely consumed and some portion may be returned for further use downstream. Domestic sector use refers to water supplied by public distribution systems. Note that some of this total may be used for small industrial and/or limited agricultural purposes. Industrial sector use is the quantity of water used by self-supplied industries not connected to a public distribution system. Agricultural sector use includes water used for irrigation and livestock watering, and does not account for agriculture directly dependent on rainfall. Included are figures for total annual water withdrawal and per capita water withdrawal. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Terrestrial and marine protected areas > % of total territorial area: Terrestrial and marine protected areas (% of total territorial area). Terrestrial protected areas are totally or partially protected areas of at least 1,000 hectares that are designated by national authorities as scientific reserves with limited public access, national parks, natural monuments, nature reserves or wildlife sanctuaries, protected landscapes, and areas managed mainly for sustainable use. Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Sites protected under local or provincial law are excluded.
  • Population living in areas where elevation is below 5 meters > % of total population: Population living in areas where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total population). Population below 5m is the percentage of the total population living in areas where the elevation is 5 meters or less.
  • Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Total per million people: This entry provides the annual quantity of water in cubic kilometers removed from available sources for use in any purpose. Water drawn-off is not necessarily entirely consumed and some portion may be returned for further use downstream. Domestic sector use refers to water supplied by public distribution systems. Note that some of this total may be used for small industrial and/or limited agricultural purposes. Industrial sector use is the quantity of water used by self-supplied industries not connected to a public distribution system. Agricultural sector use includes water used for irrigation and livestock watering, and does not account for agriculture directly dependent on rainfall. Included are figures for total annual water withdrawal and per capita water withdrawal. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Agricultural land > % of land area: Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
  • Low-lying areas > Elevation under 5 metres > % of land area: Land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area). Land area below 5m is the percentage of total land where the elevation is 5 meters or less.
  • Arable land > % of land area: Arable land (% of land area). Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded.
STAT India Pakistan HISTORY
Area > Comparative slightly more than one-third the size of the US slightly less than twice the size of California
Area > Land 2.97 million sq km
Ranked 8th. 4 times more than Pakistan
778,720 sq km
Ranked 36th.

Area > Land > Per capita 2.59 sq km per 1,000 people
Ranked 195th.
4.51 sq km per 1,000 people
Ranked 173th. 74% more than India

Area > Total 3.29 million sq km
Ranked 8th. 4 times more than Pakistan
796,095 sq km
Ranked 37th.

Average precipitation in depth > Mm per year 1,083
Ranked 86th. 2 times more than Pakistan
494
Ranked 142nd.

Average rainfall in depth > Mm per year 1,083
Ranked 83th. 2 times more than Pakistan
494
Ranked 135th.
Climate varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Coastline 7,000 km
Ranked 20th. 7 times more than Pakistan
1,046 km
Ranked 84th.

Geographic coordinates 20 00 N, 77 00 E 30 00 N, 70 00 E
Land area > Sq. km 2.97 million sq km
Ranked 8th. 4 times more than Pakistan
770,880 sq km
Ranked 34th.

Land area > Square miles 1.24 million square miles
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than Pakistan
339,697 square miles
Ranked 10th.
Location Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Natural resources coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Surface area > Sq. km 3.29 million km²
Ranked 7th. 4 times more than Pakistan
796,100 km²
Ranked 35th.

Terrain upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Area > Water 314,070 sq km
Ranked 4th. 12 times more than Pakistan
25,220 sq km
Ranked 20th.

Area > Comparative to US places slightly more than one-third the size of the US slightly less than twice the size of California
Population density > People per sq. km 368.15 people/m²
Ranked 18th. 82% more than Pakistan
202.07 people/m²
Ranked 44th.

Elevation extremes > Highest point Kanchenjunga 8,598 m K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Total area > Sq. km 3.29 million
Ranked 8th. 4 times more than Pakistan
796,100
Ranked 34th.

Land use > Arable land 47.87%
Ranked 5th. 84% more than Pakistan
26.02%
Ranked 35th.

