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Labor Stats: compare key data on Italy & United Kingdom

Definitions

  • Agricultural workers > Male: Proportion of employed males engaged in the agricultural sector. Employment by economic activity (%) (most recent year available between 1995 and 2001). Note: As a result of a number of limitations in the data, comparisons of labour statistics over time and across countries should be made with caution. For detailed notes on the data see ILO (2002. Estimates and Projections of the Economically Active Population, 1950-2010, 4th ed., rev. 2. Database. Geneva; 2002. Key Indicators of the Labour Market 2001-2002. February 2002; and 2002. Laboursta Database. February 2002). The percentage shares of employment by economic activity may not sum to 100 because of rounding or the omission of activities not classified.
  • Employment rate > Adults: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.
  • Expense > Current LCU: Expense (current LCU). Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends.
  • GNI > Current US$: GNI (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Hours worked > Standard workweek: Standard workweek (hours).
  • Labor force: The total labor force figure
  • Labor force > By occupation: Component parts of the labor force by occupation.
  • Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture: This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by occupation. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete.
  • Labor force > By occupation > Industry: This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by occupation. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete.
  • Labor force > By occupation > Services: This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by occupation. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete.
  • Labor force, total: Labor force, total. Total labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector.
  • Rigidity of employment index: The rigidity of employment index measures the regulation of employment, specifically the hiring and firing of workers and the rigidity of working hours. This index is the average of three subindexes: a difficulty of hiring index, a rigidity of hours index, and a difficulty of firing index. The index ranges from 0 to 100, with higher values indicating more rigid regulations.
  • Salaries and benefits > Minimum wage: Minimum wage.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Trade union membership: Union members as % of all employees. Figures are for 2000.
  • Unemployment rate: The percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
  • Strikes: Strikes five-year average in days not worked per 1000 employees (1996-2000)
  • Female doctors: Female doctors as % of the total - 2000.
  • Labor force per 1000: The total labor force figure. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • GNI > Current US$ per capita: GNI (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Male retirement age: Men.

    Denmark had range specified: 65-67

    Finland had range specified: 62-68

    Netherlands had range specified: 65-67

    Sweden had range specified: 61-67

    United States had range specified: 62-67

  • Female retirement age: Women.

    China had range specified: 50-55

    Czech Republic had range specified: 59-63

    Denmark had range specified: 65-67

    Finland had range specified: 62-68

    Greece had range specified: 60-67

    Netherlands had range specified: 65-67

    Sweden had range specified: 61-67

    United States had range specified: 62-67

  • Labor force, total per 1000: Labor force, total. Total labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Working mothers: Working proportion of mothers with children under 6 years old 2001
  • Labor force participation > Employment to population ratio > Both sexes: Percentage of unemployed people out of total population able to work. Workers not able to work due to labor disputes, sickness and childcare do not count towards the percentage. 
  • Firing cost > Weeks of wages: Firing cost is the cost of advance notice requirements, severance payments, and penalties due when terminating a redundant worker, expressed in weekly wages. One month is recorded as 4 1/3 weeks.
  • GNI per capita > Constant LCU: GNI per capita (constant LCU). GNI per capita is gross national income divided by midyear population. GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Expense > Current LCU per capita: Expense (current LCU). Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Employment rate > Women: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.
  • Labor force > Total: Total labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organisation definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector."
  • Industrial workers > Male: Proportion of employed males engaged in the industrial sector. Employment by economic activity (%) (most recent year available between 1995 and 2001). Note: As a result of a number of limitations in the data, comparisons of labour statistics over time and across countries should be made with caution. For detailed notes on the data see ILO (2002. Estimates and Projections of the Economically Active Population, 1950-2010, 4th ed., rev. 2. Database. Geneva; 2002. Key Indicators of the Labour Market 2001-2002. February 2002; and 2002. Laboursta Database. February 2002). The percentage shares of employment by economic activity may not sum to 100 because of rounding or the omission of activities not classified.
  • Employment rate > Men: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.
  • Labor force participation rate > Employment-population ratio, men: Employment-to-population ratio, men, percentage.
  • Labor force participation > Employment to population ratio > Men: Percentage of unemployed men out of total male population able to work. Men not able to work due to labor disputes, sickness and childcare do not count towards the percentage.
  • Compensation of employees > Current LCU: Compensation of employees consists of all payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such as social security and pensions that provide benefits to employees.
  • Unemployment > Long-term unemployment rate: Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed."
  • Force > Total > Per capita: Total labor force comprises people who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Force > Total: Total labor force comprises people who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector.
  • Female decision makers: Female legislators, senior officials and managers (as % of total). Data refer to the latest year available during the period 1991-2000. Those for countries that have implemented the recent International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88) are not strictly comparable with those for countries using the previous classification (ISCO-68).
  • Agricultural workers > Female: Proportion of employed females engaged in the agricultural sector. Employment by economic activity (%) (most recent year available between 1995 and 2001). Note: As a result of a number of limitations in the data, comparisons of labour statistics over time and across countries should be made with caution. For detailed notes on the data see ILO (2002. Estimates and Projections of the Economically Active Population, 1950-2010, 4th ed., rev. 2. Database. Geneva; 2002. Key Indicators of the Labour Market 2001-2002. February 2002; and 2002. Laboursta Database. February 2002). The percentage shares of employment by economic activity may not sum to 100 because of rounding or the omission of activities not classified.
  • Employment > Employment share by sector > Industry > Men > Aged above 14: Percent employed in industry.
  • Employment > Percent of population are employees > Women: Number of female self-reported employees (formal or informal), expressed as a percentage of the total female employed population.
  • Unemployment > Youth unemployment, both sexes: Percentage of population aged 15-24 that is unemployed. 
  • Unemployment > Regional unemployment > National unemployment rate: Unemployed persons are defined as those who report that they are without work, that they are available for work and that they have taken active steps to find work in the last four weeks preceding the survey. The ILO Guidelines specify what actions count as active steps to find work and these include answering vacancy notices, visiting factories, construction sites and other places of work, and placing advertisements in the press as well as registering with labour offices.

    The unemployment rate is defined as the number of unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force, where the latter consists of unemployed and employed persons.

    When unemployment is high, some persons become discouraged and stop looking for work. They are then excluded from the labour force so that the unemployment rate may fall, or stop rising, even though there has been no underlying improvement in the labour market.

    The Gini index offers an accurate picture of regional disparities. It looks not only at the regions with the highest and the lowest rates of unemployment but also at the differences among all regions. The index ranges between 0 and 1: the higher its value, the larger the regional disparities. Regional disparities tend to be underestimated when the size of regions is large.

    The youth unemployment rate is defined as the ratio between the unemployed person aged between 15 and 24 and the labour force in the same age group.
  • GNI > Current LCU: GNI (current LCU). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current local currency.
  • Unemployment: Unemployed as proportion of the total labour force. Data for 2000-2002.
  • Employment > Self-employment > Self-employment rates > Women: Employment is generally measured through household labour force surveys and, according to the ILO Guidelines, employed persons are defined as those aged 15 or over who report that they have worked in gainful employment for at least one hour in the previous week.

    Self-employed persons include employers, own-account workers, members of producers’ co-operatives, and unpaid family workers. The last of these are unpaid in the sense that they do not have a formal contract to receive a fixed amount of income at regular intervals, but they share in the income generated by the enterprise; unpaid family workers are particularly important in farming and retail trade. Note that all persons who work in corporate enterprises, including company directors, are considered to be employees.

    The rates shown here are the percentages of the self-employed in total civilian employment i.e., total employment less military employees.
  • Female economic activity: Female economic activity rate (aged 15 and above) in 2000.
  • Labor force participation rate > Employment-population ratio, women: Employment-to-population ratio, women, percentage.
  • Self employed > One-person and family businesses > Women: Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment, women, percentage.
  • Labor force participation > Employment to population ratio > Women: Percentage of unemployed women out of total female population able to work. Women not able to work due to labor disputes, sickness and childcare do not count towards the percentage.
  • Labor force > Per capita: The total labor force figure Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Days off work: Number of days not worked for every 1000 salaried employees. Selected OECD countries only. Data for 2000.
  • Industrial workers > Female: Proportion of employed females engaged in the industrial sector. Employment by economic activity (%) (most recent year available between 1995 and 2001). Note: As a result of a number of limitations in the data, comparisons of labour statistics over time and across countries should be made with caution. For detailed notes on the data see ILO (2002. Estimates and Projections of the Economically Active Population, 1950-2010, 4th ed., rev. 2. Database. Geneva; 2002. Key Indicators of the Labour Market 2001-2002. February 2002; and 2002. Laboursta Database. February 2002). The percentage shares of employment by economic activity may not sum to 100 because of rounding or the omission of activities not classified.
  • Work Time > More than 40 hours: Percentage of persons in employment working more than 40 hours/week. Data is for 2000.
  • Employment rate > Young adults: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15-24 are generally considered the youth population.
  • Female professionals: Female professional and technical workers (as % of total)
  • Net income from abroad > Current US$: Net income from abroad (current US$). Net income includes the net labor income and net property and entrepreneurial income components of the SNA. Labor income covers compensation of employees paid to nonresident workers. Property and entrepreneurial income covers investment income from the ownership of foreign financial claims (interest, dividends, rent, etc.) and nonfinancial property income (patents, copyrights, etc.). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Unemployment gender ratio: Female unemployment rate as a % of the male unemployment rate.
  • Part time employment rate > Men > Aged above 14: Percent of males over the age of 14 years who work less than 30 hours a week (either as employees or self-employed) as a percentage of all males in employment.
  • Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Paid > US$ per capita: Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. WorkersÂ’ remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers who are residents of the host country to recipients in their country of origin. They include only transfers made by workers who have been living in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. MigrantsÂ’ transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Employment > Employment rates by gender > Employment rates > Men: Employment rates are calculated as the ratio of the employed to the working age population. To calculate this employment rate, the population of working age is divided into two groups: those who are employed and those who are not. Employment is generally measured through household labour force surveys and, according to the ILO Guidelines, employed persons are defined as those aged 15 or over who report that they have worked in gainful employment for at least one hour in the previous week. Those not in employment consist of persons who are out of work but seeking employment, students and all others who have excluded themselves from the labour force for one reason or another, such as incapacity or the need to look after young children or elderly relatives.

