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Education Stats: compare key data on European Union & United States

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Definitions

  • Primary education, duration > Years: Primary education, duration (years). Duration of primary is the number of grades (years) in primary education.
  • Primary education, pupils: Primary education, pupils. Enrolment in primary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in public and private primary education institutions.
  • Primary education, teachers: Primary education, teachers. Teaching staff in primary. Public and private. Full and part-time. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private primary education institutions. Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions.
  • Primary education, teachers per 1000: Primary education, teachers. Teaching staff in primary. Public and private. Full and part-time. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private primary education institutions. Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Pupil-teacher ratio, primary: Pupil-teacher ratio, primary. Pupil-teacher ratio. Primary is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers.
  • Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary: Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary. Pupil-teacher ratio. Secondary is the number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers.
  • Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary per million: Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary. Pupil-teacher ratio. Secondary is the number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Secondary education, duration > Years: Secondary education, duration (years). Duration of secondary education is the number of grades (years) in secondary education (ISCED 2 & 3).
  • Secondary education, general pupils: Secondary education, general pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. General programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in general programmes at public and private secondary education institutions.
  • Secondary education, pupils: Secondary education, pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled at public and private secondary education institutions.
  • Secondary education, teachers: Secondary education, teachers. Teaching staff in total secondary. Public and private. Full and part-time. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private secondary education institutions (ISCED 2 and 3). Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions.
  • Secondary education, teachers per 1000: Secondary education, teachers. Teaching staff in total secondary. Public and private. Full and part-time. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private secondary education institutions (ISCED 2 and 3). Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Spending > Proportion: Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment. Expressed as a proportion of GNI."
  • Spending per student > College and university: Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
  • Spending per student > High school: Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
  • Spending per student > Elementary school: Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
  • Elementary school graduate rate: Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
  • Secondary education, pupils per 1000: Secondary education, pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled at public and private secondary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Primary education, pupils per 1000: Primary education, pupils. Enrolment in primary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in public and private primary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Outcomes > Secondary education > Duration > Years: Secondary education, duration (years) is the number of grades (years) in secondary school."
  • Teacher student ratio > High school: Secondary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).
  • Teacher student ratio > Elementary school: Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).
  • Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Services, etc., value added (constant 2000 US$). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • School enrolment rate > 1st grade: Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age."
  • Secondary education, general pupils per 1000: Secondary education, general pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. General programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in general programmes at public and private secondary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Secondary education, vocational pupils: Secondary education, vocational pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. Technical/vocational programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in technical/vocational programmes at public and private secondary education institutions.
  • Participation > Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education: Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary and secondary levels in public and private schools.
  • Elementary school repeaters > All: Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school."
  • Outcomes > Primary education > Duration > Years: Primary duration refers to the number of years of full-time equivalent duration in primary education in the school system according to ISCED.
  • Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$: Services, etc., value added (constant 2000 US$). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Elementary school repeaters > Male: Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school."
  • Elementary school repeaters > Female: Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school."
  • Elementary school teachers > % female: Female teachers as a percentage of total primary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers.
  • Participation > Secondary education > Vocational pupils > % female: Secondary vocational pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in technical and vocational education programs, including teacher training."
  • Preschool enrollment rate > Female: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment."
  • Preschool enrollment rate > Male: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment."
  • School enrolment rate > 1st grade > Female: Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age."
  • School enrolment rate > 1st grade > Male: Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age."
  • Public spending on education, total > % of government expenditure: Public spending on education, total (% of government expenditure). Public expenditure on education as % of total government expenditure is the total public education expenditure (current and capital) expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure for all sectors in a given financial year. Public education expenditure includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration, and subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).
  • Unemployment with primary education, male > % of male unemployment: Unemployment with primary education, male (% of male unemployment). Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO).
  • Labor force with tertiary education, male > % of male labor force: Labor force with tertiary education, male (% of male labor force). Labor force with tertiary education is the proportion of labor force that has a tertiary education, as a percentage of the total labor force.
  • Unemployment with tertiary education, female > % of female unemployment: Unemployment with tertiary education, female (% of female unemployment). Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO).
  • Unemployment with tertiary education, male > % of male unemployment: Unemployment with tertiary education, male (% of male unemployment). Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO).
  • Government spending on education > % of GDP: Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
  • Government spending on education > % of government spending: Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
  • School enrollment, primary, private > % of total primary: School enrollment, primary, private (% of total primary). Percentage of private enrolment. Primary is the enrolment in private primary schools expressed as a percentage of total enrolment (public and private) in primary schools. 'Private' refers to all educational institutions not operated by a public authority, regardless of whether they receive financial support from public authorities. A high percentage indicates strong involvement of the non-governmental sector (including religious bodies, other organizations, associations, communities, private enterprises or persons) in providing organized educational programmes.
  • Primary education, pupils > % female: Primary education, pupils (% female). Percentage of female students. Primary is the number of female students at the primary level expressed as a percentage of the total number of students (male and female) at the primary level in a given school year.
  • School enrollment, primary, female > % gross: School enrollment, primary, female (% gross). Gross enrolment ratio. Primary. Female is the total female enrollment in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the female population of official primary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition.
  • Primary completion rate, total > % of relevant age group: Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group). Primary completion rate. Total is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as percentage of the total population of the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. This indicator is also known as "gross intake rate to the last grade of primary." The ratio can exceed 100% due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades.
  • Gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education, female > % of relevant age group: Gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education, female (% of relevant age group). Gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age.
  • Secondary education, general pupils > % female: Secondary education, general pupils (% female). Percentage of female students. Total secondary. General programmes is the number of female students enrolled in general programmes at the secondary education level expressed as a percentage of the total number of students (male and female) enrolled in general programmes at the secondary education level in a given school year.
  • Total enrollment, primary, male > % net: Total enrollment, primary, male (% net). Adjusted net enrollment is the number of pupils of the school-age group for primary education, enrolled either in primary or secondary education, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group.
  • Secondary education, vocational pupils per 1000: Secondary education, vocational pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. Technical/vocational programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in technical/vocational programmes at public and private secondary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Secondary education, teachers, female per 1000: Secondary education, teachers, female. Teaching staff in total secondary. Public and private. Full and part-time. All programmes. Female is the total number of female teachers in public and private secondary education institutions (ISCED 2 and 3). Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Participation > School enrollment > Preprimary > % gross: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment."
  • Participation > School enrollment > Primary > Private > % of total primary: Private enrollment refers to pupils or students enrolled in institutions that are not operated by a public authority but controlled and managed, whether for profit or not, by a private body such as a nongovernmental organisation, religious body, special interest group, foundation or business enterprise."
  • Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment > %: Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment (%). Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment is the percentage of men to women enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools.
  • Persistence to last grade of primary, total > % of cohort: Persistence to last grade of primary, total (% of cohort). Survival rate to last grade of primary. Total is the share of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary. The estimate is calculated on the basis of the reconstructed cohort method, which uses data on enrolment and repeaters for two consecutive years.
  • School enrollment, primary, female > % net: School enrollment, primary, female (% net). Net enrolment rate. Primary. Female is the ratio of female children of the official primary school age who are enrolled in primary school to the female population of the official primary school age.
  • Persistence to last grade of primary, male > % of cohort: Persistence to last grade of primary, male (% of cohort). Survival rate to last grade of primary. Male is the share of male children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary. The estimate is calculated on the basis of the reconstructed cohort method, which uses data on enrolment and repeaters for two consecutive years.
  • School enrollment, tertiary, male > % gross: School enrollment, tertiary, male (% gross). Gross enrolment ratio. Tertiary (ISCED 5 and 6). Male is the total male enrollment in tertiary education (ISCED 5 and 6), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total male population of the five-year age group following on from secondary school leaving.
STAT European Union United States HISTORY
Primary education, duration > Years 6
Ranked 70th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 53th.

