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Environment Stats: compare key data on Philippines & Thailand

Definitions

  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • CO2 Emissions per 1000: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Pollution perceptions > Air pollution: Air Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Air quality: Air quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean water: Water Quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution: Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Water pollution: Water Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Proportion of land area under protection: Terrestrial areas protected to total surface area, percentage.
  • Transport CO2 emission index: CO2 Emission Index is an estimation of CO2 consumption due to traffic time. Measurement unit is grams for the return trip. To calculate an average estimation of emission in grams for one way commute to work, divide this value with 2.
  • Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Water > Severe water stress: Percent of country's territory under severe water stress
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: This data is derived from the WaterGap 2.1 gridded hydrological model developed by the Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany. The modellers derived, for each country, grid cell by grid cell estimates of whether the water consumption exceeds 40 percent of the water available in that particular grid cell. These were then converted to land area equivalents in order to calculate the percentage of the territory under severe water stress.
  • CFC > Consumption: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.
  • Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution: Noise and Light Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Endangered species > Mammal species > Number: Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened: Mammal species, threatened. Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality: Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Pollution perceptions > Pollution index: Pollution Index is an estimation of the overall pollution in the city. The biggest weight is given to air pollution, than to water pollution/accessibility, two main pollution factors. Small weight is given to other pollution types.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, total.
  • National parks > Number of parks: Number of parks.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened: Bird species, threatened. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Endangered species > Bird species: Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Total renewable water resources per million: . Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • SO2 emissions per populated area: SO2 emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Waste > Hazardous waste created: Annual generation of hazardous waste (as defined by the Basel Convention).
  • Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened: Fish species, threatened. Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Endangered species > Fish species > Number: Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity: Percentage of population who responded yes when asked if they believed global warming was a result of human activities. In this survey, global warming refers to the current rise in earth's temperature and not climate change as a whole.
  • Water > Percent of water resources used: Proportion of total water resources used, percentage.
  • Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number: Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons.
  • NOx emissions per populated area: NOx emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Biodiversity richness: Caldecott, J.O., M.D. Jenkins, T. Johnson and B. Groombridge. 1994. Priorities for Conserving Global Species Richness and Endemism. In World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Biodiversity Series No. 3 (N. Mark Collins, ed.) pp. 17. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration: Dissolved oxygen concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, total.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities: Clean and Tidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, rural.
  • Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened: Plant species (higher), threatened. Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Biodiversity > Number: GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential)."
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness: Percentage of each country's population who claimed knowing "something" or a "great deal" about climate change when asked: "How much do you know about global warming or climate change?"
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution: Comfortable to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CFC > Consumption per 1000: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Waste > Hazardous waste created per thousand people: Annual generation of hazardous waste (as defined by the Basel Convention). Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential).
  • Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities: Dirty and Untidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution: Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.
  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.
  • Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent: Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates.
  • Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter). Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Wetlands of intl importance > Area: Wetlands of international importance 2002
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Proportion of land and marine area under protection: Terrestrial and marine areas protected to total territorial area, percentage.
  • Endangered species protection: Percent of CITES reporting requirements met
    Units: Percent of Requirements Met
    Units: Countries that have not ratified the CITES convention are recorded as having zero percent of their requirements met.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution: Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, urban.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction: Garbage Disposal Satisfaction. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat: Percentage of country's population that perceives climate change as a threat. Results are from a 2008 Gallop Poll.
  • Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management."
  • Wildness: Percent of land area having very low anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Biosphere > Reserves area: Biosphere reserves area 2002.
  • Forest area > Sq. km per 1000: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Threatened species > Mammal: Number of threatened mammal species (1997)
  • World Heritage Sites (environmental): Natural sites.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Known mammal species: Known mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day per worker). Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2).
  • Breeding birds threatened: Percentage of breeding birds threatened
    Units: Percent of Breeding Birds
    Units: The number of bird species threatened divided by known bird species in the country, expressed as a percentage.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, urban.
  • Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride."
  • Urban SO2 concentration: Urban SO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Sustainability-satisfying companies: Dow Jones Sustainability Group Index: percent of eligible companies in index
    Units: Percentage
    Units: For each country, the number of companies in the Sustainability Index was divided by the number of companies in the Global Index.
  • Marine areas under protection: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Water > Proportion of marine area under protection: Marine areas protected to territorial waters, percentage.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Environmental agreement compliance: Compliance with environmental agreements (WEF survey)
    Units: Survey Responses Ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7
    Units: Response to the statement: "Compliance with international environmental agreements is a high priority.
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2). Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Freshwater > Withdrawal per million: . Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations."
  • Known mammal species per million: Known mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Wetlands of intl importance > Area per million: Wetlands of international importance 2002. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Areas under protection per million: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water > Salinisation: Electrical conductivity
    Units: Micro-Siemens/Centimeter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of water bodies; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system.
  • Kyoto Protocol signatories > Signed and ratified > Date: Date different countries signed the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol is an international environmental treaty drafted at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1997 in Kyoto Japan. The protocol mandates signatory countries to commit themselves to reducing carbon dioxide emission. At present, there are 37 countries that have signed and ratified the protocol.
  • Areas under protection: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Marine areas under protection per million: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Biosphere > Reserves area per million: Biosphere reserves area 2002. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Fertiliser > Consumption: Fertilizer consumption per hectare of arable land
    Units: Hundreds Grams/Hectare of Arable Land
  • Urban NO2 concentration: Urban NO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Non-wildness: Percent of land area having very high anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Oil rents > % of GDP: Oil rents (% of GDP). Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total: Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels."
  • Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, metal industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers."
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date: Signature.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Forest area > % of land area: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Known breeding bird species per million: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, wood industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a countryÂ’s technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • International agreements > Signed but not ratified: The various international environmental agreements which a country has signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Water > Suspended solids: Suspended solids
    Units: Natural Log of Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. Data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of majorwatersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries. The data in this table was transformed using the natural logarithm.
  • Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters: Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters). Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Known breeding bird species: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Natural gas rents > % of GDP: Natural gas rents (% of GDP). Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total: Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total: Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, clay and glass industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, textile industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Adjusted net national income > Annual % growth: Adjusted net national income (annual % growth). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • CO2 Emissions: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Kyoto Protocol sign date: Signed.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use: Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, food industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, other industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, paper and pulp industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons.
  • Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water > Phosphorus concentration: Phosphorus concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction: Quality of Green and Parks. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Total natural resources rents > % of GDP: Total natural resources rents (% of GDP). Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
  • Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, chemical industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
STAT Philippines Thailand HISTORY
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $118.26 billion
Ranked 20th.
$172.48 billion
Ranked 13th. 46% more than Philippines