    Working age is generally defined as persons in the 15 to 64 age bracket although in some countries working age is defined as 16 to 64.
  • Rigidity of employment index > 0=less rigid to 100=more rigid: The rigidity of employment index measures the regulation of employment, specifically the hiring and firing of workers and the rigidity of working hours. This index is the average of three subindexes: a difficulty of hiring index, a rigidity of hours index, and a difficulty of firing index. The index ranges from 0 to 100, with higher values indicating more rigid regulations."
  • Employment > Percent of population are employees > Men: Number of male self-reported employees (formal or informal), expressed as a percentage of the total male employed population.
  • Employment > Employment share by sector > Agriculture > Men > Aged above 14: Percent employed in agriculture.
  • Service workers > Male: Proportion of employed males engaged in the service sector. Employment by economic activity (%) (most recent year available between 1995 and 2001). Note: As a result of a number of limitations in the data, comparisons of labour statistics over time and across countries should be made with caution. For detailed notes on the data see ILO (2002. Estimates and Projections of the Economically Active Population, 1950-2010, 4th ed., rev. 2. Database. Geneva; 2002. Key Indicators of the Labour Market 2001-2002. February 2002; and 2002. Laboursta Database. February 2002). The percentage shares of employment by economic activity may not sum to 100 because of rounding or the omission of activities not classified.
  • Female economic activity growth: The % change in the female economic activity rate (aged 15 and above) from 1990 to 2000.
  • Self employed > One-person and family businesses > Men: Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment, men, percentage.
  • Employment rate > Young men: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15-24 are generally considered the youth population.
  • Employment rate > Young women: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15-24 are generally considered the youth population.
  • Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Paid > US$ > Per capita: Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. WorkersÂ’ remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers who are residents of the host country to recipients in their country of origin. They include only transfers made by workers who have been living in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. MigrantsÂ’ transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Hours worked: Number of hours worked in 2003; average of all people in employment. Note that different nations use very different practices and definitions in this data field, so comparisons such as this table are tentative at best.
  • Unemployment > Unemployment rates > Unemployment rates > Total: Unemployed persons are defined as those who report that they are without work, that they are available for work and that they have taken active steps to find work in the last four weeks. The ILO Guidelines specify what actions count as active steps to find work and these include answering vacancy notices, visiting factories, construction sites and other places of work, and placing advertisements in the press as well as registering with labour offices.

    The unemployment rate is defined as the number of unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force, where the latter consists of the unemployed plus those in employment, which are defined as persons who have worked for one hour or more in the last week.

    When unemployment is high, some persons become discouraged and stop looking for work. They are then excluded from the labour force so that the unemployment rate may fall, or stop rising, even though there has been no underlying improvement in the labour market.
  • Employment > Self-employment > Self-employment rates > Total: Employment is generally measured through household labour force surveys and, according to the ILO Guidelines, employed persons are defined as those aged 15 or over who report that they have worked in gainful employment for at least one hour in the previous week.

    Self-employed persons include employers, own-account workers, members of producers’ co-operatives, and unpaid family workers. The last of these are unpaid in the sense that they do not have a formal contract to receive a fixed amount of income at regular intervals, but they share in the income generated by the enterprise; unpaid family workers are particularly important in farming and retail trade. Note that all persons who work in corporate enterprises, including company directors, are considered to be employees.

    The rates shown here are the percentages of the self-employed in total civilian employment i.e., total employment less military employees.
  • GDP per person employed > Constant 1990 PPP $: GDP per person employed is gross domestic product (GDP) divided by total employment in the economy. Purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP is GDP converted to 1990 constant international dollars using PPP rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP that a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
  • GNI per capita > Constant 2000 US$: GNI per capita (constant 2000 US$). GNI per capita is gross national income divided by midyear population. GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • GNI > Constant LCU: GNI (constant LCU). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in constant local currency.
  • GNI > Constant LCU per capita: GNI (constant LCU). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in constant local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Service workers > Female: Proportion of employed females engaged in the service sector. Employment by economic activity (%) (most recent year available between 1995 and 2001). Note: As a result of a number of limitations in the data, comparisons of labour statistics over time and across countries should be made with caution. For detailed notes on the data see ILO (2002. Estimates and Projections of the Economically Active Population, 1950-2010, 4th ed., rev. 2. Database. Geneva; 2002. Key Indicators of the Labour Market 2001-2002. February 2002; and 2002. Laboursta Database. February 2002). The percentage shares of employment by economic activity may not sum to 100 because of rounding or the omission of activities not classified.
  • Long term unemployment: Long term unemployment as a % of labour force, 2000. Long term implies 12 months or longer.
  • Part time employment rate > Women > Aged above 14: Percent of females over the age of 14 years who work less than 30 hours a week (either as employees or self-employed) as a percentage of all females in employment.
  • Employment > Percent of population are employers > Women: Number of female self-reported employers (self-employed with paid employees), expressed as a percentage of the total female employed population.
  • Employment > Employment share by sector > Agriculture > Women > Aged above 14: Percent employed in agriculture.
  • Labor force participation rate > Employment-population ratio, men aged above 14: Employment-to-population ratio.
  • Labor force participation rate > Employment-population ratio, women aged 15 to 24: Employment-to-population ratio.
  • Labor force participation rate > Employment-population ratio, women aged above 14: Employment-to-population ratio.
  • Unemployment > Youth unemployment, male: Percentage of male population aged 15-24 that is unemployed. 
  • Gender division of housework: Gender Division of Labour Index, 1994 Range = 1.00 (female does all) through 2.50 (equality) to 5.00 (male does all).
  • Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Paid > US$ > Per $ GDP: Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. WorkersÂ’ remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers who are residents of the host country to recipients in their country of origin. They include only transfers made by workers who have been living in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. MigrantsÂ’ transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Paid > US$: Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. WorkersÂ’ remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers who are residents of the host country to recipients in their country of origin. They include only transfers made by workers who have been living in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. MigrantsÂ’ transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration.
  • Unemployment > Regional unemployment > National unemployment rate per million: Unemployed persons are defined as those who report that they are without work, that they are available for work and that they have taken active steps to find work in the last four weeks preceding the survey. The ILO Guidelines specify what actions count as active steps to find work and these include answering vacancy notices, visiting factories, construction sites and other places of work, and placing advertisements in the press as well as registering with labour offices.

    The unemployment rate is defined as the number of unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force, where the latter consists of unemployed and employed persons.

    When unemployment is high, some persons become discouraged and stop looking for work. They are then excluded from the labour force so that the unemployment rate may fall, or stop rising, even though there has been no underlying improvement in the labour market.

    The Gini index offers an accurate picture of regional disparities. It looks not only at the regions with the highest and the lowest rates of unemployment but also at the differences among all regions. The index ranges between 0 and 1: the higher its value, the larger the regional disparities. Regional disparities tend to be underestimated when the size of regions is large.

    The youth unemployment rate is defined as the ratio between the unemployed person aged between 15 and 24 and the labour force in the same age group. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Foreign labor force: Foreign labour force 2000
  • Unemployment > Long-term unemployment > Long-term unemployment: Long-term unemployment is conventionally defined either as those unemployed for 6 months or more or, as here, those unemployed for 12 months or more. The ratios calculated here show the proportion of these long-term unemployed among all unemployed.