Primary education, pupils 27.79 million
Ranked 4th. 14% more than United States
24.43 million
Ranked 5th.

Primary education, teachers 2.11 million
Ranked 3rd. 23% more than United States
1.71 million
Ranked 5th.

Primary education, teachers per 1000 4.16
Ranked 78th.
5.49
Ranked 49th. 32% more than European Union

Pupil-teacher ratio, primary 13.16
Ranked 104th.
14.29
Ranked 98th. 9% more than European Union

Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary 11.29
Ranked 73th.
14.49
Ranked 56th. 28% more than European Union

Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary per million 0.0222
Ranked 97th.
0.0465
Ranked 96th. 2 times more than European Union

Secondary education, duration > Years 6.5
Ranked 84th. 8% more than United States
6
Ranked 102nd.

Secondary education, general pupils 31.24 million
Ranked 2nd. 29% more than United States
24.21 million
Ranked 3rd.

Secondary education, pupils 41.54 million
Ranked 3rd. 72% more than United States
24.21 million
Ranked 4th.

Secondary education, teachers 3.68 million
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than United States
1.67 million
Ranked 4th.

Secondary education, teachers per 1000 7.24
Ranked 34th. 35% more than United States
5.36
Ranked 56th.

Spending > Proportion 4.78
Ranked 56th.
4.79
Ranked 54th. About the same as European Union

Spending per student > College and university 23.54
Ranked 33th. 7% more than United States
22.04
Ranked 37th.

Spending per student > High school 24.15
Ranked 20th.
24.56
Ranked 18th. 2% more than European Union

Spending per student > Elementary school 20.79
Ranked 21st.
22.35
Ranked 18th. 8% more than European Union

Elementary school graduate rate 98.34
Ranked 26th. 3% more than United States
95.34
Ranked 40th.

Secondary education, pupils per 1000 81.81
Ranked 69th. 5% more than United States
77.71
Ranked 76th.

Primary education, pupils per 1000 54.72
Ranked 129th.
78.41
Ranked 97th. 43% more than European Union

Outcomes > Secondary education > Duration > Years 7
Ranked 47th. 17% more than United States
6
Ranked 86th.

