×

Environment Stats: compare key data on Italy & United Kingdom

Definitions

  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • CO2 Emissions per 1000: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Municipal waste generation: Kilograms of municipal waste generated per year (2000).
  • Pollution perceptions > Air pollution: Air Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Air quality: Air quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean water: Water Quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution: Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Water pollution: Water Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Proportion of land area under protection: Terrestrial areas protected to total surface area, percentage.
  • Transport CO2 emission index: CO2 Emission Index is an estimation of CO2 consumption due to traffic time. Measurement unit is grams for the return trip. To calculate an average estimation of emission in grams for one way commute to work, divide this value with 2.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Municipal waste generation per million: Kilograms of municipal waste generated per year (2000). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Waste > Local garbage collected: Municipal waste collected.
  • Marine fish catch per 1000: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Water > Severe water stress: Percent of country's territory under severe water stress
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: This data is derived from the WaterGap 2.1 gridded hydrological model developed by the Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany. The modellers derived, for each country, grid cell by grid cell estimates of whether the water consumption exceeds 40 percent of the water available in that particular grid cell. These were then converted to land area equivalents in order to calculate the percentage of the territory under severe water stress.

  • Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution: Noise and Light Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Endangered species > Mammal species > Number: Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened: Mammal species, threatened. Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality: Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Pollution perceptions > Pollution index: Pollution Index is an estimation of the overall pollution in the city. The biggest weight is given to air pollution, than to water pollution/accessibility, two main pollution factors. Small weight is given to other pollution types.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, total.
  • National parks > Number of parks: Number of parks.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened: Bird species, threatened. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Endangered species > Bird species: Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • National parks > Proportion of country area: Country area.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Total renewable water resources per million: . Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • SO2 emissions per populated area: SO2 emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.

  • Waste > Local garbage collected per thousand people: Municipal waste collected. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Waste > Hazardous waste created: Annual generation of hazardous waste (as defined by the Basel Convention).
  • Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened: Fish species, threatened. Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Endangered species > Fish species > Number: Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity: Percentage of population who responded yes when asked if they believed global warming was a result of human activities. In this survey, global warming refers to the current rise in earth's temperature and not climate change as a whole.
  • Water > Percent of water resources used: Proportion of total water resources used, percentage.
  • Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number: Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • NOx emissions per populated area: NOx emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.

  • Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration: Dissolved oxygen concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.

  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities: Clean and Tidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)

  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, rural.
  • Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened: Plant species (higher), threatened. Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Threatened species: Number of Threatened Species (1990-99)
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Waste water treatment expenditure: Annual spending on waste water treatment (USD per person) per year (2000).
  • Waste > Population served by local garbage collection: Total population served by municipal waste collection.
  • National parks > Total area: Total area km².

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Biodiversity > Number: GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential)."
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Water > Freshwater internal flow per capita: Internal flow of water: River run-off and groundwater produced during a year through perception minus evaporation. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Water > Freshwater internal flow: Internal flow of water: River run-off and groundwater produced during a year through perception minus evaporation.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness: Percentage of each country's population who claimed knowing "something" or a "great deal" about climate change when asked: "How much do you know about global warming or climate change?"
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of all greenhouse gas emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total greenhouse gas emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of greenhouse gases emitted. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution: Comfortable to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Waste > Hazardous waste created per thousand people: Annual generation of hazardous waste (as defined by the Basel Convention). Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential).
  • Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities: Dirty and Untidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas.
  • Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution: Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.
  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.

  • Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent: Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production.
  • Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry per capita: Water supplied annually, where losses during transportation have been subtracted. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates.
  • Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter). Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Wetlands of intl importance > Area: Wetlands of international importance 2002
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Proportion of land and marine area under protection: Terrestrial and marine areas protected to total territorial area, percentage.
  • Endangered species protection: Percent of CITES reporting requirements met
    Units: Percent of Requirements Met
    Units: Countries that have not ratified the CITES convention are recorded as having zero percent of their requirements met.

  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of sulphur hexafluoride emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total SF6 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of SF6 emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since SF6 has a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution: Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide per capita: Tons of Carbon Dioxide produced per capita in 1998 or latest available year. Carbon dioxide from energy use only. Excludes international marine bunkers.
  • Water > Population connected to wastewater treatment: Population connected to wastewater treatment.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, urban.
  • Sea > Blue Flag beaches per million people: Number of beaches or marinas with blue flag designation, indicating high environmental and quality standards. Blue flag status is awarded by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) based on criteria such as water quality, safety, environmental education and information, the provision of services and environmental management. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Commitment to Development Index (environment): The Commitment to Development Index (CDI) ranks the world’s richest countries on their commitment to policies that benefit the poorer nations. The environment component of the index measures what these countries do to reduce their use of scarce natural resources. The score goes up if their "greenhouse gas" emissions are falling, their fuel taxes are high, do not subsidize the fishing industry, or have a low fossil fuel rate per capita.
  • Waste water treatment expenditure per million: Annual spending on waste water treatment (USD per person) per year (2000). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Municipal waste treatment expenditure per million: Annual spending on municipal waste disposal (USD per person). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of methane emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total methane emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the amount of methane emitted, which is 21 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of sulphur hexafluoride emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total SF6 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of SF6 emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since SF6 has a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Carbon dioxide (CO2) > CO2 emissions per thousand people: Amount of carbon dioxide emissions by select Western countries. Amounts are by thousand metric tons. . Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of methane emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total methane emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the amount of methane emitted, which is 21 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Carbon dioxide (CO2) > CO2 emissions: Amount of carbon dioxide emissions by select Western countries. Amounts are by thousand metric tons. 
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction: Garbage Disposal Satisfaction. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 per million: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat: Percentage of country's population that perceives climate change as a threat. Results are from a 2008 Gallop Poll.
  • Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management."
  • Wildness: Percent of land area having very low anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.