    Unemployment is defined in most OECD countries in accordance with the ILO Guidelines. Unemployment is usually measured by household labour force surveys and the unemployed are defined as those persons who report that they have worked in gainful employment for less than one hour in the previous week, who are available for work and who have taken actions to seek employment in the previous four weeks. The ILO Guidelines specify the kinds of actions that count as seeking work.
  • Total work time > Males: Total work time (minutes per day)
  • Employment > Employment share by sector > Services > Men > Aged above 14: Percent employed in services.
  • Employment > Percent of population are employers > Men: Number of male self-reported employers (self-employed with paid employees), expressed as a percentage of the total male employed population.
  • Employment > Employment share by sector > Industry > Women > Aged above 14: Percent employed in industry.
  • Working time to buy > A car: Hours worked by average worker to buy a car. Indicative of the purchasing power of the currency of the country.
  • Technicians in RandD > Per million people: Technicians in R&D; and equivalent staff are people whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in engineering, physical and life sciences (technicians), or social sciences and humanities (equivalent staff). They participate in R&D; by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers.
  • Work time > Market-oriented: Classification of market and non-market activities are not strictly based on the 1993 revised UN System of National Accounts, so comparisons between countries and areas must be made with caution.
  • Total work time > Females: Total work time (minutes per day)
  • Working time to buy > Chicken: Number of minutes worked by average worker to buy one kilo of chicken. The comparison of income levels only becomes meaningful if the cost of buying the necessities and luxuries of life is also considered.
  • Working time to buy > Milk: Number of minutes worked by average worker to buy 1 litre of milk.
  • Minimum Age Convention > 1973 > Ratifications > Minimum age: years
  • Total work time > Females over males: Female total work time as a % of male total work time
  • Unemployment and education > Tertiary: Unemployment rates among people of all ages who are educated to tertiary levels. Data is for 2000.
  • Employment rate of highly educated women: Employment rate of women aged 25-54, 2000, who are educated upto or more than tertiary level.
  • Researchers in labor force: Number of researchers per 10000 in the labour force (1999).
  • Work time > Non-market-oriented: Classification of market and non-market activities are not strictly based on the 1993 revised UN System of National Accounts, so comparisons between countries and areas must be made with caution.
  • Unemployment > Unemployment with tertiary education > % of total unemployment: Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organisation (UNESCO)."
  • Unemployment > Unemployment with primary education > Male > % of male unemployment: Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organisation (UNESCO)."
  • Unemployment > Unemployment with secondary education > Female > % of female unemployment: Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organisation (UNESCO)."
  • Unemployment > Long-term unemployment rate > Female: Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed."
  • Unemployment > Unemployment with primary education > Female > % of female unemployment: Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organisation (UNESCO)."
  • Unemployment > Unemployment with tertiary education > Female > % of female unemployment: Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organisation (UNESCO)."
  • Unemployment > Unemployment > Youth female > % of female labor force ages 15-24: Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Unemployment > Unemployment > Youth total > % of total labor force ages 15-24: Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Unemployment > Unemployment > Youth male > % of male labor force ages 15-24: Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Working time to buy > Beef: Number of minutes worked by average worker to buy one kilo of beef. The comparison of income levels only becomes meaningful if the cost of buying the necessities and luxuries of life is also considered.
  • Working time to buy > Bread: Number of minutes worked by average worker to buy bread.
  • Unemployment benefit as % of GDP: Expenditure on unemployment benefits as % of GDP (Year 1998).
  • Temporary employment share: Temporary employment, expressed as a percentage share of total dependent employment. Data for 2000
  • Net income from abroad > Current US$, % of GDP: Net income from abroad (current US$). Net income includes the net labor income and net property and entrepreneurial income components of the SNA. Labor income covers compensation of employees paid to nonresident workers. Property and entrepreneurial income covers investment income from the ownership of foreign financial claims (interest, dividends, rent, etc.) and nonfinancial property income (patents, copyrights, etc.). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Net income from abroad > Constant LCU per million: Net income from abroad (constant LCU). Net income includes the net labor income and net property and entrepreneurial income components of the SNA. Labor income covers compensation of employees paid to nonresident workers. Property and entrepreneurial income covers investment income from the ownership of foreign financial claims (interest, dividends, rent, etc.) and nonfinancial property income (patents, copyrights, etc.). Data are in constant local currency. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Labor force participation rate > Employment-population ratio, men aged 15 to 24: Employment-to-population ratio.
  • GNI growth > Annual %: GNI growth (annual %). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad.
  • GNI per capita > Current LCU: GNI per capita (current LCU). GNI per capita is gross national income divided by midyear population. GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current local currency.
  • Net income from abroad > Constant LCU: Net income from abroad (constant LCU). Net income includes the net labor income and net property and entrepreneurial income components of the SNA. Labor income covers compensation of employees paid to nonresident workers. Property and entrepreneurial income covers investment income from the ownership of foreign financial claims (interest, dividends, rent, etc.) and nonfinancial property income (patents, copyrights, etc.). Data are in constant local currency.
  • Part time employment, male > % of total male employment: Part time employment, male (% of total male employment). Part time employment refers to regular employment in which working time is substantially less than normal. Definitions of part time employment differ by country.
  • Part time employment, total > % of total employment: Part time employment, total (% of total employment). Part time employment refers to regular employment in which working time is substantially less than normal. Definitions of part time employment differ by country.
  • Unemployment, youth female > % of female labor force ages 15-24: Unemployment, youth female (% of female labor force ages 15-24). Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Long-term unemployment, male > % of male unemployment: Long-term unemployment, male (% of male unemployment). Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed.
  • Unemployment, female > % of female labor force: Unemployment, female (% of female labor force). Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Working time to buy > A television set: Hours worked by average worker to buy a television set. Indicative of the purchasing power of the currency of the country.
  • Working time to buy > A refrigerator: Hours worked by average worker to buy a refrigerator. Indicative of the purchasing power of the currency of the country.
  • Unemployment > Male > % of male labor force: Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Force with secondary education > % of total: Labor force with secondary education is the proportion of the labor force that has a secondary education, as a percentage of the total labor force.
  • Unemployment > Youth male > % of male labor force ages 15-24: Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Long-term unemployment > Male > % of male unemployment: Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed.
  • Compensation of employees > % of expense: Compensation of employees consists of all payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such as social security and pensions that provide benefits to employees.
  • Unemployment > Regional unemployment > Range in regional unemployment rate > Small regions > Maximum: Unemployed persons are defined as those who report that they are without work, that they are available for work and that they have taken active steps to find work in the last four weeks preceding the survey. The ILO Guidelines specify what actions count as active steps to find work and these include answering vacancy notices, visiting factories, construction sites and other places of work, and placing advertisements in the press as well as registering with labour offices.

    The unemployment rate is defined as the number of unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force, where the latter consists of unemployed and employed persons.

    When unemployment is high, some persons become discouraged and stop looking for work. They are then excluded from the labour force so that the unemployment rate may fall, or stop rising, even though there has been no underlying improvement in the labour market.

    The Gini index offers an accurate picture of regional disparities. It looks not only at the regions with the highest and the lowest rates of unemployment but also at the differences among all regions. The index ranges between 0 and 1: the higher its value, the larger the regional disparities. Regional disparities tend to be underestimated when the size of regions is large.

    The youth unemployment rate is defined as the ratio between the unemployed person aged between 15 and 24 and the labour force in the same age group.
  • Unemployment > Regional unemployment > Range in regional unemployment rate > Small regions > Minimum: Unemployed persons are defined as those who report that they are without work, that they are available for work and that they have taken active steps to find work in the last four weeks preceding the survey. The ILO Guidelines specify what actions count as active steps to find work and these include answering vacancy notices, visiting factories, construction sites and other places of work, and placing advertisements in the press as well as registering with labour offices.

    The unemployment rate is defined as the number of unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force, where the latter consists of unemployed and employed persons.

    When unemployment is high, some persons become discouraged and stop looking for work. They are then excluded from the labour force so that the unemployment rate may fall, or stop rising, even though there has been no underlying improvement in the labour market.

    The Gini index offers an accurate picture of regional disparities. It looks not only at the regions with the highest and the lowest rates of unemployment but also at the differences among all regions. The index ranges between 0 and 1: the higher its value, the larger the regional disparities. Regional disparities tend to be underestimated when the size of regions is large.

    The youth unemployment rate is defined as the ratio between the unemployed person aged between 15 and 24 and the labour force in the same age group.
  • Unemployment > Youth total > % of total labor force ages 15-24: Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Force > Female > % of total labor force: Female labor force as a percentage of the total show the extent to which women are active in the labor force. Labor force comprises all people who meet the International Labour Organization's definition of the economically active population.
  • Working time to buy > Fish: Number of minutes worked by average worker to buy one kilo of fish. The comparison of income levels only becomes meaningful if the cost of buying the necessities and luxuries of life is also considered.
  • Employment > Employment rates by gender > Employment rates > Men per million: Employment rates are calculated as the ratio of the employed to the working age population. To calculate this employment rate, the population of working age is divided into two groups: those who are employed and those who are not. Employment is generally measured through household labour force surveys and, according to the ILO Guidelines, employed persons are defined as those aged 15 or over who report that they have worked in gainful employment for at least one hour in the previous week. Those not in employment consist of persons who are out of work but seeking employment, students and all others who have excluded themselves from the labour force for one reason or another, such as incapacity or the need to look after young children or elderly relatives.

    Working age is generally defined as persons in the 15 to 64 age bracket although in some countries working age is defined as 16 to 64. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Employment > Part-time employment > Incidence of part-time employment per million: Part-time employment refers to persons who usually work less than 30 hours per week in their main job. Both employees and the self-employed may be part-time workers.

    Employment is generally measured through household labour force surveys and, according to the ILO Guidelines, employed persons are defined as those aged 15 or over who report that they have worked in gainful employment for at least one hour in the previous week. The rates shown here refer to the numbers of persons who usually work less than 30 hours per week as a percentage of the total number of those in employment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Unemployment with tertiary education > Female > % of female unemployment: Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO).
  • Unemployment > Unemployment with tertiary education > Male > % of male unemployment: Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organisation (UNESCO)."
  • Employees > Industry > Female > % of female employment: Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water)."
  • Employment > Self-employment > Self-employment rates > Total per million: Employment is generally measured through household labour force surveys and, according to the ILO Guidelines, employed persons are defined as those aged 15 or over who report that they have worked in gainful employment for at least one hour in the previous week.

    Self-employed persons include employers, own-account workers, members of producers’ co-operatives, and unpaid family workers. The last of these are unpaid in the sense that they do not have a formal contract to receive a fixed amount of income at regular intervals, but they share in the income generated by the enterprise; unpaid family workers are particularly important in farming and retail trade. Note that all persons who work in corporate enterprises, including company directors, are considered to be employees.

    The rates shown here are the percentages of the self-employed in total civilian employment i.e., total employment less military employees. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Employment > Self-employment > Self-employment rates > Women per million: Employment is generally measured through household labour force surveys and, according to the ILO Guidelines, employed persons are defined as those aged 15 or over who report that they have worked in gainful employment for at least one hour in the previous week.

    Self-employed persons include employers, own-account workers, members of producers’ co-operatives, and unpaid family workers. The last of these are unpaid in the sense that they do not have a formal contract to receive a fixed amount of income at regular intervals, but they share in the income generated by the enterprise; unpaid family workers are particularly important in farming and retail trade. Note that all persons who work in corporate enterprises, including company directors, are considered to be employees.

    The rates shown here are the percentages of the self-employed in total civilian employment i.e., total employment less military employees. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Unemployment with tertiary education > % of total unemployment: Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO).
  • Unemployment with tertiary education > Male > % of male unemployment: Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO).
  • Net income from abroad > Current US$ per million: Net income from abroad (current US$). Net income includes the net labor income and net property and entrepreneurial income components of the SNA. Labor income covers compensation of employees paid to nonresident workers. Property and entrepreneurial income covers investment income from the ownership of foreign financial claims (interest, dividends, rent, etc.) and nonfinancial property income (patents, copyrights, etc.). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Employment in industry > % of total employment: Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water)."
  • Personal remittances, received > % of GDP: Personal remittances, received (% of GDP). Personal remittances comprise personal transfers and compensation of employees. Personal transfers consist of all current transfers in cash or in kind made or received by resident households to or from nonresident households. Personal transfers thus include all current transfers between resident and nonresident individuals. Compensation of employees refers to the income of border, seasonal, and other short-term workers who are employed in an economy where they are not resident and of residents employed by nonresident entities. Data are the sum of two items defined in the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: personal transfers and compensation of employees.
  • Net income from abroad > Current LCU: Net income from abroad (current LCU). Net income includes the net labor income and net property and entrepreneurial income components of the SNA. Labor income covers compensation of employees paid to nonresident workers. Property and entrepreneurial income covers investment income from the ownership of foreign financial claims (interest, dividends, rent, etc.) and nonfinancial property income (patents, copyrights, etc.). Data are in current local currency.
  • Temporary employment share per million: Temporary employment, expressed as a percentage share of total dependent employment. Data for 2000. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Unemployment > Long-term unemployment > Long-term unemployment per million: Long-term unemployment is conventionally defined either as those unemployed for 6 months or more or, as here, those unemployed for 12 months or more. The ratios calculated here show the proportion of these long-term unemployed among all unemployed.

