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Environment Stats: compare key data on European Union & United States

Definitions

  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of all greenhouse gas emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total greenhouse gas emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of greenhouse gases emitted. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.
  • Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent: Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates.
  • Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter). Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of sulphur hexafluoride emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total SF6 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of SF6 emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since SF6 has a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of sulphur hexafluoride emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total SF6 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of SF6 emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since SF6 has a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of methane emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total methane emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the amount of methane emitted, which is 21 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of methane emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total methane emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the amount of methane emitted, which is 21 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride."
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of nitrous oxide emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total NO2 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of NO2 emitted, which is 310 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations."
  • Total natural resources rents > % of GDP: Total natural resources rents (% of GDP). Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions over a 100 year period. These numbers do not represent total HFCs emissions over 100 years, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of HFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year timeframe is used since HFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters: Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters). Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of perfluorocarbons emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total PFCs emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of PFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since PFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of all greenhouse gas emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total greenhouse gas emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of greenhouse gases emitted. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of nitrous oxide emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total NO2 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of NO2 emitted, which is 310 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of perfluorocarbons emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total PFCs emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of PFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since PFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions over a 100 year period. These numbers do not represent total HFCs emissions over 100 years, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of HFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year timeframe is used since HFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Oil rents > % of GDP: Oil rents (% of GDP). Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total: Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels."
  • Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total: Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use: Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total: Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • International agreements > Signed but not ratified: The various international environmental agreements which a country has signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date: Signature.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Natural gas rents > % of GDP: Natural gas rents (% of GDP). Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers."
STAT European Union United States HISTORY
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $12.44 trillion
Ranked 1st. 12% more than United States
$11.13 trillion
Ranked 2nd.
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $24,499.03
Ranked 4th.
$37,678.22
Ranked 6th. 54% more than European Union
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $15.12 trillion
Ranked 1st. 17% more than United States
$12.91 trillion
Ranked 2nd.

Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $29,774.06
Ranked 22nd.
$41,448.39
Ranked 10th. 39% more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.26
Ranked 154th.
$0.40
Ranked 107th. 56% more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 3.71 million
Ranked 3rd.
5.43 million
Ranked 2nd. 46% more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 7.32
Ranked 45th.
17.56
Ranked 10th. 2 times more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 7.32
Ranked 45th.
17.56
Ranked 10th. 2 times more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons 1,495.27
Ranked 3rd.
2,478.03
Ranked 2nd. 66% more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million 2.94
Ranked 42nd.
7.95
Ranked 10th. 3 times more than European Union

Current issues NA air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.40
Ranked 135th.
$0.51
Ranked 109th. 27% more than European Union

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt 3.98 million
Ranked 3rd.
5.83 million
Ranked 2nd. 46% more than European Union

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 8.05
Ranked 43th.
19.34
Ranked 10th. 2 times more than European Union

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 4.72 million
Ranked 2nd.
6.8 million
Ranked 1st. 44% more than European Union

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters 1,445.36
Ranked 9th.
2,800
Ranked 6th. 94% more than European Union

Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent 410,900
Ranked 6th.
810,280
Ranked 2nd. 97% more than European Union

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters 2,908.95
Ranked 83th.
9,199.18
Ranked 55th. 3 times more than European Union

Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 18.36
Ranked 133th. 3% more than United States
17.78
Ranked 140th.

Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number 53,013
Ranked 1st. 8 times more than United States
6,770
Ranked 5th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 71.63
Ranked 2nd. 66% more than United States
43.12
Ranked 3rd.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 12.85
Ranked 11th.
45.38
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than European Union

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 6,511.35
Ranked 2nd.
14,037.64
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than European Union

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people 0.791
Ranked 28th.
2.14
Ranked 6th. 3 times more than European Union

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 400,699.4
Ranked 3rd.
661,699
Ranked 1st. 65% more than European Union

Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 449,620
Ranked 3rd.
456,210
Ranked 2nd. 1% more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 547.55
Ranked 1st. 3% more than United States
530.05
Ranked 2nd.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters 274.59
Ranked 4th.
479.29
Ranked 3rd. 75% more than European Union
Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 2.14
Ranked 31st.
6.29
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 2.96
Ranked 55th.
6.97
Ranked 13th. 2 times more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt 1.02 million
Ranked 2nd.
1.29 million
Ranked 1st. 27% more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 2.01
Ranked 35th.
4.17
Ranked 16th. 2 times more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt 1.09 million
Ranked 4th.
1.95 million
Ranked 2nd. 79% more than European Union

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million 245.22
Ranked 33th.
1,126.51
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than European Union

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number 976
Ranked 1st. 24% more than United States
787
Ranked 2nd.
Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 163,100
Ranked 1st. 50% more than United States
108,420
Ranked 3rd.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 660.1
Ranked 23th.
971.54
Ranked 10th. 47% more than European Union

Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 22.43
Ranked 126th. 5% more than United States
21.34
Ranked 131st.