  • Biosphere > Reserves area: Biosphere reserves area 2002.
  • Forest area > Sq. km per 1000: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Threatened species > Mammal: Number of threatened mammal species (1997)
  • Water > Population supplied by water supply industry: Total population supplied by water supply industry.
  • World Heritage Sites (environmental): Natural sites.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Municipal waste treatment expenditure: Annual spending on municipal waste disposal (USD per person).
  • Known mammal species: Known mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day per worker). Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Sea > Blue Flag beaches: Number of beaches or marinas with blue flag designation, indicating high environmental and quality standards. Blue flag status is awarded by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) based on criteria such as water quality, safety, environmental education and information, the provision of services and environmental management.
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2).
  • Breeding birds threatened: Percentage of breeding birds threatened
    Units: Percent of Breeding Birds
    Units: The number of bird species threatened divided by known bird species in the country, expressed as a percentage.

  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride."
  • Urban SO2 concentration: Urban SO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.

  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of nitrous oxide emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total NO2 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of NO2 emitted, which is 310 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Sustainability-satisfying companies: Dow Jones Sustainability Group Index: percent of eligible companies in index
    Units: Percentage
    Units: For each country, the number of companies in the Sustainability Index was divided by the number of companies in the Global Index.

  • Marine areas under protection: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Water > Surface and Groundwater inflow: Inflow of surface and groundwaters for neighboring countries.
  • Water > Population connected to wastewater collecting system: Population connected to wastewater collecting system.
  • Water > Proportion of marine area under protection: Marine areas protected to territorial waters, percentage.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Environmental agreement compliance: Compliance with environmental agreements (WEF survey)
    Units: Survey Responses Ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7
    Units: Response to the statement: "Compliance with international environmental agreements is a high priority.

  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2). Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations."
  • Known mammal species per million: Known mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Wetlands of intl importance > Area per million: Wetlands of international importance 2002. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Areas under protection per million: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water > Salinisation: Electrical conductivity
    Units: Micro-Siemens/Centimeter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of water bodies; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system.

  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 > Per $ GDP: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas. Per $ GDP figures expressed per $100 million of Gross Domestic Product.
  • Marine areas under protection per million: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Areas under protection: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Biosphere > Reserves area per million: Biosphere reserves area 2002. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Fertiliser > Consumption: Fertilizer consumption per hectare of arable land
    Units: Hundreds Grams/Hectare of Arable Land
  • Urban NO2 concentration: Urban NO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.

  • Non-wildness: Percent of land area having very high anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.

  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Known breeding bird species per million: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Forest area > % of land area: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, wood industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Expenditure pollution control as % of GDP: Expenditure on pollution controland abatement as % of GDP, 1999 .
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • CO2 Emissions: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date: Signature.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Kyoto Protocol sign date: Signed.
  • Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry: Water supplied annually, where losses during transportation have been subtracted.
  • Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use: Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of perfluorocarbons emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total PFCs emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of PFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since PFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a countryÂ’s technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, food industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, other industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, paper and pulp industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons.
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water > Suspended solids: Suspended solids
    Units: Natural Log of Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. Data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of majorwatersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries. The data in this table was transformed using the natural logarithm.

  • Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Nitrogen Oxides per capita: Kilogram weight of Nitrogen Oxides produced per capita in 1998 or latest available year.
  • Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water > Phosphorus concentration: Phosphorus concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.

  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction: Quality of Green and Parks. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Total natural resources rents > % of GDP: Total natural resources rents (% of GDP). Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of all greenhouse gas emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total greenhouse gas emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of greenhouse gases emitted. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions over a 100 year period. These numbers do not represent total HFCs emissions over 100 years, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of HFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year timeframe is used since HFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, textile industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of nitrous oxide emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total NO2 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of NO2 emitted, which is 310 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Known breeding bird species: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, clay and glass industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions over a 100 year period. These numbers do not represent total HFCs emissions over 100 years, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of HFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year timeframe is used since HFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Oil rents > % of GDP: Oil rents (% of GDP). Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • International agreements > Signed but not ratified: The various international environmental agreements which a country has signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total: Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels."
  • Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total: Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total: Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Waste water treatment expenditure, % of GDP: Annual spending on waste water treatment (USD per person) per year (2000). Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Natural gas rents > % of GDP: Natural gas rents (% of GDP). Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, chemical industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Municipal waste treatment expenditure, % of GDP: Annual spending on municipal waste disposal (USD per person). Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of perfluorocarbons emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total PFCs emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of PFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since PFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Water > Surface and Groundwater inflow per capita: Inflow of surface and groundwaters for neighboring countries. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters: Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters). Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, metal industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
STAT Italy United Kingdom HISTORY
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $1.51 trillion
Ranked 8th.
$2.04 trillion
Ranked 5th. 35% more than Italy
CO2 Emissions per 1000 7.75
Ranked 32nd.
9.37
Ranked 25th. 21% more than Italy
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons 151.92
Ranked 18th.
196.7
Ranked 12th. 29% more than Italy