    Unemployment is defined in most OECD countries in accordance with the ILO Guidelines. Unemployment is usually measured by household labour force surveys and the unemployed are defined as those persons who report that they have worked in gainful employment for less than one hour in the previous week, who are available for work and who have taken actions to seek employment in the previous four weeks. The ILO Guidelines specify the kinds of actions that count as seeking work. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Unemployment > Total > % of total labor force: Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Unemployment > Regional unemployment > Gini index of regional unemployment rates > Small regions: Unemployed persons are defined as those who report that they are without work, that they are available for work and that they have taken active steps to find work in the last four weeks preceding the survey. The ILO Guidelines specify what actions count as active steps to find work and these include answering vacancy notices, visiting factories, construction sites and other places of work, and placing advertisements in the press as well as registering with labour offices.

    The unemployment rate is defined as the number of unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force, where the latter consists of unemployed and employed persons.

    When unemployment is high, some persons become discouraged and stop looking for work. They are then excluded from the labour force so that the unemployment rate may fall, or stop rising, even though there has been no underlying improvement in the labour market.

    The Gini index offers an accurate picture of regional disparities. It looks not only at the regions with the highest and the lowest rates of unemployment but also at the differences among all regions. The index ranges between 0 and 1: the higher its value, the larger the regional disparities. Regional disparities tend to be underestimated when the size of regions is large.

    The youth unemployment rate is defined as the ratio between the unemployed person aged between 15 and 24 and the labour force in the same age group.
  • Employment rate of lesser educated women: Employment rate of women aged 25-54, 2000, who are educated lesser than upper secondary level.
  • Unemployment > Female > % of female labor force: Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Long-term unemployment > Female > % of female unemployment: Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed.
  • Long-term unemployment > % of total unemployment: Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed.
  • Unemployment with secondary education > Female > % of female unemployment: Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO).
  • Force participation rate > Female > % of female population ages 15-64: Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15-64 that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
  • Unemployment > Youth female > % of female labor force ages 15-24: Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Unemployment and education > Upper secondary: Unemployment rates among people of all ages who are educated upto Upper Secondary levels. Data is for 2000.
  • Unemployment with secondary education > Male > % of male unemployment: Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO).
  • Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Received > US$ > Per capita: Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. WorkersÂ’ remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers who are residents of the host country to recipients in their country of origin. They include only transfers made by workers who have been living in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. MigrantsÂ’ transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Net income from abroad > Current LCU per million: Net income from abroad (current LCU). Net income includes the net labor income and net property and entrepreneurial income components of the SNA. Labor income covers compensation of employees paid to nonresident workers. Property and entrepreneurial income covers investment income from the ownership of foreign financial claims (interest, dividends, rent, etc.) and nonfinancial property income (patents, copyrights, etc.). Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Long term unemployment > Share: Percentage share of unemployment that lasts longer than 12 months. Data for 2001.
  • Employers, male > % of employment: Employers, male (% of employment). Employers refers are those workers who, working on their own account or with one or a few partners, hold the type of jobs defined as a "self-employment jobs" i.e. jobs where the remuneration is directly dependent upon the profits derived from the goods and services produced), and, in this capacity, have engaged, on a continuous basis, one or more persons to work for them as employee(s).
  • One-person and family businesses > Women: Percentage of employed women who are self-employed without employees or contribute to a family-run business.
  • Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Received > US$: Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. WorkersÂ’ remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers who are residents of the host country to recipients in their country of origin. They include only transfers made by workers who have been living in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. MigrantsÂ’ transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration.
  • Labor force > Female > % of total labor force: Female labor force as a percentage of the total show the extent to which women are active in the labor force. Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organisation's definition of the economically active population.
  • Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector > % of total nonagricultural employment: Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector is the share of female workers in the nonagricultural sector (industry and services), expressed as a percentage of total employment in the nonagricultural sector. Industry includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, electricity, gas, and water, corresponding to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3). Services include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services-corresponding to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3)."
  • Unemployment > Unemployment > Total > % of total labor force: Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Employment > Part-time employment > Incidence of part-time employment: Part-time employment refers to persons who usually work less than 30 hours per week in their main job. Both employees and the self-employed may be part-time workers.

    Employment is generally measured through household labour force surveys and, according to the ILO Guidelines, employed persons are defined as those aged 15 or over who report that they have worked in gainful employment for at least one hour in the previous week. The rates shown here refer to the numbers of persons who usually work less than 30 hours per week as a percentage of the total number of those in employment.
  • One-person and family businesses > Men: Percentage of employed men who are self-employed without employees or contribute to a family-run business.
  • Unemployment > Unemployed youths per unemployed adult > Women > Aged 15 to 24: Ratio of youth unemployment rate to adult unemployment rate.
  • Unemployment > Unemployed youths per unemployed adult > Men > Aged 15 to 24: Ratio of youth unemployment rate to adult unemployment rate.
  • Employment > Employment share by sector > Services > Women > Aged above 14: Percent employed in services.
  • Unemployment > Youth unemployment, female: Percentage of female population aged 15-24 that is unemployed.
  • Employment > Underemployment > Working less than 20 hours per week > Women > Aged above 14: Percentage of females above the age of 14 in employment, who work less than 20 hours/week.
  • Employment > Underemployment > Working less than 20 hours per week > Men > Aged above 14: Percentage of males above the age of 14 in employment, who work less than 20 hours/week.
  • Employment > Working more than 40 hours per week > Women > Aged above 14: Percentage of females above the age of 14 in employment, who work more than 40 hours per week.
  • Part time > Part time employment rate > Women: Percentage of country's females over the age of 15 that are employed only part-time.
  • Part time > Part time employment rate > Men: Percentage of country's males over the age of 15 that are employed only part-time.
  • GNI > Current US$, % of GDP: GNI (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • GNI > Current LCU per capita: GNI (current LCU). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Expense > % of GDP: Expense (% of GDP). Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends.
  • Subsidies and other transfers > % of expense: Subsidies and other transfers (% of expense). Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organizations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind.
  • Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Received > US$ > Per $ GDP: Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. WorkersÂ’ remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers who are residents of the host country to recipients in their country of origin. They include only transfers made by workers who have been living in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. MigrantsÂ’ transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Unemployment > Unemployment rates > Unemployment rates > Total per million: Unemployed persons are defined as those who report that they are without work, that they are available for work and that they have taken active steps to find work in the last four weeks. The ILO Guidelines specify what actions count as active steps to find work and these include answering vacancy notices, visiting factories, construction sites and other places of work, and placing advertisements in the press as well as registering with labour offices.

    The unemployment rate is defined as the number of unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force, where the latter consists of the unemployed plus those in employment, which are defined as persons who have worked for one hour or more in the last week.