CO2 Emissions per 1000 0.912
Ranked 113th.
2.66
Ranked 79th. 3 times more than Philippines
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons 35.28
Ranked 43th.
96.86
Ranked 24th. 3 times more than Philippines

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million 0.371
Ranked 95th.
1.45
Ranked 70th. 4 times more than Philippines

Current issues uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
Ecological footprint 1
Ranked 46th.
2.4
Ranked 18th. 2 times more than Philippines

Marine fish catch 1.59 million tons
Ranked 1st.
2.34 million tons
Ranked 9th. 47% more than Philippines
Pollution perceptions > Air pollution 65.88
Ranked 21st. 3% more than Thailand
63.98
Ranked 24th.
Pollution perceptions > Air quality 34.12
Ranked 39th.
36.02
Ranked 36th. 6% more than Philippines
Pollution perceptions > Clean water 28.95
Ranked 48th.
31.5
Ranked 47th. 9% more than Philippines
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution 46
Ranked 23th.
50
Ranked 21st. 9% more than Philippines
Pollution perceptions > Water pollution 71.05
Ranked 12th. 4% more than Thailand
68.5
Ranked 13th.
Proportion of land area under protection 10.91%
Ranked 125th.
18.82%
Ranked 72nd. 73% more than Philippines

Total renewable water resources 479 cu km
Ranked 8th. 17% more than Thailand
409.9 cu km
Ranked 11th.
Transport CO2 emission index 7,375.56
Ranked 1st. 7% more than Thailand
6,879.17
Ranked 2nd.
Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita 0.862 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 153th.
2.26 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 108th. 3 times more than Philippines

Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 97,900.45
Ranked 21st.
333,763.1
Ranked 12th. 3 times more than Philippines