Current issues air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities continues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (has met Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5% reduction from 1990 levels and intends to meet the legally binding target and move toward a domestic goal of a 20% cut in emissions by 2010); by 2005 the government reduced the amount of industrial and commercial waste disposed of in landfill sites to 85% of 1998 levels and recycled or composted at least 25% of household waste, increasing to 33% by 2015
Ecological footprint 5.51
Ranked 25th. 17% more than United Kingdom
4.7
Ranked 5th.

Marine fish catch 183,871 tons
Ranked 43th.
711,809 tons
Ranked 18th. 4 times more than Italy
Municipal waste generation 500 kgs per person per year
Ranked 14th.
560 kgs per person per year
Ranked 9th. 12% more than Italy
Pollution perceptions > Air pollution 62.26
Ranked 27th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
29.68
Ranked 49th.
Pollution perceptions > Air quality 37.74
Ranked 33th.
70.32
Ranked 11th. 86% more than Italy
Pollution perceptions > Clean water 55.91
Ranked 20th.
72.77
Ranked 9th. 30% more than Italy
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution 34.46
Ranked 38th. 54% more than United Kingdom
22.35
Ranked 47th.
Pollution perceptions > Water pollution 44.09
Ranked 40th. 62% more than United Kingdom
27.23
Ranked 51st.
Proportion of land area under protection 21.6%
Ranked 59th.
27.91%
Ranked 36th. 29% more than Italy

Total renewable water resources 175 cu km
Ranked 5th. 9% more than United Kingdom
160.6 cu km
Ranked 7th.
Transport CO2 emission index 4,803.91
Ranked 17th. 43% more than United Kingdom
3,369.84
Ranked 23th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million 2.5
Ranked 50th.
3.13
Ranked 38th. 25% more than Italy

Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita 1.7 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 119th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
0.472 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 163th.

Municipal waste generation per million 8.78 kgs per person per year
Ranked 13th.
9.51 kgs per person per year
Ranked 12th. 8% more than Italy
Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 475,760.3
Ranked 9th.
521,716.1
Ranked 8th. 10% more than Italy

Waste > Local garbage collected 32.5 million tonnes
Ranked 6th.
32.6 million tonnes
Ranked 5th. About the same as Italy

Marine fish catch per 1000 3.23 tons
Ranked 70th.
12.13 tons
Ranked 41st. 4 times more than Italy
Water > Severe water stress 26.3
Ranked 45th. 25% more than United Kingdom
21
Ranked 51st.
Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution 48.17
Ranked 33th. 11% more than United Kingdom
43.41
Ranked 41st.
Endangered species > Mammal species > Number 7
Ranked 114th. 40% more than United Kingdom
5
Ranked 139th.
Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened 7
Ranked 124th. 40% more than United Kingdom
5
Ranked 148th.
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality 65.54
Ranked 22nd.
77.65
Ranked 13th. 18% more than Italy
CO2 emissions > Kt 445,450.1 kt
Ranked 10th.
558,461 kt
Ranked 8th. 25% more than Italy

Pollution perceptions > Pollution index 61.98
Ranked 31st. 81% more than United Kingdom
34.29
Ranked 49th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural 100
Ranked 17th. The same as United Kingdom
100
Ranked 14th.

National parks > Number of parks 24
Ranked 6th. 60% more than United Kingdom
15
Ranked 10th.
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 7.68
Ranked 47th.
8.84
Ranked 39th. 15% more than Italy

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 6.72
Ranked 52nd.
7.93
Ranked 39th. 18% more than Italy

Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened 10
Ranked 125th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
4
Ranked 174th.
Carbon efficiency 0.91 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 86th.
1.17 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 69th. 29% more than Italy
CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 7.73 kt
Ranked 42nd.
9.38 kt
Ranked 31st. 21% more than Italy

Endangered species > Bird species 8
Ranked 114th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
2
Ranked 172nd.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $25,728.58
Ranked 18th.
$33,876.64
Ranked 9th. 32% more than Italy
National parks > Proportion of country area 5%
Ranked 7th.
8.2%
Ranked 2nd. 64% more than Italy
Total renewable water resources per million 2.99 cu km
Ranked 17th. 12% more than United Kingdom
2.67 cu km
Ranked 18th.
SO2 emissions per populated area 2,790 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 19th.
5,370 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 7th. 92% more than Italy
Waste > Local garbage collected per thousand people 539.93 tonnes
Ranked 22nd. 2% more than United Kingdom
527.41 tonnes
Ranked 24th.