Land boundaries > Border countries Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
Irrigated land 663,340 sq km
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Pakistan
199,900 sq km
Ranked 4th.

Natural hazards droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Rural population density > Rural population per sq. km of arable land 488.84 people/km² of arable lan
Ranked 15th. 3% more than Pakistan
476.65 people/km² of arable lan
Ranked 16th.

Maritime claims > Territorial sea 12 nautical mile
Ranked 79th. The same as Pakistan
12 nautical mile
Ranked 91st.

Area > Land per 1000 2.53 sq km
Ranked 178th.
4.66 sq km
Ranked 155th. 84% more than India

Elevation extremes > Lowest point Indian Ocean 0 m Indian Ocean 0 m
Coastline per 1000 0.00573 km
Ranked 155th.
0.00594 km
Ranked 154th. 4% more than India

Population density 336.62 people per sqkm
Ranked 32nd. 90% more than Pakistan
177.37 people per sqkm
Ranked 60th.
Maritime claims > Exclusive economic zone 200 nautical mile
Ranked 56th. The same as Pakistan
200 nautical mile
Ranked 68th.

Land area > Sq. km > Per capita 2.59 per 1,000 people
Ranked 179th.
4.46 per 1,000 people
Ranked 158th. 72% more than India

Map references Asia Asia
Capital city with population New Delhi - 294,149 Islamabad - 955,629
Largest city with population Mumbai - 11,914,398 Karachi - 11,969,284
Total renewable water resources None None
Forest area > Sq. km 677,598
Ranked 11th. 37 times more than Pakistan
18,164
Ranked 107th.

Surface area > Sq. km per 1000 2.92 km²
Ranked 179th.
5.04 km²
Ranked 158th. 73% more than India

Environment > Current issues deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Land use > Other 48.39%
Ranked 236th.
72.93%
Ranked 192nd. 51% more than India

Area > Total per 1000 2.8 sq km
Ranked 181st.
4.81 sq km
Ranked 158th. 72% more than India

Area > Water per 1000 0.268 sq km
Ranked 70th. 77% more than Pakistan
0.151 sq km
Ranked 83th.

Land use > Permanent crops 3.74%
Ranked 64th. 4 times more than Pakistan
1.05%
Ranked 114th.

Road density > Km of road per 100 sq. km of land area 125 sq. km
Ranked 25th. 4 times more than Pakistan
32.94 sq. km
Ranked 53th.

Maritime claims > Contiguous zone 24
Ranked 71st. The same as Pakistan
24
Ranked 14th.

Environment > International agreements > Party to Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
Surface area > Sq. km > Per capita 3 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 182nd.
5.11 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 161st. 70% more than India

Land boundaries > Total 14,103 km
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than Pakistan
6,774 km
Ranked 14th.

Highest point Kangchenjunga K2
Precipitation 2,168 mm
Ranked 9th. 10 times more than Pakistan
218 mm
Ranked 86th.
Irrigated land > Per capita 0.524 sq km per 1,000 people
Ranked 43th.
1.23 sq km per 1,000 people
Ranked 11th. 2 times more than India

Note dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
Irrigated land per million 510.23 sq km
Ranked 42nd.
1,196.04 sq km
Ranked 11th. 2 times more than India

Capital New Delhi Islamabad
Border to area ratio 0.00445 km/km²
Ranked 127th.
0.00851 km/km²
Ranked 92nd. 91% more than India
Marine Coastline 7,000 km
Ranked 20th. 7 times more than Pakistan
1,046 km
Ranked 84th.
Freshwater > Withdrawal > Per capita 585 1072
Freshwater > Withdrawal > Total 645.84 169.39
Highest point elevation None
None
Environment > International agreements > Signed, but not ratified none of the selected agreements Marine Life Conservation
Highest town Hikkim Shimshal
Northernmost point Siachen Glacier Kilik Pass
Forested Land 21.6%
Ranked 113th. 7 times more than Pakistan
3.1%
Ranked 174th.
Maritime claims > Contiguous zone per million people 0.0197
Ranked 80th.
0.124
Ranked 76th. 6 times more than India

Area > Water > Per capita 273.87 sq km per 1 million peo
Ranked 70th. 88% more than Pakistan
145.95 sq km per 1 million peo
Ranked 84th.

