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Environment Stats: compare key data on Malaysia & Singapore

Definitions

  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • CO2 Emissions per 1000: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Pollution perceptions > Air pollution: Air Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Air quality: Air quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean water: Water Quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution: Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution: Noise and Light Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Water pollution: Water Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Proportion of land area under protection: Terrestrial areas protected to total surface area, percentage.
  • Transport CO2 emission index: CO2 Emission Index is an estimation of CO2 consumption due to traffic time. Measurement unit is grams for the return trip. To calculate an average estimation of emission in grams for one way commute to work, divide this value with 2.
  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Endangered species > Mammal species > Number: Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened: Mammal species, threatened. Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality: Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Pollution perceptions > Pollution index: Pollution Index is an estimation of the overall pollution in the city. The biggest weight is given to air pollution, than to water pollution/accessibility, two main pollution factors. Small weight is given to other pollution types.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, total.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened: Bird species, threatened. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Endangered species > Bird species: Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Waste > Hazardous waste created: Annual generation of hazardous waste (as defined by the Basel Convention).
  • Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened: Fish species, threatened. Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Endangered species > Fish species > Number: Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity: Percentage of population who responded yes when asked if they believed global warming was a result of human activities. In this survey, global warming refers to the current rise in earth's temperature and not climate change as a whole.
  • Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number: Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, total.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities: Clean and Tidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened: Plant species (higher), threatened. Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Biodiversity > Number: GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential)."
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness: Percentage of each country's population who claimed knowing "something" or a "great deal" about climate change when asked: "How much do you know about global warming or climate change?"
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution: Comfortable to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Waste > Hazardous waste created per thousand people: Annual generation of hazardous waste (as defined by the Basel Convention). Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential).
  • Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities: Dirty and Untidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution: Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.
  • Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent: Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production.
  • Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry per capita: Water supplied annually, where losses during transportation have been subtracted. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates.
  • Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter). Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Proportion of land and marine area under protection: Terrestrial and marine areas protected to total territorial area, percentage.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution: Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, urban.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction: Garbage Disposal Satisfaction. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat: Percentage of country's population that perceives climate change as a threat. Results are from a 2008 Gallop Poll.
  • Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management."
  • Forest area > Sq. km per 1000: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Threatened species > Mammal: Number of threatened mammal species (1997)
  • Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry to households per capita: Water supplied annually to households, where losses during transportation have been subtracted. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Water > Population supplied by water supply industry: Total population supplied by water supply industry.
  • Known mammal species: Known mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day per worker). Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2).
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, urban.
  • Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Water > Proportion of marine area under protection: Marine areas protected to territorial waters, percentage.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2). Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations."
  • Known mammal species per million: Known mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Areas under protection per million: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Areas under protection: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction: Quality of Green and Parks. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry to households: Water supplied annually to households, where losses during transportation have been subtracted.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, wood industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Total natural resources rents > % of GDP: Total natural resources rents (% of GDP). Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
  • Known breeding bird species per million: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date: Signature.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total: Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total: Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use: Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers."
  • Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters: Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters). Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Known breeding bird species: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total: Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, clay and glass industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, textile industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Adjusted net national income > Annual % growth: Adjusted net national income (annual % growth). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry: Water supplied annually, where losses during transportation have been subtracted.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Forest area > % of land area: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • CO2 Emissions: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a countryÂ’s technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, food industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, other industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, paper and pulp industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • International agreements > Signed but not ratified: The various international environmental agreements which a country has signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, chemical industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, metal industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
STAT Malaysia Singapore HISTORY
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $153.91 billion
Ranked 15th. 16% more than Singapore
$132.90 billion
Ranked 17th.

CO2 Emissions per 1000 4.97
Ranked 53th.
14.86
Ranked 9th. 3 times more than Malaysia
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons 110.44
Ranked 22nd. 4 times more than Singapore
29.24
Ranked 49th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million 3.84
Ranked 32nd.
5.64
Ranked 17th. 47% more than Malaysia

Current issues air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita 8.24 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 55th. 1648 times more than Singapore
0.005 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 193th.

Pollution perceptions > Air pollution 56.89
Ranked 33th. 45% more than Singapore
39.29
Ranked 41st.
Pollution perceptions > Air quality 43.11
Ranked 27th.
60.71
Ranked 19th. 41% more than Malaysia
Pollution perceptions > Clean water 45.69
Ranked 31st.
68.27
Ranked 12th. 49% more than Malaysia
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution 40.95
Ranked 30th. 2 times more than Singapore
20.19
Ranked 50th.
Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution 43.75
Ranked 39th.
58
Ranked 22nd. 33% more than Malaysia
Pollution perceptions > Water pollution 54.31
Ranked 29th. 71% more than Singapore
31.73
Ranked 48th.
Proportion of land area under protection 18.35%
Ranked 80th. 3 times more than Singapore
5.37%
Ranked 163th.