Water > Severe water stress 10.4
Ranked 61st. 17 times more than Thailand
0.6
Ranked 87th.
CFC > Consumption 105,641
Ranked 17th.
239,571
Ranked 9th. 2 times more than Philippines
Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution 61.67
Ranked 15th. 3% more than Thailand
59.91
Ranked 20th.
Endangered species > Mammal species > Number 39
Ranked 18th.
57
Ranked 8th. 46% more than Philippines
Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened 38
Ranked 18th.
57
Ranked 8th. 50% more than Philippines
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality 54
Ranked 37th. 8% more than Thailand
50
Ranked 39th.
CO2 emissions > Kt 76,948.64 kt
Ranked 40th.
245,900.9 kt
Ranked 22nd. 3 times more than Philippines

Pollution perceptions > Pollution index 73.39
Ranked 16th. 2% more than Thailand
71.91
Ranked 20th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural 92.39
Ranked 118th.
95.82
Ranked 96th. 4% more than Philippines

National parks > Number of parks 54
Ranked 5th.
138
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Philippines
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 0.8
Ranked 136th.
4.14
Ranked 81st. 5 times more than Philippines

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 0.873
Ranked 139th.
4.45
Ranked 79th. 5 times more than Philippines

Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened 74
Ranked 10th. 57% more than Thailand
47
Ranked 16th.
Carbon efficiency 0.77 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 95th.
1.5 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 51st. 95% more than Philippines
CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 0.932 kt
Ranked 125th.
3.81 kt
Ranked 77th. 4 times more than Philippines

Endangered species > Bird species 67
Ranked 10th. 52% more than Thailand
44
Ranked 15th.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $1,244.11
Ranked 49th.
$2,590.77
Ranked 34th. 2 times more than Philippines

Total renewable water resources per million 6.3 cu km
Ranked 11th.
6.65 cu km
Ranked 10th. 6% more than Philippines
SO2 emissions per populated area 880 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 57th.
1,070 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 49th. 22% more than Philippines
Waste > Hazardous waste created 1.9 million tonnes
Ranked 4th. 3% more than Thailand
1.85 million tonnes
Ranked 5th.

Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened 72
Ranked 17th.
96
Ranked 10th. 33% more than Philippines
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 81,590.75
Ranked 41st.
295,281.51
Ranked 23th. 4 times more than Philippines

CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita 0.96 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 127th.
3.89 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 81st. 4 times more than Philippines

Endangered species > Fish species > Number 60
Ranked 13th. 20% more than Thailand
50
Ranked 17th.
Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 144,629.1
Ranked 21st.
581,425
Ranked 6th. 4 times more than Philippines

Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction 60.27
Ranked 21st.
62.5
Ranked 17th. 4% more than Philippines
Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity 72%
Ranked 22nd. 31% more than Thailand
55%
Ranked 61st.
Water > Percent of water resources used 17.03%
Ranked 9th. 30% more than Thailand
13.07%
Ranked 43th.
Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number 216
Ranked 16th. 3 times more than Thailand
86
Ranked 31st.

Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption 164.89
Ranked 28th.
832.04
Ranked 9th. 5 times more than Philippines

NOx emissions per populated area 0.31 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 53th.
0.45 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 38th. 45% more than Philippines
Biodiversity richness 1
Ranked 46th.
2
Ranked 28th. Twice as much as Philippines
Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration 8.24 mls/litre
Ranked 60th. 3 times more than Thailand
2.98 mls/litre
Ranked 141st.
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 0.873
Ranked 139th.
4.45
Ranked 79th. 5 times more than Philippines

Forest area > Sq. km 71,620 km²
Ranked 63th.
145,200 km²
Ranked 39th. 2 times more than Philippines

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.62
Ranked 66th.
$1.41
Ranked 23th. 2 times more than Philippines

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural 74.15
Ranked 119th.
93.44
Ranked 81st. 26% more than Philippines

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt 70,858.1
Ranked 41st.
277,284.19
Ranked 22nd. 4 times more than Philippines

Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities 39.14
Ranked 43th.
43.27
Ranked 35th. 11% more than Philippines
Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people 1.73
Ranked 86th.
12.5
Ranked 23th. 7 times more than Philippines

Water > Availability 3.79 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 59th. 8% more than Thailand
3.5 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 62nd.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural 92.06
Ranked 96th.
95.35
Ranked 82nd. 4% more than Philippines

Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened 229
Ranked 16th. 75% more than Thailand
131
Ranked 26th.
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $2,079.60
Ranked 97th.
$4,279.56
Ranked 70th. 2 times more than Philippines

Biodiversity > Number 32.33
Ranked 12th. 4 times more than Thailand
8.02
Ranked 37th.

Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $197.67 billion
Ranked 39th.
$284.92 billion
Ranked 30th. 44% more than Philippines

Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness 47%
Ranked 97th.
88%
Ranked 26th. 87% more than Philippines
Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution 36.36
Ranked 47th.
39.86
Ranked 41st. 10% more than Philippines
CFC > Consumption per 1000 1.45
Ranked 29th.
3.98
Ranked 18th. 3 times more than Philippines
Waste > Hazardous waste created per thousand people 20.68 tonnes
Ranked 9th.
27.98 tonnes
Ranked 10th. 35% more than Philippines

Protected area 4.9%
Ranked 79th.
13.1%
Ranked 28th. 3 times more than Philippines
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum 32.33
Ranked 12th. 4 times more than Thailand
8.02
Ranked 37th.

Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities 60.86
Ranked 17th. 7% more than Thailand
56.73
Ranked 25th.
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.66
Ranked 82nd.
$1.60
Ranked 30th. 2 times more than Philippines

Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution 38.33
Ranked 45th.
40.09
Ranked 40th. 5% more than Philippines
Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters 479
Ranked 18th. 2 times more than Thailand
224.5
Ranked 32nd.

Acidification 0.0
Ranked 118th.
0.27%
Ranked 45th.
Freshwater > Withdrawal 28.52
Ranked 23th.
82.75
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than Philippines
Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent 44,860
Ranked 30th.
78,840
Ranked 14th. 76% more than Philippines

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters 5,301.7
Ranked 65th. 59% more than Thailand
3,331.53
Ranked 80th.

Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 16.82
Ranked 142nd.
52.6
Ranked 37th. 3 times more than Philippines

Wetlands of intl importance > Area 68 thousand hectares
Ranked 72nd.
132 thousand hectares
Ranked 59th. 94% more than Philippines
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number 204
Ranked 52nd.
206
Ranked 51st. 1% more than Philippines
CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP 0.23 kg/PPP$
Ranked 113th.
0.55 kg/PPP$
Ranked 37th. 2 times more than Philippines

Proportion of land and marine area under protection 5.06%
Ranked 145th.
16.41%
Ranked 72nd. 3 times more than Philippines

Endangered species protection 83.3%
Ranked 49th. 21% more than Thailand
68.8%
Ranked 72nd.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 0.58
Ranked 73th.
11.33
Ranked 13th. 20 times more than Philippines

Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution 63.64
Ranked 13th. 6% more than Thailand
60.14
Ranked 19th.
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million 0.358
Ranked 90th. 3 times more than Thailand
0.121
Ranked 126th.

Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban 92.74
Ranked 155th.
96.72
Ranked 118th. 4% more than Philippines

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 69.35%
Ranked 110th.
95.89%
Ranked 59th. 38% more than Philippines

Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction 39.73
Ranked 39th. 6% more than Thailand
37.5
Ranked 41st.
Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat 42%
Ranked 77th.
61%
Ranked 34th. 45% more than Philippines
Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 18,940
Ranked 39th.
27,990
Ranked 29th. 48% more than Philippines

Wildness 0.52%
Ranked 96th.
0.9%
Ranked 88th. 73% more than Philippines
Biosphere > Reserves area 1,174 thousand hectares
Ranked 35th. 14 times more than Thailand
85 thousand hectares
Ranked 69th.
Forest area > Sq. km per 1000 0.835 km²
Ranked 151st.
2.21 km²
Ranked 104th. 3 times more than Philippines

Threatened species > Mammal 49
Ranked 8th. 44% more than Thailand
34
Ranked 17th.
World Heritage Sites (environmental) 2
Ranked 34th. The same as Thailand
2
Ranked 29th.
Known mammal species 153
Ranked 59th.
265
Ranked 24th. 73% more than Philippines
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 5.37
Ranked 46th.
8.19
Ranked 40th. 53% more than Philippines

Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.146
Ranked 54th.
0.152
Ranked 44th. 4% more than Philippines