Total natural resources rents > % of GDP 0.0
Ranked 1st.
1.73%
Ranked 104th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 166.71
Ranked 14th.
397.53
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than European Union

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI 0.66%
Ranked 65th.
1.93%
Ranked 52nd. 3 times more than European Union

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.18%
Ranked 128th.
0.31%
Ranked 80th. 72% more than European Union

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI 13.82%
Ranked 27th.
13.96%
Ranked 18th. 1% more than European Union

Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters 13.58%
Ranked 38th. 7 times more than United States
2%
Ranked 95th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 6.67
Ranked 17th.
18.3
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion 41.96%
Ranked 56th.
46.87%
Ranked 45th. 12% more than European Union

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 124,256
Ranked 3rd.
348,460
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total 29.28%
Ranked 41st.
35.82%
Ranked 33th. 22% more than European Union

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people 9.32
Ranked 24th.
21.99
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than European Union

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 334,475.47
Ranked 1st. 11% more than United States
300,522.75
Ranked 2nd.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total 40.38%
Ranked 150th. 2% more than United States
39.68%
Ranked 152nd.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal 34.82%
Ranked 109th.
41.26%
Ranked 107th. 18% more than European Union

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 3,379.59
Ranked 3rd.
5,660.73
Ranked 1st. 67% more than European Union

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 84,475.72
Ranked 2nd.
122,967.12
Ranked 1st. 46% more than European Union

Oil rents > % of GDP 0.307%
Ranked 60th.
0.933%
Ranked 53th. 3 times more than European Union

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area 0.96%
Ranked 80th.
67.57%
Ranked 3rd. 70 times more than European Union
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area 16.45%
Ranked 64th.
27.08%
Ranked 26th. 65% more than European Union
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal 50.84%
Ranked 18th. 10% more than United States
46.05%
Ranked 20th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal 14.34%
Ranked 74th. 13% more than United States
12.7%
Ranked 83th.

Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total 34.51%
Ranked 44th.
56.37%
Ranked 20th. 63% more than European Union

Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total 40.06%
Ranked 68th. 2 times more than United States
18.38%
Ranked 102nd.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.06%
Ranked 117th.
0.14%
Ranked 86th. 2 times more than European Union

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP 70.49%
Ranked 12th.
88.62%
Ranked 31st. 26% more than European Union
Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP 85.67%
Ranked 57th.
86.15%
Ranked 49th. 1% more than European Union

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI 8.08%
Ranked 60th. 9 times more than United States
0.93%
Ranked 90th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt 1.5 million
Ranked 2nd.
2.16 million
Ranked 1st. 44% more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 15.37%
Ranked 22nd. 53% more than United States
10.03%
Ranked 47th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI 8.14%
Ranked 63th. 8 times more than United States
1.07%
Ranked 91st.

Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use 2.26
Ranked 68th.
2.49
Ranked 52nd. 10% more than European Union

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total 27.41%
Ranked 48th. 16% more than United States
23.72%
Ranked 58th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.01%
Ranked 58th.
0.0
Ranked 87th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million 1.08
Ranked 18th.
1.7
Ranked 6th. 58% more than European Union

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI 4.23%
Ranked 95th.
-1.36%
Ranked 115th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP $0.26
Ranked 88th.
$0.42
Ranked 44th. 62% more than European Union

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP $0.28
Ranked 87th.
$0.44
Ranked 44th. 57% more than European Union

Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total 72.38%
Ranked 96th.
74.74%
Ranked 90th. 3% more than European Union

International agreements > Signed but not ratified Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources 19.6%
Ranked 56th. 14% more than United States
17.12%
Ranked 61st.
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date June 13, 1992 June 12, 1992
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 2.01%
Ranked 70th. 2 times more than United States
0.816%
Ranked 102nd.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI 0.03%
Ranked 64th.
0.11%
Ranked 53th. 4 times more than European Union

Natural gas rents > % of GDP 0.126%
Ranked 51st. 21 times more than United States
0.00603%
Ranked 78th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI 18.05%
Ranked 80th. 43% more than United States
12.6%
Ranked 108th.

SOURCES: The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency; International Energy Agency. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; Food and Agriculture Organisation, AQUASTAT data.; World Resources Institute.; World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; International Energy Agency (IEA Statistics \xA9 OECD/IEA, http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp).; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. ""Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS),"" World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank staff estimates based on sources and methods in Arundhati Kunte and others' ""Estimating National Wealth: Methodology and Results"" (1998).; World Bank staff estimates based on Samuel Fankhauser's ""Valuing Climate Change: The Economics of the Greenhouse"" (1995).; World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Statistics Division's National Accounts Statistics.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; Kiran D. Pandey and others' ""The Human Costs of Air Pollution: New Estimates for Developing Countries"" (2006).; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; World Bank staff estimates. The conceptual underpinnings of the savings measure appear in Hamilton and Clemens' ""Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries"" (1999).; World Bank staff estimates.; Wikipedia: List of parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (List of parties) (Parties & Observers , UNFCCC, 1 June 2011); World Bank national accounts data files.

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