Teacher student ratio > High school 11.86
Ranked 85th.
14.38
Ranked 51st. 21% more than European Union

Teacher student ratio > Elementary school 15.29
Ranked 97th. 12% more than United States
13.69
Ranked 102nd.

Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $18,918.65
Ranked 19th.
$33,005.49
Ranked 3rd. 74% more than European Union

School enrolment rate > 1st grade 102.99
Ranked 71st.
105.99
Ranked 46th. 3% more than European Union

Secondary education, general pupils per 1000 61.52
Ranked 90th.
77.71
Ranked 47th. 26% more than European Union

Secondary education, vocational pupils 10.3 million
Ranked 2nd.
0.0
Ranked 96th.

Participation > Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education 100.64%
Ranked 40th. 1% more than United States
100.09%
Ranked 51st.

Elementary school repeaters > All 0.91
Ranked 101st.
0.0
Ranked 116th.

Outcomes > Primary education > Duration > Years 6
Ranked 63th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 49th.

Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$ $9.56 trillion
Ranked 2nd.
$10.28 trillion
Ranked 1st. 8% more than European Union

Elementary school repeaters > Male 1.06
Ranked 101st.
0.0
Ranked 113th.

Elementary school repeaters > Female 0.75
Ranked 102nd.
0.0
Ranked 112th.

Elementary school teachers > % female 82.86%
Ranked 44th.
85.64%
Ranked 32nd. 3% more than European Union

Participation > Secondary education > Vocational pupils > % female 44.01%
Ranked 40th.
0.0
Ranked 111th.

Preschool enrollment rate > Female 100.95
Ranked 15th. 75% more than United States
57.63
Ranked 64th.

Preschool enrollment rate > Male 101.37
Ranked 12th. 75% more than United States
57.98
Ranked 63th.

School enrolment rate > 1st grade > Female 103.19
Ranked 63th.
108.63
Ranked 38th. 5% more than European Union

School enrolment rate > 1st grade > Male 104.01
Ranked 70th. 1% more than United States
103.49
Ranked 59th.

Public spending on education, total > % of government expenditure 11.33%
Ranked 72nd.
13.07%
Ranked 60th. 15% more than European Union

Unemployment with primary education, male > % of male unemployment 41.6%
Ranked 30th. 2 times more than United States
20.2%
Ranked 66th.

Labor force with tertiary education, male > % of male labor force 26.78%
Ranked 18th.
35%
Ranked 4th. 31% more than European Union

Unemployment with tertiary education, female > % of female unemployment 16.14%
Ranked 59th.
51.9%
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than European Union

Unemployment with tertiary education, male > % of male unemployment 11.9%
Ranked 56th.
42.2%
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than European Union

Government spending on education > % of GDP 4.94%
Ranked 35th.
5.62%
Ranked 39th. 14% more than European Union

Government spending on education > % of government spending 11.78%
Ranked 54th.
14.13%
Ranked 35th. 20% more than European Union

School enrollment, primary, private > % of total primary 13.61%
Ranked 56th. 56% more than United States
8.72%
Ranked 78th.

Primary education, pupils > % female 48.57%
Ranked 73th.
49.01%
Ranked 26th. 1% more than European Union

School enrollment, primary, female > % gross 103.49%
Ranked 67th. 5% more than United States
98.97%
Ranked 97th.

Primary completion rate, total > % of relevant age group 98%
Ranked 47th. About the same as United States
97.83%
Ranked 54th.

Gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education, female > % of relevant age group 98.13%
Ranked 88th.
99.82%
Ranked 86th. 2% more than European Union

Secondary education, general pupils > % female 50.56%
Ranked 46th. 3% more than United States
48.86%
Ranked 96th.

Total enrollment, primary, male > % net 98.53%
Ranked 17th. 7% more than United States
92.27%
Ranked 66th.

Secondary education, vocational pupils per 1000 20.29
Ranked 29th.
0.0
Ranked 96th.

Secondary education, teachers, female per 1000 4.52
Ranked 31st. 38% more than United States
3.28
Ranked 51st.

Participation > School enrollment > Preprimary > % gross 101.16%
Ranked 15th. 75% more than United States
57.81%
Ranked 64th.

Participation > School enrollment > Primary > Private > % of total primary 11.98%
Ranked 48th. 24% more than United States
9.68%
Ranked 58th.

Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment > % 126.27%
Ranked 51st.
138.98%
Ranked 35th. 10% more than European Union

Persistence to last grade of primary, total > % of cohort 95.73%
Ranked 36th. 3% more than United States
93.08%
Ranked 58th.

School enrollment, primary, female > % net 97.56%
Ranked 19th. 5% more than United States
92.48%
Ranked 52nd.

Persistence to last grade of primary, male > % of cohort 95.72%
Ranked 35th.
98.33%
Ranked 21st. 3% more than European Union

School enrollment, tertiary, male > % gross 55.87%
Ranked 27th.
80.1%
Ranked 3rd. 43% more than European Union

SOURCES: UNESCO Institute for Statistics; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Statistics Division's Statistical Yearbook, and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics online database.; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.; World Bank national accounts data. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data; International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.

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