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters 28.52
Ranked 27th.
87.06
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than Philippines
Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 19,982
Ranked 39th.
54,492
Ranked 23th. 3 times more than Philippines
Breeding birds threatened 34.18%
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than Thailand
6.01%
Ranked 27th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 0.267
Ranked 65th.
0.846
Ranked 48th. 3 times more than Philippines

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt 7,073.64
Ranked 67th.
81,048.03
Ranked 22nd. 11 times more than Philippines

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt 24,946.6
Ranked 36th.
56,178.44
Ranked 23th. 2 times more than Philippines

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 0.446
Ranked 145th.
2.11
Ranked 74th. 5 times more than Philippines

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 0.0757
Ranked 99th.
1.22
Ranked 51st. 16 times more than Philippines

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million 4.91
Ranked 92nd.
20.9
Ranked 77th. 4 times more than Philippines

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number 212
Ranked 6th. 11 times more than Thailand
19
Ranked 45th.
Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban 79.19
Ranked 129th.
88.7
Ranked 107th. 12% more than Philippines

Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 350
Ranked 55th.
940
Ranked 38th. 3 times more than Philippines

Urban SO2 concentration 33 micrograms/m3
Ranked 89th. 3 times more than Thailand
11 micrograms/m3
Ranked 126th.
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$ $15.55 billion
Ranked 46th.
$28.50 billion
Ranked 33th. 83% more than Philippines

Sustainability-satisfying companies 0.0
Ranked 30th.
0.0
Ranked 31st.
Marine areas under protection 7
Ranked 44th.
18
Ranked 21st. 3 times more than Philippines
Water > Proportion of marine area under protection 2.49%
Ranked 96th.
5.07%
Ranked 72nd. 2 times more than Philippines

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$ $41.29 billion
Ranked 22nd.
$47.20 billion
Ranked 19th. 14% more than Philippines

Environmental agreement compliance 3.33
Ranked 57th.
4.04
Ranked 42nd. 21% more than Philippines
Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000 0.263
Ranked 123th.
0.884
Ranked 79th. 3 times more than Philippines
Freshwater > Withdrawal per million 0.367
Ranked 66th.
1.33
Ranked 13th. 4 times more than Philippines
Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 22.83
Ranked 124th.
70.9
Ranked 29th. 3 times more than Philippines

Known mammal species per million 1.89
Ranked 130th.
4.15
Ranked 110th. 2 times more than Philippines
Wetlands of intl importance > Area per million 0.84 thousand hectares
Ranked 96th.
2.07 thousand hectares
Ranked 84th. 2 times more than Philippines
Areas under protection per million 0.521
Ranked 129th.
2.45
Ranked 81st. 5 times more than Philippines
Water > Salinisation 136.7
Ranked 129th.
348.33
Ranked 104th. 3 times more than Philippines
Kyoto Protocol signatories > Signed and ratified > Date 4/15/1998 2/2/1999
Areas under protection 43
Ranked 68th.
158
Ranked 36th. 4 times more than Philippines
Marine areas under protection per million 0.0847
Ranked 86th.
0.279
Ranked 60th. 3 times more than Philippines
Biosphere > Reserves area per million 14.5 thousand hectares
Ranked 54th. 11 times more than Thailand
1.33 thousand hectares
Ranked 79th.
Fertiliser > Consumption 1,141.69 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 47th. 15% more than Thailand
988.61 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 54th.
Urban NO2 concentration 46.18 micrograms/m3
Ranked 82nd. Twice as much as Thailand
23 micrograms/m3
Ranked 129th.
Non-wildness 9.01%
Ranked 42nd. 3 times more than Thailand
2.68%
Ranked 75th.
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI 8.38%
Ranked 125th.
10.89%
Ranked 83th. 30% more than Philippines

Water pollution > Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 3.08%
Ranked 45th.
22.48%
Ranked 14th. 7 times more than Philippines

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal 73.98%
Ranked 60th.
95.05%
Ranked 15th. 28% more than Philippines

Water pollution > Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 5.8%
Ranked 9th. 3 times more than Thailand
1.84%
Ranked 43th.