Transport CO2 emission index 7,651.93
Ranked 4th. 98% more than Singapore
3,872.55
Ranked 3rd.
Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 208,441.2
Ranked 14th. 6 times more than Singapore
35,301.48
Ranked 15th.

Endangered species > Mammal species > Number 70
Ranked 6th. 6 times more than Singapore
12
Ranked 67th.
Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened 71
Ranked 6th. 6 times more than Singapore
11
Ranked 76th.
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality 59.05
Ranked 30th.
79.81
Ranked 10th. 35% more than Malaysia
CO2 emissions > Kt 156,380.8 kt
Ranked 26th. 3 times more than Singapore
47,794.82 kt
Ranked 57th.

Pollution perceptions > Pollution index 61.19
Ranked 34th. 54% more than Singapore
39.85
Ranked 44th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural 99.6
Ranked 47th.
100
Ranked 1st. About the same as Malaysia

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 7.32
Ranked 53th.
11.8
Ranked 21st. 61% more than Malaysia

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 7.67
Ranked 43th. 3 times more than Singapore
2.66
Ranked 98th.

Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened 45
Ranked 18th. 3 times more than Singapore
15
Ranked 66th.
CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 6.28 kt
Ranked 52nd.
11.62 kt
Ranked 18th. 85% more than Malaysia

Endangered species > Bird species 42
Ranked 16th. 3 times more than Singapore
14
Ranked 58th.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $5,351.69
Ranked 16th.
$25,637.43
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than Malaysia

Waste > Hazardous waste created 1.71 million tonnes
Ranked 5th. 5 times more than Singapore
356,000 tonnes
Ranked 8th.

Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened 71
Ranked 18th. 3 times more than Singapore
25
Ranked 82nd.
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 216,804.04
Ranked 26th. 16 times more than Singapore
13,520.23
Ranked 89th.

CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita 6.4 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 54th.
11.42 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 21st. 78% more than Malaysia

Endangered species > Fish species > Number 49
Ranked 18th. 2 times more than Singapore
22
Ranked 49th.
Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 208,312.4
Ranked 17th. 5 times more than Singapore
38,313.88
Ranked 14th.

Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction 49.11
Ranked 32nd. 65% more than Singapore
29.81
Ranked 43th.
Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity 63%
Ranked 43th. 43% more than Singapore
44%
Ranked 98th.
Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number 686
Ranked 2nd. 13 times more than Singapore
54
Ranked 40th.

Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption 485.8
Ranked 14th. 4 times more than Singapore
111.56
Ranked 34th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 7.67
Ranked 43th. 3 times more than Singapore
2.66
Ranked 98th.

Forest area > Sq. km 208,900 km²
Ranked 29th. 10445 times more than Singapore
20 km²
Ranked 187th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $1.21
Ranked 33th. 15 times more than Singapore
$0.08
Ranked 179th.

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural 95.66
Ranked 71st.
100
Ranked 1st. 5% more than Malaysia

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt 194,316.58
Ranked 24th. 4 times more than Singapore
54,146.59
Ranked 52nd.

Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities 53.51
Ranked 22nd.
77
Ranked 5th. 44% more than Malaysia
Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people 16.89
Ranked 16th.
21.52
Ranked 11th. 27% more than Malaysia

Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened 705
Ranked 2nd. 12 times more than Singapore
58
Ranked 47th.
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $7,959.57
Ranked 47th.
$38,730.66
Ranked 14th. 5 times more than Malaysia

Biodiversity > Number 13.86
Ranked 24th. 107 times more than Singapore
0.13
Ranked 176th.

Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $228.91 billion
Ranked 33th. 14% more than Singapore
$200.77 billion
Ranked 38th.

Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness 71%
Ranked 53th.
84%
Ranked 32nd. 18% more than Malaysia
Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution 42.53
Ranked 37th.
71.3
Ranked 16th. 68% more than Malaysia
Waste > Hazardous waste created per thousand people 61.36 tonnes
Ranked 5th.
71.38 tonnes
Ranked 4th. 16% more than Malaysia

Protected area 4.5%
Ranked 86th. 2% more than Singapore
4.4%
Ranked 88th.
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum 13.86
Ranked 24th. 108 times more than Singapore
0.128
Ranked 180th.

Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities 46.49
Ranked 38th. 2 times more than Singapore
23
Ranked 55th.
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $1.46
Ranked 34th. 4 times more than Singapore
$0.38
Ranked 141st.

Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution 56.25
Ranked 21st. 34% more than Singapore
42
Ranked 38th.
Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters 580
Ranked 16th. 967 times more than Singapore
0.6
Ranked 153th.

Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent 25,510
Ranked 42nd. 20 times more than Singapore
1,260
Ranked 118th.

Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry per capita 112.31 cubic metres
Ranked 7th.
112.66 cubic metres
Ranked 6th. About the same as Malaysia

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters 21,470.08
Ranked 34th. 173 times more than Singapore
123.98
Ranked 156th.

Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 17.91
Ranked 139th.
23.43
Ranked 109th. 31% more than Malaysia

Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number 684
Ranked 29th. 98 times more than Singapore
7
Ranked 162nd.
CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP 0.71 kg/PPP$
Ranked 28th. 51% more than Singapore
0.47 kg/PPP$
Ranked 48th.

Proportion of land and marine area under protection 13.93%
Ranked 91st. 4 times more than Singapore
3.39%
Ranked 164th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 2.73
Ranked 37th. 137 times more than Singapore
0.02
Ranked 112th.

Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution 57.47
Ranked 23th. Twice as much as Singapore
28.7
Ranked 44th.
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million 0.507
Ranked 78th. 19 times more than Singapore
0.0264
Ranked 180th.

Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban 100
Ranked 34th. The same as Singapore
100
Ranked 1st.

Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction 50.89
Ranked 28th.
70.19
Ranked 17th. 38% more than Malaysia
Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat 50%
Ranked 57th.
59%
Ranked 38th. 18% more than Malaysia
Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 9,920
Ranked 59th. 24% more than Singapore
7,970
Ranked 66th.

Forest area > Sq. km per 1000 8.08 km²
Ranked 56th. 1724 times more than Singapore
0.00469 km²
Ranked 188th.

Threatened species > Mammal 42
Ranked 12th. 7 times more than Singapore
6
Ranked 110th.
Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry to households per capita 72.86 cubic metres
Ranked 6th. 31% more than Singapore
55.7 cubic metres
Ranked 11th.

Water > Population supplied by water supply industry 92.91%
Ranked 14th.
100%
Ranked 1st. 8% more than Malaysia

Known mammal species 300
Ranked 17th. 4 times more than Singapore
85
Ranked 94th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 5.02
Ranked 50th. 14 times more than Singapore
0.36
Ranked 108th.

Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.123
Ranked 63th. 31% more than Singapore
0.0936
Ranked 32nd.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters 9.02
Ranked 47th. 47 times more than Singapore
0.19
Ranked 9th.
Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 33,748
Ranked 28th. 2 times more than Singapore
14,809
Ranked 48th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 2.17
Ranked 30th. 430 times more than Singapore
0.00506
Ranked 106th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 2.27
Ranked 28th.
3.25
Ranked 20th. 43% more than Malaysia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt 61,499.26
Ranked 20th. 2396 times more than Singapore
25.67
Ranked 107th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 2.5
Ranked 64th. 31% more than Singapore
1.91
Ranked 82nd.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt 64,300.85
Ranked 28th. 4 times more than Singapore
16,490.5
Ranked 51st.

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million 42.26
Ranked 63th.
649.24
Ranked 6th. 15 times more than Malaysia

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number 147
Ranked 8th. 49 times more than Singapore
3
Ranked 101st.
Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban 96.06
Ranked 81st.
100
Ranked 1st. 4% more than Malaysia

Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 530
Ranked 49th.
1,300
Ranked 33th. 2 times more than Malaysia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$ $25.49 billion
Ranked 37th. 2% more than Singapore
$24.96 billion
Ranked 38th.

Water > Proportion of marine area under protection 2.28%
Ranked 101st. 58% more than Singapore
1.44%
Ranked 116th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$ $35.08 billion
Ranked 26th.
$61.41 billion
Ranked 16th. 75% more than Malaysia

Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000 1.47
Ranked 59th.
3.74
Ranked 12th. 3 times more than Malaysia
Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 22.89
Ranked 123th.
40.87
Ranked 68th. 79% more than Malaysia

Known mammal species per million 12.29
Ranked 70th.
20.35
Ranked 47th. 66% more than Malaysia
Areas under protection per million 7.63
Ranked 49th. 6 times more than Singapore
1.22
Ranked 102nd.
Areas under protection 190
Ranked 32nd. 38 times more than Singapore
5
Ranked 129th.
Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction 44.3
Ranked 32nd. 44% more than Singapore
30.77
Ranked 46th.
Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions 33.74%
Ranked 41st. 33% more than Singapore
25.39%
Ranked 31st.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 2.59%
Ranked 117th. 5 times more than Singapore
0.556%
Ranked 127th.

Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 12.83%
Ranked 7th.
26.87%
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Malaysia

Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction 55.7
Ranked 28th.
69.23
Ranked 14th. 24% more than Malaysia
Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry to households 2.02 billion cubic metres
Ranked 3rd. 7 times more than Singapore
277.8 million cubic metres
Ranked 12th.

Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 7.84%
Ranked 7th. 17 times more than Singapore
0.463%
Ranked 27th.

Total natural resources rents > % of GDP 10.26%
Ranked 50th.
0.0
Ranked 165th.

Known breeding bird species per million 10.4
Ranked 99th.
34
Ranked 48th. 3 times more than Malaysia
Water pollution > Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 7.91%
Ranked 5th. 19 times more than Singapore
0.42%
Ranked 25th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI 19.2%
Ranked 29th.
34.7%
Ranked 5th. 81% more than Malaysia

Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.12 kg per day per worker
Ranked 51st. 20% more than Singapore
0.1 kg per day per worker
Ranked 33th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI 13.06%
Ranked 24th.
0.0
Ranked 92nd.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date June 9, 1993 June 13, 1992
Water pollution > Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 16.21%
Ranked 7th. 42% more than Singapore
11.42%
Ranked 10th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million 0.175
Ranked 75th. 3 times more than Singapore
0.0694
Ranked 102nd.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal 21.06%
Ranked 36th.
51%
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Malaysia
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal 16.85%
Ranked 63th.
45%
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Malaysia
Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total 57.23%
Ranked 19th. 2 times more than Singapore
26.98%
Ranked 51st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.01%
Ranked 60th.
0.0
Ranked 63th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 1.41%
Ranked 87th. 46 times more than Singapore
0.0309%
Ranked 113th.

Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.23%
Ranked 29th. 2 times more than Singapore
0.11%
Ranked 28th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$ $35.14 billion
Ranked 26th.
$62.55 billion
Ranked 17th. 78% more than Malaysia

Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total 22.3%
Ranked 98th. 5 times more than Singapore
4.76%
Ranked 118th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI 0.07%
Ranked 58th.
0.0
Ranked 72nd.

Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use 2.68
Ranked 32nd. 33% more than Singapore
2.02
Ranked 79th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI 38.42%
Ranked 22nd.
47%
Ranked 12th. 22% more than Malaysia

Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 7.75%
Ranked 20th. 5 times more than Singapore
1.43%
Ranked 23th.

Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 8.27%
Ranked 33th. 2 times more than Singapore
3.93%
Ranked 28th.

Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.9% of GNI
Ranked 34th. 2 times more than Singapore
0.37% of GNI
Ranked 83th.

Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters 2.03%
Ranked 76th. 40% more than Singapore
1.44%
Ranked 86th.

Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 14.89%
Ranked 25th.
24.59%
Ranked 5th. 65% more than Malaysia

Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.17% of GNI
Ranked 116th.
0.94% of GNI
Ranked 30th. 6 times more than Malaysia

Known breeding bird species 254
Ranked 36th. 79% more than Singapore
142
Ranked 117th.
Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP 79.5%
Ranked 104th.
81.94%
Ranked 92nd. 3% more than Malaysia

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP 53.45%
Ranked 49th.
54.24%
Ranked 42nd. 1% more than Malaysia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$ $142.27 million
Ranked 50th.
0.0
Ranked 87th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.03%
Ranked 136th.
0.64%
Ranked 22nd. 21 times more than Malaysia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$ $67.95 million
Ranked 62nd.
$1.14 billion
Ranked 18th. 17 times more than Malaysia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$ $49.16 billion
Ranked 24th.
$58.22 billion
Ranked 18th. 18% more than Malaysia

Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total 64.31%
Ranked 106th. 86 times more than Singapore
0.75%
Ranked 126th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP $0.57
Ranked 30th. 2 times more than Singapore
$0.24
Ranked 107th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP $0.54
Ranked 29th. 2 times more than Singapore
$0.22
Ranked 106th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI 26.91%
Ranked 22nd.
32.9%
Ranked 14th. 22% more than Malaysia

Water pollution > Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 5.19%
Ranked 37th.
5.79%
Ranked 13th. 12% more than Malaysia

Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 3.81%
Ranked 47th. 3 times more than Singapore
1.31%
Ranked 28th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal 62.08%
Ranked 84th. 16 times more than Singapore
4%
Ranked 11th.
Water pollution > Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 6.8%
Ranked 33th. 3 times more than Singapore
2.39%
Ranked 28th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total 32.63%
Ranked 160th.
38.39%
Ranked 153th. 18% more than Malaysia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total 29.66%
Ranked 39th.
121.97%
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than Malaysia

Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 6.62%
Ranked 43th. 3 times more than Singapore
2.27%
Ranked 31st.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total 28.37%
Ranked 42nd. 149 times more than Singapore
0.19%
Ranked 110th.

