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Environment Stats: compare key data on Saudi Arabia & United States

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Definitions

  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • CO2 Emissions per 1000: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Pollution perceptions > Air pollution: Air Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Air quality: Air quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean water: Water Quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution: Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Water pollution: Water Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Proportion of land area under protection: Terrestrial areas protected to total surface area, percentage.
  • Transport CO2 emission index: CO2 Emission Index is an estimation of CO2 consumption due to traffic time. Measurement unit is grams for the return trip. To calculate an average estimation of emission in grams for one way commute to work, divide this value with 2.
  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Marine fish catch per 1000: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Water > Severe water stress: Percent of country's territory under severe water stress
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: This data is derived from the WaterGap 2.1 gridded hydrological model developed by the Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany. The modellers derived, for each country, grid cell by grid cell estimates of whether the water consumption exceeds 40 percent of the water available in that particular grid cell. These were then converted to land area equivalents in order to calculate the percentage of the territory under severe water stress.
  • CFC > Consumption: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.
  • Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution: Noise and Light Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Endangered species > Mammal species > Number: Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened: Mammal species, threatened. Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality: Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Pollution perceptions > Pollution index: Pollution Index is an estimation of the overall pollution in the city. The biggest weight is given to air pollution, than to water pollution/accessibility, two main pollution factors. Small weight is given to other pollution types.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, total.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened: Bird species, threatened. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Endangered species > Bird species: Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • SO2 emissions per populated area: SO2 emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened: Fish species, threatened. Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Endangered species > Fish species > Number: Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity: Percentage of population who responded yes when asked if they believed global warming was a result of human activities. In this survey, global warming refers to the current rise in earth's temperature and not climate change as a whole.
  • Water > Percent of water resources used: Proportion of total water resources used, percentage.
  • Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number: Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons.
  • NOx emissions per populated area: NOx emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration: Dissolved oxygen concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, total.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities: Clean and Tidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, rural.
  • Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened: Plant species (higher), threatened. Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Threatened species: Number of Threatened Species (1990-99)
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Biodiversity > Number: GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential)."
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness: Percentage of each country's population who claimed knowing "something" or a "great deal" about climate change when asked: "How much do you know about global warming or climate change?"
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution: Comfortable to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CFC > Consumption per 1000: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential).
  • Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities: Dirty and Untidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas.
  • Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution: Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.
  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.
  • Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent: Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates.
  • Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter). Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Proportion of land and marine area under protection: Terrestrial and marine areas protected to total territorial area, percentage.
  • Endangered species protection: Percent of CITES reporting requirements met
    Units: Percent of Requirements Met
    Units: Countries that have not ratified the CITES convention are recorded as having zero percent of their requirements met.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution: Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, urban.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction: Garbage Disposal Satisfaction. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 per million: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat: Percentage of country's population that perceives climate change as a threat. Results are from a 2008 Gallop Poll.
  • Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management."
  • Wildness: Percent of land area having very low anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Forest area > Sq. km per 1000: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Threatened species > Mammal: Number of threatened mammal species (1997)
  • Known mammal species: Known mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day per worker). Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2).
  • Breeding birds threatened: Percentage of breeding birds threatened
    Units: Percent of Breeding Birds
    Units: The number of bird species threatened divided by known bird species in the country, expressed as a percentage.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, urban.
  • Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride."
  • Urban SO2 concentration: Urban SO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Marine areas under protection: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Water > Proportion of marine area under protection: Marine areas protected to territorial waters, percentage.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2). Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Freshwater > Withdrawal per million: . Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations."
  • Known mammal species per million: Known mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Areas under protection per million: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water > Salinisation: Electrical conductivity
    Units: Micro-Siemens/Centimeter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of water bodies; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 > Per $ GDP: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas. Per $ GDP figures expressed per $100 million of Gross Domestic Product.
  • Marine areas under protection per million: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Areas under protection: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Fertiliser > Consumption: Fertilizer consumption per hectare of arable land
    Units: Hundreds Grams/Hectare of Arable Land
  • Urban NO2 concentration: Urban NO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Non-wildness: Percent of land area having very high anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction: Quality of Green and Parks. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Total natural resources rents > % of GDP: Total natural resources rents (% of GDP). Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
  • Water > Prevalence of public-private partnerships: Cities.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, textile industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • International agreements > Signed but not ratified: The various international environmental agreements which a country has signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Oil rents > % of GDP: Oil rents (% of GDP). Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total: Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Forest area > % of land area: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Water > Phosphorus concentration: Phosphorus concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Known breeding bird species: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Natural gas rents > % of GDP: Natural gas rents (% of GDP). Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total: Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total: Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, clay and glass industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • CO2 Emissions: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide
  • Water > Suspended solids: Suspended solids
    Units: Natural Log of Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. Data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of majorwatersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries. The data in this table was transformed using the natural logarithm.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Known breeding bird species per million: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, wood industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use: Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a countryÂ’s technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, food industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, other industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, paper and pulp industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons.
  • Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters: Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters). Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, chemical industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, metal industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
STAT Saudi Arabia United States HISTORY
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $204.84 billion
Ranked 13th.
$11.13 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 54 times more than Saudi Arabia
CO2 Emissions per 1000 11.64
Ranked 14th.
19.86
Ranked 4th. 71% more than Saudi Arabia
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons 241.33
Ranked 10th.
2,478.03
Ranked 2nd. 10 times more than Saudi Arabia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million 8.69
Ranked 8th. 9% more than United States
7.95
Ranked 10th.