    When unemployment is high, some persons become discouraged and stop looking for work. They are then excluded from the labour force so that the unemployment rate may fall, or stop rising, even though there has been no underlying improvement in the labour market. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Employees, agriculture, female > % of female employment: Employees, agriculture, female (% of female employment). Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.
  • Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, male > %: Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, male (%). Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15-24 are generally considered the youth population.
  • Employment to population ratio, 15+, female > %: Employment to population ratio, 15+, female (%). Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.
  • One-person and family businesses > Men > Percentage: Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment, men, percentage.
  • Employment > Working more than 40 hours per week > Men > Aged above 14: Percentage of males above the age of 14 in employment, who work more than 40 hours per week.
  • Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Received > US$ per capita: Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. WorkersÂ’ remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers who are residents of the host country to recipients in their country of origin. They include only transfers made by workers who have been living in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. MigrantsÂ’ transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Force with tertiary education > % of total: Labor force with tertiary education is the proportion of labor force that has a tertiary education, as a percentage of the total labor force.
  • Force participation rate > Total > % of total population ages 15-64: Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15-64 that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
  • Employees, agriculture, male > % of male employment: Employees, agriculture, male (% of male employment). Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.
  • Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total > %: Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%). Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15-24 are generally considered the youth population.
  • Employers, female > % of employment: Employers, female (% of employment). Employers refers are those workers who, working on their own account or with one or a few partners, hold the type of jobs defined as a "self-employment jobs" i.e. jobs where the remuneration is directly dependent upon the profits derived from the goods and services produced), and, in this capacity, have engaged, on a continuous basis, one or more persons to work for them as employee(s).
  • Employers, total > % of employment: Employers, total (% of employment). Employers refers are those workers who, working on their own account or with one or a few partners, hold the type of jobs defined as a "self-employment jobs" i.e. jobs where the remuneration is directly dependent upon the profits derived from the goods and services produced), and, in this capacity, have engaged, on a continuous basis, one or more persons to work for them as employee(s).
  • Self-employed, female > % of females employed: Self-employed, female (% of females employed). Self employed workers are those workers who, working on their own account or with one or a few partners or in cooperative, hold the type of jobs defined as a "self-employment jobs" (i.e. jobs where the remuneration is directly dependent upon the profits derived from the goods and services produced). Self employed workers include three subcategories: employers, own-account workers, and members of producers' cooperatives.
  • Self-employed, male > % of males employed: Self-employed, male (% of males employed). Self employed workers are those workers who, working on their own account or with one or a few partners or in cooperative, hold the type of jobs defined as a "self-employment jobs" (i.e. jobs where the remuneration is directly dependent upon the profits derived from the goods and services produced). Self employed workers include three subcategories: employers, own-account workers, and members of producers' cooperatives.
  • Self-employed, total > % of total employed: Self-employed, total (% of total employed). Self employed workers are those workers who, working on their own account or with one or a few partners or in cooperative, hold the type of jobs defined as a "self-employment jobs" (i.e. jobs where the remuneration is directly dependent upon the profits derived from the goods and services produced). Self employed workers include three subcategories: employers, own-account workers, and members of producers' cooperatives.
  • Employment to population ratio, 15+, male > %: Employment to population ratio, 15+, male (%). Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.
  • Employment to population ratio, 15+, total > %: Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%). Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population.
  • Vulnerable employment, female > % of female employment: Vulnerable employment, female (% of female employment). Vulnerable employment is unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment.
  • Vulnerable employment, male > % of male employment: Vulnerable employment, male (% of male employment). Vulnerable employment is unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment.
  • Vulnerable employment, total > % of total employment: Vulnerable employment, total (% of total employment). Vulnerable employment is unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment.
  • Wage and salaried workers, female > % of females employed: Wage and salaried workers, female (% of females employed). Wage and salaried workers (employees) are those workers who hold the type of jobs defined as "paid employment jobs," where the incumbents hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that give them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.
  • Wage and salary workers, male > % of males employed: Wage and salary workers, male (% of males employed). Wage and salaried workers (employees) are those workers who hold the type of jobs defined as "paid employment jobs," where the incumbents hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that give them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.
  • Force participation rate > Male > % of male population ages 15-64: Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15-64 that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
  • Wage and salaried workers, total > % of total employed: Wage and salaried workers, total (% of total employed). Wage and salaried workers (employees) are those workers who hold the type of jobs defined as "paid employment jobs," where the incumbents hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that give them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.
  • Contributing family workers, female > % of females employed: Contributing family workers, female (% of females employed). Contributing family workers are those workers who hold u2018self-employment jobsu2019 as own-account workers in a market-oriented establishment operated by a related person living in the same household.
  • Contributing family workers, male > % of males employed: Contributing family workers, male (% of males employed). Contributing family workers are those workers who hold "self-employment jobs" as own-account workers in a market-oriented establishment operated by a related person living in the same household.
  • Contributing family workers, total > % of total employed: Contributing family workers, total (% of total employed). Contributing family workers are those workers who hold "self-employment jobs" as own-account workers in a market-oriented establishment operated by a related person living in the same household.
  • Employees, industry, female > % of female employment: Employees, industry, female (% of female employment). Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water).
  • Employees, industry, male > % of male employment: Employees, industry, male (% of male employment). Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water).
  • Employees, services, female > % of female employment: Employees, services, female (% of female employment). Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services.
  • Employees, services, male > % of male employment: Employees, services, male (% of male employment). Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services.
  • Part time employment, female > % of total part time employment: Part time employment, female (% of total part time employment). Part time employment refers to regular employment in which working time is substantially less than normal. Definitions of part time employment differ by country.
  • Unemployment, youth male > % of male labor force ages 15-24: Unemployment, youth male (% of male labor force ages 15-24). Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Unemployment, youth total > % of total labor force ages 15-24: Unemployment, youth total (% of total labor force ages 15-24). Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Long-term unemployment, female > % of female unemployment: Long-term unemployment, female (% of female unemployment). Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed.
  • Unemployment, male > % of male labor force: Unemployment, male (% of male labor force). Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Unemployment, total > % of total labor force: Unemployment, total (% of total labor force). Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.
  • Force with primary education > % of total: Labor force with primary education is the proportion of the labor force that has a primary education, as a percentage of the total labor force.
  • Force > Total per 1000: Total labor force comprises people who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Labor force with secondary education > Male > % of male labor force: Labor force with secondary education is the proportion of the labor force that has a secondary education, as a percentage of the total labor force."
  • Employees > Agriculture > Male > % of male employment: Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing."
  • Employees > Agriculture > Female > % of female employment: Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing."
  • Employment in agriculture > % of total employment: Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing."
  • Employees > Services > Female > % of female employment: Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services."
  • Labor force with primary education > Female > % of female labor force: Labor force with primary education is the proportion of the labor force that has a primary education, as a percentage of the total labor force."
  • Labor force with primary education > % of total: Labor force with primary education is the proportion of the labor force that has a primary education, as a percentage of the total labor force."
  • Labor force with secondary education > % of total: Labor force with secondary education is the proportion of the labor force that has a secondary education, as a percentage of the total labor force."
  • Labor force with primary education > Male > % of male labor force: Labor force with primary education is the proportion of the labor force that has a primary education, as a percentage of the total labor force."
  • Labor force with secondary education > Female > % of female labor force: Labor force with secondary education is the proportion of the labor force that has a secondary education, as a percentage of the total labor force."
  • Labor force with tertiary education > % of total: Labor force with tertiary education is the proportion of labor force that has a tertiary education, as a percentage of the total labor force."
  • Employment in services > % of total employment: Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services."
  • Labor participation rate > Total > % of total population ages 15+: Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
STAT Italy United Kingdom HISTORY
Agricultural workers > Male 6%
Ranked 57th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
2%
Ranked 76th.
Employment rate > Adults 43.6
Ranked 156th.
56.3
Ranked 94th. 29% more than Italy

Expense > Current LCU 655.8 billion
Ranked 38th.
671.66 billion
Ranked 37th. 2% more than Italy

GNI > Current US$ $2.00 trillion
Ranked 9th.
$2.46 trillion
Ranked 7th. 23% more than Italy

Hours worked > Standard workweek 40 hours
Ranked 141st. 5% more than United Kingdom
38.2 hours
Ranked 176th.
Labor force 25.05 million
Ranked 22nd.
31.45 million
Ranked 18th. 26% more than Italy

Labor force > By occupation agriculture 5%, industry 32%, services 63% agriculture 1.5%, industry 19.1%, services 79.5%
Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture 4.2%
Ranked 35th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
1.4%
Ranked 27th.

Labor force > By occupation > Industry 30.7%
Ranked 6th. 69% more than United Kingdom
18.2%
Ranked 16th.

Labor force > By occupation > Services 65.1%
Ranked 20th.
80.4%
Ranked 1st. 24% more than Italy

Labor force, total 25.66 million
Ranked 26th.
32.38 million
Ranked 19th. 26% more than Italy

Rigidity of employment index 54
Ranked 36th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
14
Ranked 146th.

Salaries and benefits > Minimum wage None; instead set through collective bargaining agreements on a sector-by-sector basis. \u00a3 6.31 per hour (aged 21 and older), \u00a35.03 per hour (aged 18\u201320) or \u00a33.72 per hour (under 18 and finished compulsory education).
Trade union membership 35%
Ranked 8th. 21% more than United Kingdom
29%
Ranked 10th.
Unemployment rate 8.4%
Ranked 38th. 6% more than United Kingdom
7.9%
Ranked 47th.

Strikes 76
Ranked 9th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
22
Ranked 16th.
Female doctors 30.2%
Ranked 12th.
34.5%
Ranked 8th. 14% more than Italy
Labor force per 1000 414.16
Ranked 77th.
505.05
Ranked 32nd. 22% more than Italy

GNI > Current US$ per capita $32,855.96
Ranked 22nd.
$38,975.52
Ranked 18th. 19% more than Italy

Male retirement age 66
Ranked 1st. 2% more than United Kingdom
65
Ranked 6th.
Female retirement age 66
Ranked 1st. 10% more than United Kingdom
60
Ranked 16th.
Labor force, total per 1000 421.19
Ranked 124th.
512.08
Ranked 41st. 22% more than Italy

Working mothers 47%
Ranked 16th.
55%
Ranked 12th. 17% more than Italy
Labor force participation > Employment to population ratio > Both sexes 44.3%
Ranked 66th.
58.1%
Ranked 36th. 31% more than Italy

Firing cost > Weeks of wages 1.7 weeks of wages
Ranked 163th.
22.1 weeks of wages
Ranked 122nd. 13 times more than Italy

GNI per capita > Constant LCU 22,655.71
Ranked 68th. 9% more than United Kingdom
20,722.73
Ranked 69th.

Expense > Current LCU per capita 10,799.84
Ranked 63th. 1% more than United Kingdom
10,703.34
Ranked 64th.

Employment rate > Women 33.4
Ranked 144th.
49.9
Ranked 67th. 49% more than Italy

Labor force > Total 25.21 million
Ranked 22nd.
31.49 million
Ranked 18th. 25% more than Italy

Industrial workers > Male 39%
Ranked 13th. 8% more than United Kingdom
36%
Ranked 22nd.
Employment rate > Men 54.9
Ranked 148th.
63.1
Ranked 118th. 15% more than Italy

Labor force participation rate > Employment-population ratio, men 54.6%
Ranked 61st.
63.8%
Ranked 39th. 17% more than Italy

Labor force participation > Employment to population ratio > Men 54.6%
Ranked 61st.
63.8%
Ranked 39th. 17% more than Italy

Compensation of employees > Current LCU 91596000000 74329000000
Unemployment > Long-term unemployment rate 47.5
Ranked 10th. 86% more than United Kingdom
25.5
Ranked 23th.

Force > Total > Per capita 0.417 per capita
Ranked 121st.
0.509 per capita
Ranked 29th. 22% more than Italy

Force > Total 24.44 million
Ranked 22nd.
30.64 million
Ranked 17th. 25% more than Italy

Female decision makers 19%
Ranked 57th.
33%
Ranked 20th. 74% more than Italy
Agricultural workers > Female 4%
Ranked 47th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
1%
Ranked 73th.
Employment > Employment share by sector > Industry > Men > Aged above 14 39.1%
Ranked 12th. 18% more than United Kingdom
33%
Ranked 32nd.

Employment > Percent of population are employees > Women 59.6%
Ranked 55th.
92.2%
Ranked 13th. 55% more than Italy

Unemployment > Youth unemployment, both sexes 29.1%
Ranked 20th. 46% more than United Kingdom
20%
Ranked 31st.