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 1,195
Ranked 49th.
3,296
Ranked 23th. 3 times more than Malaysia

Adjusted net national income > Annual % growth 6.5%
Ranked 21st. 2 times more than Singapore
2.66%
Ranked 52nd.

Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry 3.12 billion cubic metres
Ranked 4th. 6 times more than Singapore
561.9 million cubic metres
Ranked 10th.

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area 4.62%
Ranked 37th. 6 times more than Singapore
0.81%
Ranked 81st.
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area 20.3%
Ranked 47th. 4 times more than Singapore
5.17%
Ranked 136th.
Forest area > % of land area 63.58% of land area
Ranked 19th. 22 times more than Singapore
2.9% of land area
Ranked 172nd.

CO2 Emissions 123,603
Ranked 30th. 2 times more than Singapore
61,139.3
Ranked 43th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt 70,736.43
Ranked 25th. 7 times more than Singapore
9,508.53
Ranked 81st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$ $26.42 million
Ranked 48th.
0.0
Ranked 68th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI 19.23%
Ranked 31st.
35.34%
Ranked 5th. 84% more than Malaysia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$ $28.00 billion
Ranked 23th.
0.0
Ranked 99th.

Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.13
Ranked 51st. 44% more than Singapore
0.09
Ranked 31st.

PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 28.94 mcg/m³
Ranked 122nd.
44.41 mcg/m³
Ranked 78th. 53% more than Malaysia

Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions 9.09%
Ranked 56th. 71% more than Singapore
5.31%
Ranked 31st.

Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions 48.54%
Ranked 13th.
72.74%
Ranked 1st. 50% more than Malaysia

Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 4.87%
Ranked 38th.
5.48%
Ranked 12th. 12% more than Malaysia

Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 6.79%
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than Singapore
1.64%
Ranked 24th.

Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 15.51%
Ranked 7th.
16.03%
Ranked 3rd. 3% more than Malaysia

International agreements > Signed but not ratified none of the selected agreements none of the selected agreements
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.73%
Ranked 27th. 3 times more than Singapore
0.27%
Ranked 96th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI 11.89%
Ranked 60th.
14.1%
Ranked 12th. 19% more than Malaysia

Water pollution > Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.91%
Ranked 27th.
0.0
Ranked 28th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 47.53%
Ranked 13th.
73.31%
Ranked 1st. 54% more than Malaysia

Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 16.46%
Ranked 5th. 38% more than Singapore
11.89%
Ranked 6th.

Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.77%
Ranked 35th. 5 times more than Singapore
0.537%
Ranked 26th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion 56.94%
Ranked 22nd. 26% more than Singapore
45.14%
Ranked 49th.

SOURCES: The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency; International Energy Agency. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Development Indicators database; pollution; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; traffic; 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, ""Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited"" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase database, www.fishbase.org.; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. version (07/2008). Accessed: 28 September 2008.; Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited; Wikipedia: Climate change opinion by country; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, ""Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility"" (2006).; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Jacaranda Atlas; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).; Food and Agriculture Organisation, AQUASTAT data.; World Resources Institute.; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=ENV&f=variableID%3a29, Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; International Energy Agency (IEA Statistics \xA9 OECD/IEA, http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp).; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=ENV&f=variableID%3a38, Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry to: Households. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Resources Institute; World Bank and UNIDO's industry database.; Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Statistics Division's National Accounts Statistics.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank staff estimates. The conceptual underpinnings of the savings measure appear in Hamilton and Clemens' ""Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries"" (1999).; Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. ""Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS),"" World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).; World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=ENV&f=variableID%3a38, Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry to: Households; World Bank staff estimates based on sources and methods in Arundhati Kunte and others' ""Estimating National Wealth: Methodology and Results"" (1998).; Wikipedia: List of parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (List of parties) (Parties & Observers , UNFCCC, 1 June 2011); World Bank national accounts data files.; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; Kiran D. Pandey and others' ""The Human Costs of Air Pollution: New Estimates for Developing Countries"" (2006).; World Bank staff estimates.; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=ENV&f=variableID%3a29, Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute; World Bank staff estimates based on Samuel Fankhauser's ""Valuing Climate Change: The Economics of the Greenhouse"" (1995).

Citation

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