Waste > Hazardous waste created 6.66 million tonnes
Ranked 10th.
7.29 million tonnes
Ranked 9th. 9% more than Italy

Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened 47
Ranked 37th. 9% more than United Kingdom
43
Ranked 45th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 406,307.27
Ranked 17th.
493,504.86
Ranked 11th. 21% more than Italy

CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita 7.73 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 46th.
9.37 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 35th. 21% more than Italy

Endangered species > Fish species > Number 33
Ranked 29th.
34
Ranked 26th. 3% more than Italy
Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 479,215.5
Ranked 10th.
521,716.1
Ranked 9th. 9% more than Italy

Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction 49.08
Ranked 33th. 29% more than United Kingdom
37.95
Ranked 39th.
Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity 65%
Ranked 38th. 35% more than United Kingdom
48%
Ranked 91st.
Water > Percent of water resources used 23.69%
Ranked 35th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
8.84%
Ranked 55th.

Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number 19
Ranked 68th. 36% more than United Kingdom
14
Ranked 79th.

NOx emissions per populated area 1 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 20th.
2.76 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than Italy
Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration 8.73 mls/litre
Ranked 44th.
10.4 mls/litre
Ranked 14th. 19% more than Italy
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 6.72
Ranked 52nd.
7.93
Ranked 39th. 18% more than Italy

Forest area > Sq. km 99,790 km²
Ranked 54th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
28,450 km²
Ranked 90th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.23
Ranked 162nd. 10% more than United Kingdom
$0.21
Ranked 165th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt 456,054.42
Ranked 11th.
539,175.92
Ranked 9th. 18% more than Italy

Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities 43.24
Ranked 36th.
55.75
Ranked 20th. 29% more than Italy
Water > Availability 2.04 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 83th.
3.1 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 68th. 52% more than Italy
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural 100
Ranked 17th. The same as United Kingdom
100
Ranked 14th.

Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened 66
Ranked 44th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
15
Ranked 91st.
Threatened species 75
Ranked 24th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
17
Ranked 104th.
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $30,844.29
Ranked 21st.
$33,451.41
Ranked 17th. 8% more than Italy

Waste water treatment expenditure $29.40
Ranked 14th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
$11.10
Ranked 15th.
Waste > Population served by local garbage collection 100%
Ranked 16th. The same as United Kingdom
100%
Ranked 12th.

National parks > Total area 15,000
Ranked 5th.
19,989
Ranked 3rd. 33% more than Italy
Biodiversity > Number 3.85
Ranked 60th. 8% more than United Kingdom
3.55
Ranked 65th.

Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $1.87 trillion
Ranked 9th.
$2.10 trillion
Ranked 7th. 12% more than Italy

Water > Freshwater internal flow per capita 1,571.23 cubic metres
Ranked 28th.
2,748.33 cubic metres
Ranked 10th. 75% more than Italy

Water > Freshwater internal flow 89.47 billion cubic metres
Ranked 14th.
169.88 billion cubic metres
Ranked 3rd. 90% more than Italy

Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness 84%
Ranked 34th.
97%
Ranked 4th. 15% more than Italy
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 501,317.66
Ranked 10th.
594,021.5
Ranked 7th. 18% more than Italy

Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution 48.35
Ranked 31st.
78.96
Ranked 9th. 63% more than Italy
Waste > Hazardous waste created per thousand people 111.23 tonnes
Ranked 23th.
118.66 tonnes
Ranked 22nd. 7% more than Italy

Protected area 7.3%
Ranked 56th.
20.5%
Ranked 11th. 3 times more than Italy
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum 3.85
Ranked 61st. 8% more than United Kingdom
3.55
Ranked 66th.

Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities 56.76
Ranked 24th. 28% more than United Kingdom
44.25
Ranked 40th.
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.38
Ranked 145th. 23% more than United Kingdom
$0.31
Ranked 155th.

Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 117
Ranked 9th.
148
Ranked 8th. 26% more than Italy
Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution 51.83
Ranked 27th.
56.59
Ranked 19th. 9% more than Italy
Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters 182.5
Ranked 39th. 26% more than United Kingdom
145
Ranked 46th.

Acidification 17.94%
Ranked 21st.
45.75%
Ranked 10th. 3 times more than Italy
Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent 36,670
Ranked 36th.
39,400
Ranked 33th. 7% more than Italy

Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry per capita 92.48 cubic metres
Ranked 13th.
100.17 cubic metres
Ranked 18th. 8% more than Italy

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters 3,050.2
Ranked 82nd. 29% more than United Kingdom
2,361.3
Ranked 92nd.

Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 20.63
Ranked 121st. 61% more than United Kingdom
12.78
Ranked 163th.

Wetlands of intl importance > Area 57 thousand hectares
Ranked 77th.
855 thousand hectares
Ranked 17th. 15 times more than Italy
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number 456
Ranked 37th.
778
Ranked 27th. 71% more than Italy
CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP 0.3 kg/PPP$
Ranked 89th.
0.34 kg/PPP$
Ranked 77th. 13% more than Italy

Proportion of land and marine area under protection 21.03%
Ranked 52nd.
23.37%
Ranked 44th. 11% more than Italy

Endangered species protection 100%
Ranked 17th. The same as United Kingdom
100%
Ranked 16th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 8.05
Ranked 20th. 77% more than United Kingdom
4.54
Ranked 30th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 6.17
Ranked 23th.
11.08
Ranked 13th. 80% more than Italy

Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution 51.65
Ranked 29th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
21.04
Ranked 51st.
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million 0.0643
Ranked 150th. 11% more than United Kingdom
0.0578
Ranked 154th.