Unemployment > Regional unemployment > National unemployment rate 6.85%
Ranked 14th. 27% more than United Kingdom
5.38%
Ranked 16th.
GNI > Current LCU 1.56 trillion
Ranked 72nd.
1.56 trillion
Ranked 71st. About the same as Italy

Unemployment 10.3%
Ranked 1st. 94% more than United Kingdom
5.3%
Ranked 9th.
Employment > Self-employment > Self-employment rates > Women 20%
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
8.18%
Ranked 20th.
Female economic activity 38.3%
Ranked 124th.
52.8%
Ranked 79th. 38% more than Italy
Labor force participation rate > Employment-population ratio, women 34.8%
Ranked 63th.
52.7%
Ranked 23th. 51% more than Italy

Self employed > One-person and family businesses > Women 14.6%
Ranked 18th. 85% more than United Kingdom
7.9%
Ranked 30th.

Labor force participation > Employment to population ratio > Women 34.8%
Ranked 63th.
52.7%
Ranked 23th. 51% more than Italy

Labor force > Per capita 413.19 per 1,000 people
Ranked 41st.
508.26 per 1,000 people
Ranked 43th. 23% more than Italy

Days off work 59 days
Ranked 10th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
21 days
Ranked 14th.
Industrial workers > Female 21%
Ranked 21st. 75% more than United Kingdom
12%
Ranked 50th.
Work Time > More than 40 hours 63.8%
Ranked 5th. 28% more than United Kingdom
49.8%
Ranked 9th.
Employment rate > Young adults 24.7
Ranked 147th.
55.8
Ranked 30th. 2 times more than Italy

Female professionals 44%
Ranked 53th.
45%
Ranked 51st. 2% more than Italy
Net income from abroad > Current US$ $-13,150,824,440.73
Ranked 146th. 76% more than United Kingdom
$-7,458,135,860.98
Ranked 138th.

Unemployment gender ratio 180%
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than United Kingdom
79%
Ranked 29th.
Part time employment rate > Men > Aged above 14 5.3%
Ranked 20th.
10%
Ranked 8th. 89% more than Italy

Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Paid > US$ per capita 99.22$
Ranked 32nd. 94% more than United Kingdom
51.26$
Ranked 47th.

Employment > Employment rates by gender > Employment rates > Men 70.7%
Ranked 24th.
78.44%
Ranked 11th. 11% more than Italy
Rigidity of employment index > 0=less rigid to 100=more rigid 38
Ranked 55th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
10
Ranked 141st.

Employment > Percent of population are employees > Men 52.1%
Ranked 57th.
82.4%
Ranked 24th. 58% more than Italy

Employment > Employment share by sector > Agriculture > Men > Aged above 14 4.8%
Ranked 51st. 3 times more than United Kingdom
1.9%
Ranked 66th.

Service workers > Male 55%
Ranked 32nd.
61%
Ranked 17th. 11% more than Italy
Female economic activity growth 6%
Ranked 58th. 20% more than United Kingdom
5%
Ranked 65th.
Self employed > One-person and family businesses > Men 20.9%
Ranked 15th. 40% more than United Kingdom
14.9%
Ranked 25th.

Employment rate > Young men 29
Ranked 149th.
56.6
Ranked 45th. 95% more than Italy

Employment rate > Young women 20.2
Ranked 137th.
55
Ranked 21st. 3 times more than Italy

Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Paid > US$ > Per capita 99,220.15$ per 1,000 people
Ranked 33th. 94% more than United Kingdom
51,256.51$ per 1,000 people
Ranked 48th.

Hours worked 1,591 hours
Ranked 6th.
1,673 hours
Ranked 5th. 5% more than Italy
Unemployment > Unemployment rates > Unemployment rates > Total 6.2%
Ranked 12th. 17% more than United Kingdom
5.3%
Ranked 15th.
Employment > Self-employment > Self-employment rates > Total 26.36%
Ranked 5th. 91% more than United Kingdom
13.8%
Ranked 13th.
GDP per person employed > Constant 1990 PPP $ $45,932.00
Ranked 16th.
$51,697.00
Ranked 8th. 13% more than Italy

GNI per capita > Constant 2000 US$ $28,174.54
Ranked 22nd.
$37,677.83
Ranked 14th. 34% more than Italy

GNI > Constant LCU 1.38 trillion
Ranked 46th. 5% more than United Kingdom
1.31 trillion
Ranked 47th.

GNI > Constant LCU per capita 22,655.71
Ranked 68th. 9% more than United Kingdom
20,722.73
Ranked 70th.

Service workers > Female 74%
Ranked 42nd.
87%
Ranked 6th. 18% more than Italy
Long term unemployment 6.5%
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than United Kingdom
1.5%
Ranked 15th.
Part time employment rate > Women > Aged above 14 29.2%
Ranked 13th.
39.3%
Ranked 6th. 35% more than Italy

Employment > Percent of population are employers > Women 3%
Ranked 20th.
7.3%
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Italy

Employment > Employment share by sector > Agriculture > Women > Aged above 14 3.3%
Ranked 40th. 5 times more than United Kingdom
0.7%
Ranked 63th.

Labor force participation rate > Employment-population ratio, men aged above 14 57.5%
Ranked 154th.
65.6%
Ranked 122nd. 14% more than Italy

Labor force participation rate > Employment-population ratio, women aged 15 to 24 21.4%
Ranked 142nd.
57.9%
Ranked 24th. 3 times more than Italy

Labor force participation rate > Employment-population ratio, women aged above 14 34.5%
Ranked 139th.
53%
Ranked 51st. 54% more than Italy

Unemployment > Youth unemployment, male 27.1%
Ranked 20th. 23% more than United Kingdom
22%
Ranked 28th.

Gender division of housework 1.74
Ranked 12th.
2.11
Ranked 6th. 21% more than Italy
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Paid > US$ > Per $ GDP 3.3$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 83th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
1.4$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 109th.

Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Paid > US$ 5.82 billion$
Ranked 8th. 88% more than United Kingdom
3.09 billion$
Ranked 14th.

Unemployment > Regional unemployment > National unemployment rate per million 0.114%
Ranked 25th. 31% more than United Kingdom
0.0871%
Ranked 26th.
Foreign labor force 3.6%
Ranked 14th.
3.7%
Ranked 12th. 3% more than Italy
Unemployment > Long-term unemployment > Long-term unemployment 49.91%
Ranked 6th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
24.74%
Ranked 19th.
Total work time > Males 367 minutes
Ranked 23th.
411 minutes
Ranked 17th. 12% more than Italy
Employment > Employment share by sector > Services > Men > Aged above 14 56%
Ranked 30th.
64.8%
Ranked 8th. 16% more than Italy

Employment > Percent of population are employers > Men 7%
Ranked 23th.
17.3%
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Italy

Employment > Employment share by sector > Industry > Women > Aged above 14 17.5%
Ranked 21st. 86% more than United Kingdom
9.4%
Ranked 60th.

Working time to buy > A car 989 hours
Ranked 13th. 3% more than United Kingdom
956 hours
Ranked 14th.
Technicians in RandD > Per million people 1,346.71 per million people
Ranked 7th. 33% more than United Kingdom
1,013.9 per million people
Ranked 3rd.

Work time > Market-oriented 45%
Ranked 28th.
51%
Ranked 14th. 13% more than Italy
Total work time > Females 470 minutes
Ranked 8th. 14% more than United Kingdom
413 minutes
Ranked 22nd.
Working time to buy > Chicken 33 minutes
Ranked 3rd. 38% more than United Kingdom
24 minutes
Ranked 6th.
Working time to buy > Milk 9 minutes
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than United Kingdom
3 minutes
Ranked 12th.
Minimum Age Convention > 1973 > Ratifications > Minimum age 15
Ranked 72nd.
16
Ranked 25th. 7% more than Italy
Total work time > Females over males 128%
Ranked 2nd. 28% more than United Kingdom
100%
Ranked 24th.
Unemployment and education > Tertiary 5.9%
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than United Kingdom
2.1%
Ranked 12th.
Employment rate of highly educated women 78.7%
Ranked 16th.
86.4%
Ranked 7th. 10% more than Italy
Researchers in labor force 33 per 10000 people
Ranked 18th.
55 per 10000 people
Ranked 11th. 67% more than Italy
Work time > Non-market-oriented 55%
Ranked 2nd. 12% more than United Kingdom
49%
Ranked 12th.
Unemployment > Unemployment with tertiary education > % of total unemployment 11.3%
Ranked 50th.
14.3%
Ranked 41st. 27% more than Italy

Unemployment > Unemployment with primary education > Male > % of male unemployment 52.6%
Ranked 17th. 34% more than United Kingdom
39.4%
Ranked 29th.

Unemployment > Unemployment with secondary education > Female > % of female unemployment 43.6%
Ranked 34th.
49.4%
Ranked 23th. 13% more than Italy

Unemployment > Long-term unemployment rate > Female 49.9
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
18.4
Ranked 24th.

Unemployment > Unemployment with primary education > Female > % of female unemployment 40.8%
Ranked 19th. 18% more than United Kingdom
34.6%
Ranked 26th.

Unemployment > Unemployment with tertiary education > Female > % of female unemployment 14.2%
Ranked 45th.
15.6%
Ranked 40th. 10% more than Italy

Unemployment > Unemployment > Youth female > % of female labor force ages 15-24 24.7%
Ranked 4th. 94% more than United Kingdom
12.7%
Ranked 21st.

Unemployment > Unemployment > Youth total > % of total labor force ages 15-24 21.3%
Ranked 4th. 42% more than United Kingdom
15%
Ranked 17th.

Unemployment > Unemployment > Youth male > % of male labor force ages 15-24 18.9%
Ranked 4th. 11% more than United Kingdom
17%
Ranked 13th.

Working time to buy > Beef 76 minutes
Ranked 7th. 46% more than United Kingdom
52 minutes
Ranked 10th.
Working time to buy > Bread 12 minutes
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
4 minutes
Ranked 16th.
Unemployment benefit as % of GDP 0.7% of GDP
Ranked 14th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
0.3% of GDP
Ranked 17th.
Temporary employment share 10.1%
Ranked 15th. 51% more than United Kingdom
6.7%
Ranked 21st.
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention > Ratifications > Date May 13, 1958 June 30, 1950
Net income from abroad > Current US$, % of GDP -0.653%
Ranked 50th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
-0.306%
Ranked 44th.