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million -0.00186
Ranked 27th.
-0.127
Ranked 16th. 68 times more than Philippines
Oil rents > % of GDP 0.0823%
Ranked 69th.
2.16%
Ranked 42nd. 26 times more than Philippines

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal 9.43%
Ranked 68th. 4 times more than Thailand
2.46%
Ranked 106th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 0.752%
Ranked 103th.
4.66%
Ranked 35th. 6 times more than Philippines

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal 16.58%
Ranked 66th. 7 times more than Thailand
2.49%
Ranked 128th.

Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total 7.96%
Ranked 101st.
9.39%
Ranked 97th. 18% more than Philippines

Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.15%
Ranked 58th.
0.23%
Ranked 42nd. 53% more than Philippines

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$ $41.41 billion
Ranked 22nd.
$47.77 billion
Ranked 20th. 15% more than Philippines

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.06%
Ranked 120th.
0.22%
Ranked 67th. 4 times more than Philippines

Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.63%
Ranked 40th. 40% more than Thailand
1.89%
Ranked 43th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion 45.75%
Ranked 47th. 15% more than Thailand
39.83%
Ranked 61st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI 30.3%
Ranked 33th.
30.67%
Ranked 31st. 1% more than Philippines

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date June 12, 1992 June 12, 1992
Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area 0.73%
Ranked 83th.
3.87%
Ranked 43th. 5 times more than Philippines
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area 17.15%
Ranked 57th.
20.36%
Ranked 46th. 19% more than Philippines
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 69.35
Ranked 110th.
95.89
Ranked 59th. 38% more than Philippines

Forest area > % of land area 24.02% of land area
Ranked 113th.
28.42% of land area
Ranked 100th. 18% more than Philippines

Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.15% of GNI
Ranked 43th.
0.26% of GNI
Ranked 36th. 73% more than Philippines

Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 5.21%
Ranked 45th.
6.13%
Ranked 49th. 18% more than Philippines

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.1%
Ranked 44th.
0.18%
Ranked 37th. 80% more than Philippines

Water pollution > Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 13.15%
Ranked 14th.
13.16%
Ranked 15th. The same as Philippines

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI 22.26%
Ranked 10th. 23% more than Thailand
18.04%
Ranked 21st.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.0
Ranked 50th.
2.42%
Ranked 36th.

Known breeding bird species per million 4.99
Ranked 124th. 12% more than Thailand
4.47
Ranked 126th.
Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.06%
Ranked 46th.
2.76%
Ranked 39th. 34% more than Philippines

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt 41,642.45
Ranked 37th.
139,855.71
Ranked 19th. 3 times more than Philippines

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 6.96%
Ranked 79th. 2 times more than Thailand
3.37%
Ranked 108th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$ $180.14 million
Ranked 17th.
$468.92 million
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than Philippines

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI 22.32%
Ranked 10th. 22% more than Thailand
18.25%
Ranked 21st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$ $982.12 million
Ranked 65th.
$13.82 billion
Ranked 32nd. 14 times more than Philippines

PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 32.22 mcg/m³
Ranked 114th.
73.4 mcg/m³
Ranked 35th. 2 times more than Philippines

Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction 58.78
Ranked 13th. About the same as Thailand
58.5
Ranked 14th.
Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 2%
Ranked 44th. 36% more than Thailand
1.47%
Ranked 76th.

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Industrial 9%
Ranked 49th. 5 times more than Thailand
2%
Ranked 95th.
International agreements > Signed but not ratified Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants Law of the Sea
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI 0.53%
Ranked 67th.
5.28%
Ranked 39th. 10 times more than Philippines

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million 0.0565
Ranked 106th.
0.123
Ranked 86th. 2 times more than Philippines

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.35%
Ranked 68th.
0.85%
Ranked 23th. 2 times more than Philippines

Water > Suspended solids 3.62 mls/litre
Ranked 113th.
5.6 mls/litre
Ranked 54th. 55% more than Philippines
Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 16.44%
Ranked 22nd.
35.4%
Ranked 6th. 2 times more than Philippines

Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.57% of GNI
Ranked 56th.
1.04% of GNI
Ranked 29th. 82% more than Philippines

Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters 52.77%
Ranked 10th. 12 times more than Thailand
4.38%
Ranked 52nd.

Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 9.81%
Ranked 58th. 84% more than Thailand
5.33%
Ranked 93th.

Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.45% of GNI
Ranked 67th. 18% more than Thailand
0.38% of GNI
Ranked 79th.