Pollution > Carbon Dioxide per capita 7
Ranked 21st.
9
Ranked 12th. 29% more than Italy
Water > Population connected to wastewater treatment 69%
Ranked 13th.
97.5%
Ranked 4th. 41% more than Italy
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban 100
Ranked 25th. The same as United Kingdom
100
Ranked 20th.

Sea > Blue Flag beaches per million people 3.74
Ranked 14th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
1.7
Ranked 17th.
Commitment to Development Index (environment) 6.7
Ranked 14th.
7.2
Ranked 6th. 7% more than Italy
Waste water treatment expenditure per million $0.52
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
$0.19
Ranked 15th.
Municipal waste treatment expenditure per million $0.19
Ranked 14th.
$0.20
Ranked 13th. 3% more than Italy
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 37,554.06
Ranked 11th.
41,418.31
Ranked 10th. 10% more than Italy

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 373.27
Ranked 10th.
689.99
Ranked 6th. 85% more than Italy

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Carbon dioxide (CO2) > CO2 emissions per thousand people 7.04
Ranked 23th.
8.12
Ranked 20th. 15% more than Italy

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people 0.621
Ranked 34th.
0.665
Ranked 32nd. 7% more than Italy

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Carbon dioxide (CO2) > CO2 emissions 426,086.64
Ranked 7th.
505,727.86
Ranked 6th. 19% more than Italy

Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction 50.92
Ranked 27th.
62.05
Ranked 21st. 22% more than Italy
Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 per million 2.05
Ranked 14th.
2.51
Ranked 8th. 22% more than Italy
Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat 76%
Ranked 6th. 10% more than United Kingdom
69%
Ranked 20th.
Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 37,200
Ranked 23th.
65,480
Ranked 13th. 76% more than Italy

Wildness 0.04%
Ranked 107th.
0.21%
Ranked 99th. 5 times more than Italy
Biosphere > Reserves area 204 thousand hectares
Ranked 59th. 7 times more than United Kingdom
30 thousand hectares
Ranked 79th.
Forest area > Sq. km per 1000 1.7 km²
Ranked 117th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
0.472 km²
Ranked 161st.

Threatened species > Mammal 10
Ranked 87th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
4
Ranked 136th.
Water > Population supplied by water supply industry 100%
Ranked 5th. 1% more than United Kingdom
99%
Ranked 12th.
World Heritage Sites (environmental) 4
Ranked 12th. The same as United Kingdom
4
Ranked 10th.
Municipal waste treatment expenditure $10.80
Ranked 7th.
$11.60
Ranked 3rd. 7% more than Italy
Known mammal species 90
Ranked 92nd. 80% more than United Kingdom
50
Ranked 134th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 69.96
Ranked 11th.
75.86
Ranked 10th. 8% more than Italy

Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.125
Ranked 61st.
0.167
Ranked 35th. 34% more than Italy

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters 44.37
Ranked 18th. 5 times more than United Kingdom
9.54
Ranked 46th.

Sea > Blue Flag beaches 225
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
105
Ranked 8th.
Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 115,371
Ranked 8th.
147,199
Ranked 6th. 28% more than Italy
Breeding birds threatened 2.14%
Ranked 76th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
0.87%
Ranked 119th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt 155,873.17
Ranked 10th.
194,251.99
Ranked 7th. 25% more than Italy

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 0.889
Ranked 47th.
1.89
Ranked 32nd. 2 times more than Italy

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 2.95
Ranked 56th. 5% more than United Kingdom
2.81
Ranked 58th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt 53,739.89
Ranked 24th.
117,677.7
Ranked 16th. 2 times more than Italy

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 2.58
Ranked 26th.
3.12
Ranked 21st. 21% more than Italy

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million 256.95
Ranked 30th. 12% more than United Kingdom
229.5
Ranked 37th.

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number 58
Ranked 16th.
149
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than Italy
Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 27,710
Ranked 7th. 98% more than United Kingdom
14,030
Ranked 10th.

Urban SO2 concentration 15.55 micrograms/m3
Ranked 113th.
21.96 micrograms/m3
Ranked 102nd. 41% more than Italy
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 450
Ranked 35th.
561.98
Ranked 33th. 25% more than Italy

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$ $315.18 billion
Ranked 7th.
$368.16 billion
Ranked 6th. 17% more than Italy

Sustainability-satisfying companies 4.8%
Ranked 20th.
68%
Ranked 4th. 14 times more than Italy
Marine areas under protection 28
Ranked 15th.
95
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Italy
Water > Surface and Groundwater inflow 8 billion cubic metres
Ranked 16th. 11% more than United Kingdom
7.23 billion cubic metres
Ranked 14th.

Water > Population connected to wastewater collecting system 94%
Ranked 13th.
97.7%
Ranked 8th. 4% more than Italy
Water > Proportion of marine area under protection 19.9%
Ranked 30th. 20% more than United Kingdom
16.61%
Ranked 35th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$ $192.79 billion
Ranked 5th. 83% more than United Kingdom
$105.29 billion
Ranked 10th.