Area > Total > Per capita 2.86 sq km per 1,000 people
Ranked 200th.
4.65 sq km per 1,000 people
Ranked 177th. 62% more than India

Maritime claims > Continental shelf 200 m
Ranked 1st. The same as Pakistan
200 m
Ranked 14th.

Maritime claims > Continental shelf per million people 0.164 m
Ranked 72nd.
1.03 m
Ranked 70th. 6 times more than India

Northernmost point latitude 35\u00b030'N 37\u00b006'N
Land boundaries > Total > Per capita 0.012 km per 1,000 people
Ranked 155th.
0.039 km per 1,000 people
Ranked 146th. 3 times more than India

Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Per capita 613 cu m/yr
Ranked 8th.
1,038 cu m/yr
Ranked 1st. 69% more than India

Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Total 761 cu km/yr
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than Pakistan
183.5 cu km/yr
Ranked 4th.

Continent or sub continent Asia Asia
Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Per capita 613 cu m/yr
Ranked 8th.
1,038 cu m/yr
Ranked 1st. 69% more than India

Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Total 761 cu km/yr
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than Pakistan
183.5 cu km/yr
Ranked 4th.

Forest area > % of land area 22.79%
Ranked 113th. 10 times more than Pakistan
2.36%
Ranked 174th.

Terrestrial protected areas > % of total land area 5.21%
Ranked 151st.
10.75%
Ranked 120th. 2 times more than India

Land boundaries > Total per million 12.01 km
Ranked 148th.
40.56 km
Ranked 134th. 3 times more than India

Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Per capita per million people 0.508 cu m/yr
Ranked 15th.
6.22 cu m/yr
Ranked 10th. 12 times more than India

Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Per capita per million people 0.508 cu m/yr
Ranked 15th.
6.22 cu m/yr
Ranked 10th. 12 times more than India

Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Total per million people 0.623 cu km/yr
Ranked 46th.
0.95 cu km/yr
Ranked 20th. 52% more than India

Terrestrial and marine protected areas > % of total territorial area 5%
Ranked 140th.
10.56%
Ranked 106th. 2 times more than India

Population living in areas where elevation is below 5 meters > % of total population 3.76%
Ranked 121st. 3 times more than Pakistan
1.28%
Ranked 156th.

Freshwater withdrawal > Domestic/industrial/agricultural > Total per million people 0.623 cu km/yr
Ranked 46th.
0.95 cu km/yr
Ranked 20th. 52% more than India

Agricultural land > % of land area 60.51%
Ranked 40th. 71% more than Pakistan
35.41%
Ranked 110th.

Low-lying areas > Elevation under 5 metres > % of land area 1.35%
Ranked 127th.
1.42%
Ranked 125th. 5% more than India

Arable land > % of land area 52.92%
Ranked 5th. 97% more than Pakistan
26.87%
Ranked 35th.

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; Food and Agriculture Organization; Food and Agriculture Organisation, electronic files and web site.; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; British Broadcasting Corporation 2014; World Development Indicators database; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; Heal The World Foundation.; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook, City Population, CIA World Factbook, World Gazetteer, Official government websites.; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted.; Wikipedia: List of countries by highest point (Sovereign, fully recognized countries); United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; Wikipedia: List of countries and territories by border/area ratio (Border/area ratio); CIA Factbook: List of countries by coastline size; Wikipedia: List of highest towns by country (Sovereign, fully recognized countries); Wikipedia: List of countries by northernmost point; FAO; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbook 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; Wikipedia: List of political and geographic borders (Countries); United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; CIA World Factbook 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Center for International Earth Science Information Network; Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.

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