Known breeding bird species 404
Ranked 13th. 42% more than Thailand
285
Ranked 22nd.
Freshwater > Withdrawal > Domestic 17%
Ranked 58th. 9 times more than Thailand
2%
Ranked 118th.
Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP 88.21%
Ranked 30th. 7% more than Thailand
82.42%
Ranked 89th.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP 52.77%
Ranked 51st. 6% more than Thailand
49.9%
Ranked 57th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$ $1.50 billion
Ranked 20th. 50 times more than Thailand
$30.10 million
Ranked 67th.

Natural gas rents > % of GDP 0.26%
Ranked 44th.
1.29%
Ranked 25th. 5 times more than Philippines

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI 0.81%
Ranked 33th. 81 times more than Thailand
0.01%
Ranked 69th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$ $119.50 million
Ranked 50th.
$567.47 million
Ranked 25th. 5 times more than Philippines

Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total 66.7%
Ranked 27th.
76.08%
Ranked 9th. 14% more than Philippines

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$ $40.65 billion
Ranked 25th.
$51.76 billion
Ranked 21st. 27% more than Philippines

Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total 95.62%
Ranked 27th. 9% more than Thailand
87.89%
Ranked 62nd.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP $0.25
Ranked 104th.
$0.56
Ranked 31st. 2 times more than Philippines

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP $0.24
Ranked 101st.
$0.53
Ranked 31st. 2 times more than Philippines

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI 21.91%
Ranked 26th. 11% more than Thailand
19.78%
Ranked 34th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 6.29%
Ranked 31st. 53% more than Thailand
4.11%
Ranked 51st.

Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.68%
Ranked 61st.
4.72%
Ranked 36th. 76% more than Philippines

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total 51.04%
Ranked 122nd. 8% more than Thailand
47.36%
Ranked 132nd.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total 8.67%
Ranked 89th.
27.45%
Ranked 47th. 3 times more than Philippines

Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 21.63%
Ranked 18th. 6% more than Thailand
20.49%
Ranked 21st.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total 30.58%
Ranked 39th. 61% more than Thailand
19.03%
Ranked 53th.

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 459
Ranked 65th.
1,388
Ranked 42nd. 3 times more than Philippines

Adjusted net national income > Annual % growth 2.63%
Ranked 53th.
-1.343%
Ranked 73th.

CO2 Emissions 75,299.2
Ranked 36th.
171,696
Ranked 22nd. 2 times more than Philippines
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Kyoto Protocol sign date 15 April 1998 2 February 1999
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources 5.95%
Ranked 81st.
41.46%
Ranked 35th. 7 times more than Philippines
Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions 54.49%
Ranked 32nd. 29% more than Thailand
42.19%
Ranked 74th.

Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use 1.77
Ranked 90th.
2.67
Ranked 35th. 51% more than Philippines

Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.23
Ranked 9th. 44% more than Thailand
0.16
Ranked 47th.

Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions 14.38%
Ranked 48th.
16.43%
Ranked 34th. 14% more than Philippines

Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions 42.89%
Ranked 19th. 15% more than Thailand
37.16%
Ranked 27th.

Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 4.2%
Ranked 49th. 1% more than Thailand
4.16%
Ranked 45th.

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent -0.127
Ranked 33th.
-7.891
Ranked 27th. 62 times more than Philippines
Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 4.61%
Ranked 44th. 17% more than Thailand
3.94%
Ranked 49th.

Water > Phosphorus concentration 0.35 mls/litre
Ranked 67th. 13% more than Thailand
0.31 mls/litre
Ranked 82nd.
Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction 41.22
Ranked 47th.
41.5
Ranked 46th. 1% more than Philippines
Total natural resources rents > % of GDP 3.58%
Ranked 83th.
4.01%
Ranked 77th. 12% more than Philippines

Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 7.29%
Ranked 48th. 37% more than Thailand
5.33%
Ranked 79th.

Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.18 kg per day per worker
Ranked 42nd. 13% more than Thailand
0.16 kg per day per worker
Ranked 84th.

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Agricultural 74%
Ranked 61st.
95%
Ranked 19th. 28% more than Philippines
Water pollution > Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 32.41%
Ranked 31st.
36.13%
Ranked 29th. 11% more than Philippines

Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 9.54%
Ranked 38th.
12.41%
Ranked 14th. 30% more than Philippines

SOURCES: The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency; International Energy Agency. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. 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