Net income from abroad > Constant LCU per million -148,839,936.589
Ranked 38th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
-62,713,464.038
Ranked 30th.

Labor force participation rate > Employment-population ratio, men aged 15 to 24 31.2%
Ranked 153th.
60.5%
Ranked 42nd. 94% more than Italy

GNI growth > Annual % -2.587%
Ranked 106th. 76% more than United Kingdom
-1.472%
Ranked 100th.

GNI per capita > Current LCU 25,555.37
Ranked 118th. 4% more than United Kingdom
24,671.5
Ranked 120th.

Net income from abroad > Constant LCU -9,067,027,982.669
Ranked 55th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
-3,965,217,178.015
Ranked 45th.

Part time employment, male > % of total male employment 7.1%
Ranked 29th.
11.7%
Ranked 13th. 65% more than Italy

Part time employment, total > % of total employment 17%
Ranked 24th.
24.1%
Ranked 5th. 42% more than Italy

Unemployment, youth female > % of female labor force ages 15-24 37.5%
Ranked 14th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
17.9%
Ranked 43th.

Long-term unemployment, male > % of male unemployment 5%
Ranked 17th. 61% more than United Kingdom
3.1%
Ranked 26th.

Unemployment, female > % of female labor force 11.9%
Ranked 24th. 63% more than United Kingdom
7.3%
Ranked 50th.

Working time to buy > A television set 44 hours
Ranked 3rd. 57% more than United Kingdom
28 hours
Ranked 7th.
Working time to buy > A refrigerator 33 hours
Ranked 9th.
45 hours
Ranked 4th. 36% more than Italy
Unemployment > Male > % of male labor force 6.4%
Ranked 46th. 28% more than United Kingdom
5%
Ranked 57th.

Force with secondary education > % of total 40.2%
Ranked 26th.
47.4%
Ranked 16th. 18% more than Italy

Unemployment > Youth male > % of male labor force ages 15-24 20.7%
Ranked 11th. 54% more than United Kingdom
13.4%
Ranked 36th.

Long-term unemployment > Male > % of male unemployment 57.5%
Ranked 2nd. 2 times more than United Kingdom
26.5%
Ranked 18th.

Compensation of employees > % of expense 16.41%
Ranked 46th. 10% more than United Kingdom
14.97%
Ranked 51st.

Unemployment > Regional unemployment > Range in regional unemployment rate > Small regions > Maximum 18.56%
Ranked 6th. 83% more than United Kingdom
10.14%
Ranked 15th.
Unemployment > Regional unemployment > Range in regional unemployment rate > Small regions > Minimum 2.25%
Ranked 23th. 39% more than United Kingdom
1.62%
Ranked 25th.
Unemployment > Youth total > % of total labor force ages 15-24 23.4%
Ranked 11th. 98% more than United Kingdom
11.8%
Ranked 40th.

Force > Female > % of total labor force 40.05%
Ranked 113th.
45.99%
Ranked 51st. 15% more than Italy

Working time to buy > Fish 66 minutes
Ranked 5th. 20% more than United Kingdom
55 minutes
Ranked 9th.
Employment > Employment rates by gender > Employment rates > Men per million 1.17%
Ranked 24th.
1.27%
Ranked 23th. 8% more than Italy
Employment > Part-time employment > Incidence of part-time employment per million 0.203%
Ranked 24th.
0.372%
Ranked 17th. 83% more than Italy
Unemployment with tertiary education > Female > % of female unemployment 8.8%
Ranked 56th.
13.8%
Ranked 38th. 57% more than Italy

Unemployment > Unemployment with tertiary education > Male > % of male unemployment 8.3%
Ranked 51st.
13.3%
Ranked 36th. 60% more than Italy

Employees > Industry > Female > % of female employment 16.1%
Ranked 9th. 77% more than United Kingdom
9.1%
Ranked 26th.

Employment > Self-employment > Self-employment rates > Total per million 0.438%
Ranked 22nd. 96% more than United Kingdom
0.223%
Ranked 26th.
Employment > Self-employment > Self-employment rates > Women per million 0.332%
Ranked 21st. 3 times more than United Kingdom
0.132%
Ranked 25th.
Unemployment with tertiary education > % of total unemployment 7.5%
Ranked 62nd.
14.6%
Ranked 37th. 95% more than Italy

Unemployment with tertiary education > Male > % of male unemployment 6%
Ranked 58th.
15.1%
Ranked 29th. 3 times more than Italy

Net income from abroad > Current US$ per million $-215,877,559.84
Ranked 117th. 83% more than United Kingdom
$-117,957,104.01
Ranked 96th.

Employment in industry > % of total employment 29.7%
Ranked 8th. 39% more than United Kingdom
21.4%
Ranked 24th.

Personal remittances, received > % of GDP 0.364%
Ranked 105th. 5 times more than United Kingdom
0.0718%
Ranked 132nd.

Net income from abroad > Current LCU -10,228,711,250
Ranked 91st. 2 times more than United Kingdom
-4,721,000,000
Ranked 82nd.

Temporary employment share per million 0.177%
Ranked 22nd. 56% more than United Kingdom
0.114%
Ranked 25th.
Unemployment > Long-term unemployment > Long-term unemployment per million 0.829%
Ranked 19th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
0.4%
Ranked 25th.
Unemployment > Total > % of total labor force 8%
Ranked 40th. 74% more than United Kingdom
4.6%
Ranked 64th.

Unemployment > Regional unemployment > Gini index of regional unemployment rates > Small regions 0.317 Year 2006
Ranked 2nd. 74% more than United Kingdom
0.183 Year 2006
Ranked 15th.
Employment rate of lesser educated women 35.8%
Ranked 17th.
49.7%
Ranked 15th. 39% more than Italy
Unemployment > Female > % of female labor force 10.5%
Ranked 29th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
4.2%
Ranked 64th.

Long-term unemployment > Female > % of female unemployment 58.9%
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than United Kingdom
17.1%
Ranked 21st.

Long-term unemployment > % of total unemployment 58.2%
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than United Kingdom
23%
Ranked 20th.

Unemployment with secondary education > Female > % of female unemployment 45.6%
Ranked 34th.
47.2%
Ranked 29th. 4% more than Italy

Force participation rate > Female > % of female population ages 15-64 50.12%
Ranked 131st.
69.34%
Ranked 38th. 38% more than Italy

Unemployment > Youth female > % of female labor force ages 15-24 27.4%
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
10%
Ranked 43th.

Unemployment and education > Upper secondary 7.4%
Ranked 4th. 64% more than United Kingdom
4.5%
Ranked 10th.
Unemployment with secondary education > Male > % of male unemployment 36.7%
Ranked 39th.
42.7%
Ranked 30th. 16% more than Italy

Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Received > US$ > Per capita 40.92$ per capita
Ranked 90th.
111.61$ per capita
Ranked 53th. 3 times more than Italy

Net income from abroad > Current LCU per million -167,909,566.04
Ranked 53th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
-74,666,846.841
Ranked 46th.

Long term unemployment > Share 63.4%
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than United Kingdom
27.7%
Ranked 14th.
Employers, male > % of employment 8.5%
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
3.5%
Ranked 52nd.

One-person and family businesses > Women 14.6%
Ranked 18th. 85% more than United Kingdom
7.9%
Ranked 30th.

Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Received > US$ 2.4 billion$
Ranked 31st.
6.72 billion$
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than Italy

Labor force > Female > % of total labor force 40.43%
Ranked 120th.
45.66%
Ranked 62nd. 13% more than Italy

Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector > % of total nonagricultural employment 43%
Ranked 55th.
52.2%
Ranked 7th. 21% more than Italy

Unemployment > Unemployment > Total > % of total labor force 6.7%
Ranked 32nd. 20% more than United Kingdom
5.6%
Ranked 46th.

Minimum Age Convention > 1973 > Ratifications > Date July 28, 1981 June 7, 2000
Employment > Part-time employment > Incidence of part-time employment 12.23%
Ranked 20th.
22.98%
Ranked 4th. 88% more than Italy
One-person and family businesses > Men 20.9%
Ranked 15th. 40% more than United Kingdom
14.9%
Ranked 25th.

Unemployment > Unemployed youths per unemployed adult > Women > Aged 15 to 24 3.3 ratio
Ranked 13th. The same as United Kingdom
3.3 ratio
Ranked 12th.

Unemployment > Unemployed youths per unemployed adult > Men > Aged 15 to 24 4.5
Ranked 6th. 22% more than United Kingdom
3.7
Ranked 13th.

Employment > Employment share by sector > Services > Women > Aged above 14 79.2%
Ranked 36th.
89.6%
Ranked 4th. 13% more than Italy

Unemployment > Youth unemployment, female 32%
Ranked 15th. 81% more than United Kingdom
17.7%
Ranked 41st.

Employment > Underemployment > Working less than 20 hours per week > Women > Aged above 14 8.6%
Ranked 16th.
20.8%
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Italy

Employment > Underemployment > Working less than 20 hours per week > Men > Aged above 14 1.9%
Ranked 22nd.
5.7%
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than Italy

Employment > Working more than 40 hours per week > Women > Aged above 14 42.2%
Ranked 17th. 55% more than United Kingdom
27.3%
Ranked 22nd.

Part time > Part time employment rate > Women 29.2%
Ranked 13th.
39.3%
Ranked 6th. 35% more than Italy

Part time > Part time employment rate > Men 5.3%
Ranked 20th.
10%
Ranked 8th. 89% more than Italy

GNI > Current US$, % of GDP 99.42%
Ranked 55th.
101.2%
Ranked 35th. 2% more than Italy

GNI > Current LCU per capita 25,555.37
Ranked 118th. 4% more than United Kingdom
24,671.5
Ranked 121st.

Expense > % of GDP 41.5%
Ranked 14th.
43.7%
Ranked 9th. 5% more than Italy

Subsidies and other transfers > % of expense 66.75%
Ranked 20th. 24% more than United Kingdom
53.75%
Ranked 39th.

Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Received > US$ > Per $ GDP 1.36$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 137th.
3.06$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 122nd. 2 times more than Italy

Unemployment > Unemployment rates > Unemployment rates > Total per million 0.103%
Ranked 24th. 20% more than United Kingdom
0.0857%
Ranked 26th.
Employees, agriculture, female > % of female employment 2.6%
Ranked 39th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
0.7%
Ranked 56th.

Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, male > % 21.8%
Ranked 160th.
46.4%
Ranked 81st. 2 times more than Italy

Employment to population ratio, 15+, female > % 34.7%
Ranked 139th.
51.6%
Ranked 68th. 49% more than Italy

One-person and family businesses > Men > Percentage 20.9%
Ranked 15th. 40% more than United Kingdom
14.9%
Ranked 25th.

Employment > Working more than 40 hours per week > Men > Aged above 14 76.7%
Ranked 16th. 18% more than United Kingdom
65%
Ranked 20th.

Workers' remittances and compensation of employees > Received > US$ per capita 40.92$
Ranked 88th.
111.62$
Ranked 50th. 3 times more than Italy

Employment rate > Source / date of > Information 2003 OECD . 2003 OECD .
Force with tertiary education > % of total 11.9%
Ranked 35th.
26.8%
Ranked 13th. 2 times more than Italy

Force participation rate > Total > % of total population ages 15-64 62.24%
Ranked 146th.
75.56%
Ranked 41st. 21% more than Italy

Employees, agriculture, male > % of male employment 4.5%
Ranked 44th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
1.6%
Ranked 57th.

Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total > % 18.4%
Ranked 160th.
46.3%
Ranked 55th. 3 times more than Italy

Employers, female > % of employment 3.8%
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than United Kingdom
1.4%
Ranked 48th.

Employers, total > % of employment 6.6%
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
2.5%
Ranked 55th.

Self-employed, female > % of females employed 18.3%
Ranked 30th. 89% more than United Kingdom
9.7%
Ranked 46th.

Self-employed, male > % of males employed 29.5%
Ranked 22nd. 57% more than United Kingdom
18.8%
Ranked 43th.

Self-employed, total > % of total employed 24.8%
Ranked 28th. 70% more than United Kingdom
14.6%
Ranked 49th.

Employment to population ratio, 15+, male > % 53.6%
Ranked 160th.
63%
Ranked 124th. 18% more than Italy

Employment to population ratio, 15+, total > % 43.8%
Ranked 153th.
57.1%
Ranked 100th. 30% more than Italy

Vulnerable employment, female > % of female employment 14.4%
Ranked 30th. 73% more than United Kingdom
8.3%
Ranked 42nd.

Vulnerable employment, male > % of male employment 20.9%
Ranked 26th. 36% more than United Kingdom
15.4%
Ranked 36th.

Vulnerable employment, total > % of total employment 18.2%
Ranked 29th. 50% more than United Kingdom
12.1%
Ranked 41st.

Wage and salaried workers, female > % of females employed 81.7%
Ranked 36th.
90%
Ranked 20th. 10% more than Italy

Wage and salary workers, male > % of males employed 70.5%
Ranked 44th.
80.6%
Ranked 25th. 14% more than Italy

Force participation rate > Male > % of male population ages 15-64 74.33%
Ranked 158th.
81.86%
Ranked 98th. 10% more than Italy

Wage and salaried workers, total > % of total employed 75.2%
Ranked 40th.
85%
Ranked 19th. 13% more than Italy

Contributing family workers, female > % of females employed 2%
Ranked 31st. 4 times more than United Kingdom
0.5%
Ranked 51st.

Contributing family workers, male > % of males employed 1.1%
Ranked 31st. 4 times more than United Kingdom
0.3%
Ranked 51st.

Contributing family workers, total > % of total employed 1.4%
Ranked 34th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
0.4%
Ranked 54th.

Employees, industry, female > % of female employment 13.9%
Ranked 28th. 83% more than United Kingdom
7.6%
Ranked 52nd.

Employees, industry, male > % of male employment 37.6%
Ranked 11th. 31% more than United Kingdom
28.7%
Ranked 35th.

Employees, services, female > % of female employment 83.5%
Ranked 25th.
90.9%
Ranked 8th. 9% more than Italy

Employees, services, male > % of male employment 57.9%
Ranked 27th.
68.6%
Ranked 6th. 18% more than Italy

Part time employment, female > % of total part time employment 75.6%
Ranked 9th. 2% more than United Kingdom
73.8%
Ranked 10th.

Unemployment, youth male > % of male labor force ages 15-24 33.7%
Ranked 12th. 42% more than United Kingdom
23.8%
Ranked 27th.

Unemployment, youth total > % of total labor force ages 15-24 35.3%
Ranked 11th. 68% more than United Kingdom
21%
Ranked 32nd.

Long-term unemployment, female > % of female unemployment 6.4%
Ranked 12th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
2.2%
Ranked 32nd.

Unemployment, male > % of male labor force 9.9%
Ranked 28th. 18% more than United Kingdom
8.4%
Ranked 36th.

Unemployment, total > % of total labor force 10.7%
Ranked 27th. 35% more than United Kingdom
7.9%
Ranked 40th.

Force with primary education > % of total 46.7%
Ranked 6th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
17.5%
Ranked 28th.

Force > Total per 1000 417.01
Ranked 119th.
508.85
Ranked 33th. 22% more than Italy

Labor force with secondary education > Male > % of male labor force 41.9%
Ranked 32nd.
45.6%
Ranked 27th. 9% more than Italy

Employees > Agriculture > Male > % of male employment 4.5%
Ranked 18th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
1.9%
Ranked 29th.

Employees > Agriculture > Female > % of female employment 2.9%
Ranked 11th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
0.8%
Ranked 27th.

Employment in agriculture > % of total employment 3.8%
Ranked 17th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
1.4%
Ranked 28th.

Employees > Services > Female > % of female employment 80.9%
Ranked 17th.
89.8%
Ranked 2nd. 11% more than Italy

Labor force with primary education > Female > % of female labor force 31.5%
Ranked 17th. 66% more than United Kingdom
19%
Ranked 33th.

Labor force with primary education > % of total 39%
Ranked 17th. 81% more than United Kingdom
21.5%
Ranked 32nd.

Labor force with secondary education > % of total 44.3%
Ranked 28th.
45.9%
Ranked 25th. 4% more than Italy

Labor force with primary education > Male > % of male labor force 44%
Ranked 16th. 87% more than United Kingdom
23.5%
Ranked 30th.

Labor force with secondary education > Female > % of female labor force 47.8%
Ranked 24th. 3% more than United Kingdom
46.2%
Ranked 25th.

Labor force with tertiary education > % of total 15.7%
Ranked 46th.
31.9%
Ranked 16th. 2 times more than Italy

Employment in services > % of total employment 66.3%
Ranked 17th.
76.9%
Ranked 2nd. 16% more than Italy

Labor participation rate > Total > % of total population ages 15+ 49.1%
Ranked 168th.
62.2%
Ranked 105th. 27% more than Italy

SOURCES: ILO (International Labour Organization). 2002. Key Indicators of the Labour Market 2001-2002. February 2002; International Labour Organisation, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.; International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files. World Bank World Development Indicators.; World Bank national accounts data; Wikipedia: List of minimum wages by country (Countries) ("Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013" . State.gov . Retrieved 2014-03-04 .); CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.; World Development Indicators database; Wikipedia: List of minimum wages by country (Countries); Figures are from the OECD. The figures are from EIRO for France, Ireland and Italy; OECD; OECD Health Data 2002 (CD ROM) available year for Australia, Japan = 1998; Denmark = 1995; 1980 figures for Canada and France are interpolated; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: Retirement age (Retirement age); International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files. World Bank World Development Indicators. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Labour Organisation, using World Bank population estimates.; United Nations Statistics Division Original html; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; calculated on the basis of occupational data from ILO (International Labour Organization). 2002. Laboursta Database. February 2002; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; OECD Country statistical profiles 2009; OECD Historical Statistics; calculated on the basis of data on the economically active population and total population from ILO (International Labour Organization). 2002. Estimates and Projections of the Economically Active Population, 1950-2010, 4th ed., rev. 2. Database. Geneva; United Nations Statistics Division Original html; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; OECD; ILO, Key Indicators; calculated on the basis of data on male and female unemployment rates from OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2001. Employment Outlook 2001. Paris; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=GenderStat&f=inID%3a109, Part-time employment rate; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2001. Employment Outlook. Paris; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Jeanne A. Batalova and Philip N. Cohen, 'Premarital Cohabitation and Housework: Couples in Cross-National Perspective', Journal of Marriage and Family 64, August 2002, p.748; OECD Country statistical profiles 2009. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Harvey, Andrew S. 1995 ?Market and Non-Market Productive Activity in Less Developed and Developing Countries: Lessons from Time Use.? Background Paper for Human Development Report 1995. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report, Goldshmidt-Clermont, Luisella, and Elisabetta Pagnossin Aligisakis. 1995. ?Measures of Unrecorded Economic Activities in Fourteen Countries.? Background paper for Human Development Report; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; International Metalworkers' Federation, The Purchasing Power of Working Time 2002: An International Comparison of Average Net Hourly Earnings 2001 (International Metalworkers' Federation, Geneva, 2002); Wikipedia: Minimum Age Convention, 1973; OECD, Employment Outlook 2002; OECD Employment Outlook 2002, p.74; OECD; Annex to GECD Society at a Glance 2002; Wikipedia: Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949; World Bank national accounts data. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; World Bank staff estimates; OECD. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; ILO Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM).; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=MDG&f=seriesRowID%3a773#MDG, Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment, women, percentage; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=MDG&f=seriesRowID%3a772, Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment, men, percentage; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=GenderStat&f=inID%3a118, Percent working less than 20 hrs/week; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=GenderStat&f=inID%3a118, Percent working less than 20 hrs/week; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?q=40+hrs%2fweek&d=GenderStat&f=inID%3a119, Percent working more than 40 hrs/week.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates. World Bank World Development Indicators.; United Nations Statistics Division; Wikipedia: List of countries by employment rate