Environmental agreement compliance 5.37
Ranked 18th.
5.69
Ranked 11th. 6% more than Italy
Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000 2.03
Ranked 44th.
2.51
Ranked 26th. 24% more than Italy
Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 26.71
Ranked 113th. 72% more than United Kingdom
15.49
Ranked 154th.

Known mammal species per million 1.57
Ranked 133th. 87% more than United Kingdom
0.843
Ranked 141st.
Wetlands of intl importance > Area per million 0.997 thousand hectares
Ranked 94th.
14.41 thousand hectares
Ranked 55th. 14 times more than Italy
Areas under protection per million 7.41
Ranked 51st.
9.72
Ranked 45th. 31% more than Italy
Water > Salinisation 915.42
Ranked 47th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
368.06
Ranked 101st.
Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 > Per $ GDP 0.00727 per $100 million
Ranked 23th.
0.00831 per $100 million
Ranked 21st. 14% more than Italy
Marine areas under protection per million 0.486
Ranked 49th.
1.59
Ranked 22nd. 3 times more than Italy
Areas under protection 427
Ranked 21st.
579
Ranked 18th. 36% more than Italy
Biosphere > Reserves area per million 3.57 thousand hectares
Ranked 72nd. 7 times more than United Kingdom
0.506 thousand hectares
Ranked 83th.
Fertiliser > Consumption 2,103.86 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 28th.
3,325.35 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 17th. 58% more than Italy
Urban NO2 concentration 124.38 micrograms/m3
Ranked 2nd. 93% more than United Kingdom
64.47 micrograms/m3
Ranked 32nd.
Non-wildness 23.85%
Ranked 11th.
32.05%
Ranked 5th. 34% more than Italy
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 125th.
0.0
Ranked 113th.

Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 9.42%
Ranked 5th. 5% more than United Kingdom
8.97%
Ranked 7th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI 8.55%
Ranked 56th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
3.9%
Ranked 78th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.9%
Ranked 30th. 17% more than United Kingdom
2.47%
Ranked 33th.

Known breeding bird species per million 4.37
Ranked 127th. 13% more than United Kingdom
3.86
Ranked 131st.
Forest area > % of land area 33.93% of land area
Ranked 78th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
11.76% of land area
Ranked 142nd.

Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.89%
Ranked 35th. 17% more than United Kingdom
2.47%
Ranked 40th.

Expenditure pollution control as % of GDP 0.9% of GDP
Ranked 13th.
1% of GDP
Ranked 12th. 11% more than Italy
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources 24.31%
Ranked 47th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
6.58%
Ranked 74th.
CO2 Emissions 446,596
Ranked 9th.
558,225
Ranked 7th. 25% more than Italy
Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt 178,590.23
Ranked 15th. 2% more than United Kingdom
174,897.57
Ranked 17th.

Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area 7.06%
Ranked 118th.
22.35%
Ranked 37th. 3 times more than Italy
Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area 3.13%
Ranked 47th.
4.56%
Ranked 38th. 46% more than Italy
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date June 5, 1992 June 12, 1992
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 17.8%
Ranked 15th. 4% more than United Kingdom
17.12%
Ranked 17th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Kyoto Protocol sign date 29 April 1998 29 April 1998
Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions 30.76%
Ranked 28th. 50 times more than United Kingdom
0.61%
Ranked 33th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$ 0.0
Ranked 134th.
0.0
Ranked 121st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI 8.63%
Ranked 60th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
3.91%
Ranked 81st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$ $4.96 billion
Ranked 47th.
$57.72 billion
Ranked 12th. 12 times more than Italy

Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry 5.53 billion cubic metres
Ranked 5th.
6.11 billion cubic metres
Ranked 3rd. 10% more than Italy

Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use 2.56
Ranked 45th. About the same as United Kingdom
2.55
Ranked 47th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 1,330.83
Ranked 6th. 6 times more than United Kingdom
220.47
Ranked 11th.

Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.12
Ranked 53th.
0.17
Ranked 24th. 42% more than Italy

PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 27.12 mcg/m³
Ranked 129th. 80% more than United Kingdom
15.06 mcg/m³
Ranked 169th.

Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions 9.31%
Ranked 55th.
14.87%
Ranked 47th. 60% more than Italy

Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions 49.63%
Ranked 9th. 8% more than United Kingdom
46.14%
Ranked 18th.

Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 5.23%
Ranked 33th.
12.47%
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Italy

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent -94.671
Ranked 39th. 23 times more than United Kingdom
-4.079
Ranked 17th.

Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction 48.39
Ranked 24th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
22.57
Ranked 53th.
Water > Suspended solids 5.63 mls/litre
Ranked 51st. 2 times more than United Kingdom
2.26 mls/litre
Ranked 137th.
Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 3.88%
Ranked 10th.
4%
Ranked 9th. 3% more than Italy

Pollution > Nitrogen Oxides per capita 31
Ranked 18th.
35
Ranked 14th. 13% more than Italy
Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 13.33%
Ranked 4th.
15.38%
Ranked 2nd. 15% more than Italy

Water > Phosphorus concentration 0.13 mls/litre
Ranked 114th. 44% more than United Kingdom
0.09 mls/litre
Ranked 125th.
Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction 51.61
Ranked 36th.
77.43
Ranked 7th. 50% more than Italy
Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 15,541
Ranked 10th. 9% more than United Kingdom
14,291
Ranked 11th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total 13.23%
Ranked 64th.
23.85%
Ranked 46th. 80% more than Italy

Total natural resources rents > % of GDP 0.202%
Ranked 147th.
1.53%
Ranked 110th. 8 times more than Italy

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people 8.29
Ranked 27th.
9.54
Ranked 21st. 15% more than Italy

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 144.76
Ranked 18th.
229.87
Ranked 7th. 59% more than Italy

Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 13.65%
Ranked 29th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
4.26%
Ranked 59th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total 38.36%
Ranked 31st.
39.36%
Ranked 29th. 3% more than Italy

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 27,217.5
Ranked 10th.
34,995.46
Ranked 7th. 29% more than Italy

Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 10.7%
Ranked 9th.
17.52%
Ranked 2nd. 64% more than Italy

Known breeding bird species 250
Ranked 39th. 9% more than United Kingdom
229
Ranked 58th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million 1.15
Ranked 16th.
1.21
Ranked 13th. 5% more than Italy

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total 43.95%
Ranked 140th. 24% more than United Kingdom
35.44%
Ranked 157th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 14.24%
Ranked 16th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
4.26%
Ranked 44th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal 45.1%
Ranked 101st. 15 times more than United Kingdom
2.94%
Ranked 131st.

Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.12 kg per day per worker
Ranked 32nd. The same as United Kingdom
0.12 kg per day per worker
Ranked 31st.

Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 5.42%
Ranked 31st. 52% more than United Kingdom
3.56%
Ranked 55th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 8,755.35
Ranked 8th.
14,314.07
Ranked 5th. 63% more than Italy

Oil rents > % of GDP 0.149%
Ranked 66th.
1.23%
Ranked 50th. 8 times more than Italy

Water pollution > Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 5.24%
Ranked 36th.
12.47%
Ranked 6th. 2 times more than Italy

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal 36.71%
Ranked 24th.
75.37%
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Italy

International agreements > Signed but not ratified none of the selected agreements none of the selected agreements
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal 18.19%
Ranked 57th.
21.7%
Ranked 48th. 19% more than Italy

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI 0.22%
Ranked 75th.
2.14%
Ranked 49th. 10 times more than Italy

Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total 19.14%
Ranked 61st.
35.66%
Ranked 43th. 86% more than Italy

Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total 37.74%
Ranked 77th.
50.71%
Ranked 51st. 34% more than Italy

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$ $1.75 billion
Ranked 13th. 18 times more than United Kingdom
$99.83 million
Ranked 55th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.16%
Ranked 140th. The same as United Kingdom
0.16%
Ranked 139th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI 13.98%
Ranked 16th. 2% more than United Kingdom
13.65%
Ranked 28th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.08%
Ranked 107th.
0.0
Ranked 156th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI 4.48%
Ranked 92nd. 4 times more than United Kingdom
1.15%
Ranked 108th.

Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.32%
Ranked 14th. 23% more than United Kingdom
0.26%
Ranked 18th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 3.46%
Ranked 20th. 28% more than United Kingdom
2.7%
Ranked 29th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP $0.24
Ranked 100th.
$0.25
Ranked 96th. 4% more than Italy

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP $0.27
Ranked 97th. 4% more than United Kingdom
$0.26
Ranked 99th.

Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total 70.54%
Ranked 98th. 35% more than United Kingdom
52.2%
Ranked 114th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$ $101.12 billion
Ranked 12th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
$31.06 billion
Ranked 29th.

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million -1.573
Ranked 28th. 24 times more than United Kingdom
-0.066
Ranked 7th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$ $194.54 billion
Ranked 5th. 85% more than United Kingdom
$105.39 billion
Ranked 10th.

Waste water treatment expenditure, % of GDP 2.66e-09%
Ranked 13th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
7.52e-10%
Ranked 15th.
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 130th.
0.0
Ranked 126th.

Natural gas rents > % of GDP 0.0451%
Ranked 63th.
0.238%
Ranked 45th. 5 times more than Italy

Water pollution > Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 49.2%
Ranked 8th. 7% more than United Kingdom
46.14%
Ranked 17th.

Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 10.34%
Ranked 31st.
13.54%
Ranked 11th. 31% more than Italy

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI 18.46%
Ranked 77th. 25% more than United Kingdom
14.8%
Ranked 97th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 2.05%
Ranked 68th. Twice as much as United Kingdom
1.02%
Ranked 97th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$ $884,179.96
Ranked 77th.
0.0
Ranked 155th.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP 84.41%
Ranked 77th.
88.86%
Ranked 29th. 5% more than Italy
Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP 85.43%
Ranked 60th.
85.86%
Ranked 54th. 1% more than Italy

Municipal waste treatment expenditure, % of GDP 8.82e-10%
Ranked 13th. 22% more than United Kingdom
7.24e-10%
Ranked 14th.
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 22
Ranked 5th. 6 times more than United Kingdom
3.54
Ranked 23th.

Water > Surface and Groundwater inflow per capita 141.05 cubic metres
Ranked 23th. 21% more than United Kingdom
116.99 cubic metres
Ranked 14th.

Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.17% of GNI
Ranked 115th. 6 times more than United Kingdom
0.03% of GNI
Ranked 151st.

Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 16.61%
Ranked 11th.
48.03%
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Italy

Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters 4.63%
Ranked 67th.
18.21%
Ranked 28th. 4 times more than Italy

Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 3.55%
Ranked 27th. 32% more than United Kingdom
2.7%
Ranked 38th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion 38.66%
Ranked 66th.
44.4%
Ranked 50th. 15% more than Italy

Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.17% of GNI
Ranked 143th.
0.18% of GNI
Ranked 141st. 6% more than Italy

Water pollution > Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 10.47%
Ranked 30th.
13.54%
Ranked 12th. 29% more than Italy

Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 14.97%
Ranked 11th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
5.24%
Ranked 26th.

SOURCES: The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Living Planet Report 2000, Gland, Switzerland: 2000, and Redefining Progress.; FAOSTAT on-line database; OECD Environmental Data Compendium: 2002; pollution; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; traffic; International Energy Agency. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Development Indicators database; OECD Environmental Data Compendium: 2002. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, ""Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited"" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; FAOSTAT on-line database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGap 2.1, 2000 via ciesin.org; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wikipedia: List of national parks (Africa); Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Data Version 1.1, B1Illustrative Marker Scenario with model IMAGE; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase database, www.fishbase.org.; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. version (07/2008). Accessed: 28 September 2008.; Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited; Wikipedia: Climate change opinion by country; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environmental Monitoring System/Water Quality Monitoring System, with data for an additional 29 countries from Prescott-Allen,R. The Well being of Nations, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGAP 2.1B, 2001 via ciesin.org; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2003; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, ""Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility"" (2006).; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=ENV&f=variableID%3a5, Freshwater internal flow. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=ENV&f=variableID%3a5, Freshwater internal flow; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Jacaranda Atlas; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).; U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual, 2002, and International Energy Outlook, 2001; Food and Agriculture Organisation, AQUASTAT data.; Stockholm Environment Institute at York, Acidification in Developing Countries: Ecosystem Sensitivity and the Critical Loads Approach at the Global scale, 2000 via ciesin.org; World Resources Institute.; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=ENV&f=variableID%3a29, Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department; World Resources Institute; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Report on National Reports Required Under Article VIII, Paragraph 7(a), of the Convention, Eleventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Gigiri, Kenya, April 2000; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France, OECD Environmental Data Compendium; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; http://www.blueflag.org/Menu/Blue+Flag+beaches%2fmarinas. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: Commitment to Development Index (Commitment to Development Index) (http://www.cgdev.org/doc/CDI%202012/CDI%20Postcard_2012.pdf); OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2003. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2002. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual, 2002, and International Energy Outlook, 2001. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency (IEA Statistics \xA9 OECD/IEA, http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp).; Wild Areas Project (WAP), joint Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and CIESIN project to map the lastwild places on the earth's surface. via ciesin.org; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wikipedia: Table of World Heritage Sites by country (Table of World Heritage Sites); OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2002; World Bank and UNIDO's industry database.; http://www.blueflag.org/Menu/Blue+Flag+beaches%2fmarinas; Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication; 2000 IUCN Red List, and World Resources Institute,World Resources 2000-2001, Washington, DC: WRI, 2000. Original sources: World Conservation Monitoring Center, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other sources.; World Resources Institute, World Resources 1998-99; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2000; WHO,Air Management Information System-AMIS 2.0, 1998; and Global Urban Observatory, Citibase, 1999. via ciesin.org; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Statistics Division's National Accounts Statistics.; Assessment of the Country Allocation of the Dow Jones Sustainability Group Index, SAM SustainabilityGroup via ciesin.org; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=ENV&f=variableID%3a8, Inflow of surface and groundwaters; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank staff estimates. The conceptual underpinnings of the savings measure appear in Hamilton and Clemens' ""Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries"" (1999).; Michael E. Porter et al, The Global Competitveness Report 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. via ciesin.org; Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. ""Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS),"" World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).; World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2001. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001. via ciesin.org; Wild Areas Project (WAP), joint Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and CIESIN project to map the last wild places on the earth's surface. Accessed via ciesin.org; World Bank staff estimates based on sources and methods in Arundhati Kunte and others' ""Estimating National Wealth: Methodology and Results"" (1998).; OECD Environmental Indicators, p. 104. See also Myriam Linster and Frederique Zegel, 'Pollution Abatement and Control in OECD Countries', OECD Working Group on Environmental Information and Outlooks at www.oecd.org; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute; Wikipedia: List of parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (List of parties) (Parties & Observers , UNFCCC, 1 June 2011); Wikipedia: List of parties to the Kyoto Protocol (Parties); http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=ENV&f=variableID%3a29, Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environmental Monitoring System/Water Quality Monitoring System, with data for an additional 29 countries from Prescott-Allen, R. The Well being of Nations, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; Kiran D. Pandey and others' ""The Human Costs of Air Pollution: New Estimates for Developing Countries"" (2006).; World Bank staff estimates based on Samuel Fankhauser's ""Valuing Climate Change: The Economics of the Greenhouse"" (1995).; World Bank staff estimates.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2003. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; World Bank national accounts data files.; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2002. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=ENV&f=variableID%3a8, Inflow of surface and groundwaters. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.