Current issues desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification
Ecological footprint 6.15
Ranked 17th.
12.22
Ranked 2nd. 99% more than Saudi Arabia
Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita 1.18 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 138th.
10.22 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 44th. 9 times more than Saudi Arabia

Marine fish catch 41,160 tons
Ranked 68th.
3.33 million tons
Ranked 7th. 81 times more than Saudi Arabia
Pollution perceptions > Air pollution 67.57
Ranked 17th. 3 times more than United States
25.04
Ranked 52nd.
Pollution perceptions > Air quality 32.43
Ranked 43th.
74.96
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Saudi Arabia
Pollution perceptions > Clean water 48.28
Ranked 27th.
54.13
Ranked 22nd. 12% more than Saudi Arabia
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution 39.17
Ranked 31st. 32% more than United States
29.66
Ranked 41st.
Pollution perceptions > Water pollution 51.72
Ranked 33th. 13% more than United States
45.87
Ranked 38th.
Proportion of land area under protection 31.26%
Ranked 29th. 2 times more than United States
13.82%
Ranked 111th.

Transport CO2 emission index 4,811.78
Ranked 2nd.
7,004.01
Ranked 8th. 46% more than Saudi Arabia
Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 6,775.29
Ranked 26th.
1.89 million
Ranked 1st. 279 times more than Saudi Arabia

Marine fish catch per 1000 2.1 tons
Ranked 83th.
11.93 tons
Ranked 42nd. 6 times more than Saudi Arabia
Water > Severe water stress 88.3
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than United States
31.3
Ranked 42nd.
CFC > Consumption 142,831
Ranked 12th. 6 times more than United States
23,385.2
Ranked 32nd.
Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution 43.97
Ranked 38th.
47.89
Ranked 34th. 9% more than Saudi Arabia
Endangered species > Mammal species > Number 9
Ranked 93th.
37
Ranked 19th. 4 times more than Saudi Arabia
Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened 10
Ranked 90th.
36
Ranked 21st. 4 times more than Saudi Arabia
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality 60.83
Ranked 29th.
70.34
Ranked 19th. 16% more than Saudi Arabia
CO2 emissions > Kt 302,307.4 kt
Ranked 19th.
5.79 million kt
Ranked 1st. 19 times more than Saudi Arabia

Pollution perceptions > Pollution index 69.38
Ranked 24th. 96% more than United States
35.37
Ranked 47th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural 97.03
Ranked 83th.
98.76
Ranked 62nd. 2% more than Saudi Arabia

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 16.59
Ranked 13th.
19.34
Ranked 10th. 17% more than Saudi Arabia

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 17.04
Ranked 11th.
17.56
Ranked 10th. 3% more than Saudi Arabia

Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened 15
Ranked 72nd.
78
Ranked 9th. 5 times more than Saudi Arabia
Carbon efficiency 3.6 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 13th. 2 times more than United States
1.77 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 42nd.
CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 13.23 kt
Ranked 14th.
19.95 kt
Ranked 9th. 51% more than Saudi Arabia

Endangered species > Bird species 14
Ranked 62nd.
74
Ranked 7th. 5 times more than Saudi Arabia

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $7,904.24
Ranked 17th.
$37,678.22
Ranked 6th. 5 times more than Saudi Arabia
SO2 emissions per populated area 560 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 73th.
1,680 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 37th. 3 times more than Saudi Arabia
Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened 24
Ranked 87th.
236
Ranked 1st. 10 times more than Saudi Arabia
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 464,480.55
Ranked 12th.
5.43 million
Ranked 2nd. 12 times more than Saudi Arabia

CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita 13.71 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 15th.
19.9 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 11th. 45% more than Saudi Arabia

Endangered species > Fish species > Number 16
Ranked 84th.
164
Ranked 1st. 10 times more than Saudi Arabia
Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 106,621.2
Ranked 23th.
1.85 million
Ranked 2nd. 17 times more than Saudi Arabia

Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction 65.83
Ranked 12th. 2 times more than United States
26.97
Ranked 48th.
Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity 39%
Ranked 108th.
49%
Ranked 88th. 26% more than Saudi Arabia
Water > Percent of water resources used 934.2%
Ranked 2nd. 60 times more than United States
15.57%
Ranked 37th.

Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number 3
Ranked 122nd.
244
Ranked 12th. 81 times more than Saudi Arabia

Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption 1,780.16
Ranked 3rd. 9% more than United States
1,627.68
Ranked 4th.

NOx emissions per populated area 0.2 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 84th.
1.29 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 13th. 6 times more than Saudi Arabia
Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration 8.69 mls/litre
Ranked 46th.
9.26 mls/litre
Ranked 33th. 7% more than Saudi Arabia
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 17.04
Ranked 11th.
17.56
Ranked 10th. 3% more than Saudi Arabia

Forest area > Sq. km 27,280 km²
Ranked 93th.
3.03 million km²
Ranked 4th. 111 times more than Saudi Arabia

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $1.07
Ranked 38th. 3 times more than United States
$0.40
Ranked 107th.

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural 100
Ranked 17th. About the same as United States
99.59
Ranked 40th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt 402,120.34
Ranked 13th.
5.83 million
Ranked 2nd. 15 times more than Saudi Arabia

Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities 47.5
Ranked 29th.
60.34
Ranked 16th. 27% more than Saudi Arabia
Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people 64.12
Ranked 3rd. 12 times more than United States
5.22
Ranked 48th.

Water > Availability 0.22 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 129th.
7.09 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 47th. 32 times more than Saudi Arabia
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural 97.03
Ranked 71st. 3% more than United States
94.03
Ranked 85th.

Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened 3
Ranked 148th.
270
Ranked 13th. 90 times more than Saudi Arabia
Threatened species 23
Ranked 84th.
854
Ranked 1st. 37 times more than Saudi Arabia
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $10,845.51
Ranked 38th.
$41,448.39
Ranked 10th. 4 times more than Saudi Arabia

Biodiversity > Number 3.21
Ranked 74th.
94.22
Ranked 2nd. 29 times more than Saudi Arabia

Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $301.09 billion
Ranked 28th.
$12.91 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 43 times more than Saudi Arabia

Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness 49%
Ranked 93th.
97%
Ranked 3rd. 98% more than Saudi Arabia
Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution 41.18
Ranked 40th.
78.17
Ranked 11th. 90% more than Saudi Arabia
CFC > Consumption per 1000 7.49
Ranked 14th. 87 times more than United States
0.0858
Ranked 64th.
Protected area 2.3%
Ranked 111th.
13.4%
Ranked 26th. 6 times more than Saudi Arabia
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum 3.21
Ranked 76th.
94.22
Ranked 2nd. 29 times more than Saudi Arabia

Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities 52.5
Ranked 30th. 32% more than United States
39.66
Ranked 44th.
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $1.68
Ranked 28th. 3 times more than United States
$0.51
Ranked 109th.

Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 75
Ranked 20th.
1,571
Ranked 1st. 21 times more than Saudi Arabia
Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution 56.03
Ranked 22nd. 8% more than United States
52.11
Ranked 26th.
Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters 2.4
Ranked 142nd.
2,800
Ranked 6th. 1167 times more than Saudi Arabia

Acidification 0.0
Ranked 92nd.
13.74%
Ranked 25th.
Freshwater > Withdrawal 17.32
Ranked 30th.
477
Ranked 3rd. 28 times more than Saudi Arabia
Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent 63,500
Ranked 20th.
810,280
Ranked 2nd. 13 times more than Saudi Arabia

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters 96.75
Ranked 161st.
9,199.18
Ranked 55th. 95 times more than Saudi Arabia

Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 96.31
Ranked 6th. 5 times more than United States
17.78
Ranked 140th.

Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number 30
Ranked 116th.
6,770
Ranked 5th. 226 times more than Saudi Arabia
CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP 1.1 kg/PPP$
Ranked 13th. 96% more than United States
0.56 kg/PPP$
Ranked 36th.

Proportion of land and marine area under protection 29.95%
Ranked 23th. 98% more than United States
15.14%
Ranked 83th.

Endangered species protection 0.0
Ranked 128th.
87.5%
Ranked 39th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 0.0
Ranked 126th.
43.12
Ranked 3rd.

Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution 58.82
Ranked 20th. 3 times more than United States
21.83
Ranked 49th.
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million 0.122
Ranked 125th.
0.31
Ranked 97th. 3 times more than Saudi Arabia

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 100%
Ranked 16th. 1% more than United States
98.6%
Ranked 40th.

Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban 97.03
Ranked 114th.
99.77
Ranked 56th. 3% more than Saudi Arabia

Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction 34.17
Ranked 48th.
73.03
Ranked 12th. 2 times more than Saudi Arabia
Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 per million 3.72
Ranked 5th.
5.57
Ranked 1st. 50% more than Saudi Arabia
Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat 40%
Ranked 80th.
63%
Ranked 30th. 58% more than Saudi Arabia
Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 7,720
Ranked 67th.
456,210
Ranked 2nd. 59 times more than Saudi Arabia

Wildness 44.34%
Ranked 24th. 24% more than United States
35.89%
Ranked 32nd.
Forest area > Sq. km per 1000 1.1 km²
Ranked 137th.
10.26 km²
Ranked 44th. 9 times more than Saudi Arabia

Threatened species > Mammal 9
Ranked 93th.
35
Ranked 14th. 4 times more than Saudi Arabia
Known mammal species 77
Ranked 111th.
428
Ranked 4th. 6 times more than Saudi Arabia
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 4.7
Ranked 52nd.
530.05
Ranked 2nd. 113 times more than Saudi Arabia

Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.175
Ranked 25th. 23% more than United States
0.142
Ranked 52nd.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters 23.67
Ranked 1st.
479.29
Ranked 3rd. 20 times more than Saudi Arabia
Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 64,249
Ranked 20th.
1.5 million
Ranked 1st. 23 times more than Saudi Arabia
Breeding birds threatened 9.68%
Ranked 13th. 16% more than United States
8.31%
Ranked 15th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 0.0
Ranked 161st.
6.29
Ranked 8th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt 152,330.85
Ranked 11th.
1.29 million
Ranked 1st. 8 times more than Saudi Arabia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 10.68
Ranked 6th. 53% more than United States
6.97
Ranked 13th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt 0.0
Ranked 161st.
1.95 million
Ranked 2nd.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 5.59
Ranked 10th. 34% more than United States
4.17
Ranked 16th.

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million 105.44
Ranked 47th.
1,126.51
Ranked 1st. 11 times more than Saudi Arabia

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number 3
Ranked 108th.
787
Ranked 2nd. 262 times more than Saudi Arabia
Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban 100
Ranked 18th. About the same as United States
99.8
Ranked 43th.

Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 1,530
Ranked 29th.
108,420
Ranked 3rd. 71 times more than Saudi Arabia

Urban SO2 concentration 43.64 micrograms/m3
Ranked 75th. 3 times more than United States
15.43 micrograms/m3
Ranked 114th.
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$ $59.64 billion
Ranked 22nd.
$1.99 trillion
Ranked 1st. 33 times more than Saudi Arabia

Marine areas under protection 3
Ranked 62nd.
229
Ranked 1st. 76 times more than Saudi Arabia
Water > Proportion of marine area under protection 3.43%
Ranked 85th.
30.4%
Ranked 19th. 9 times more than Saudi Arabia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$ $-8,613,102,088.74
Ranked 114th.
$132.56 billion
Ranked 8th.

Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000 3.27
Ranked 14th.
5.38
Ranked 8th. 64% more than Saudi Arabia
Freshwater > Withdrawal per million 0.86
Ranked 25th.
1.69
Ranked 9th. 97% more than Saudi Arabia
Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 112.91
Ranked 9th. 5 times more than United States
21.34
Ranked 131st.

Known mammal species per million 3.53
Ranked 117th. 2 times more than United States
1.49
Ranked 135th.
Areas under protection per million 3.41
Ranked 76th.
12
Ranked 40th. 4 times more than Saudi Arabia
Water > Salinisation 2,057.25
Ranked 12th. 5 times more than United States
375.65
Ranked 98th.
Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 > Per $ GDP 0.0242 per $100 million
Ranked 3rd. 81% more than United States
0.0134 per $100 million
Ranked 9th.
Marine areas under protection per million 0.131
Ranked 77th.
0.789
Ranked 36th. 6 times more than Saudi Arabia
Areas under protection 78
Ranked 53th.
3,481
Ranked 7th. 45 times more than Saudi Arabia
Fertiliser > Consumption 870.27 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 63th.
1,117.48 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 48th. 28% more than Saudi Arabia
Urban NO2 concentration 81.06 micrograms/m3
Ranked 7th. 34% more than United States
60.57 micrograms/m3
Ranked 45th.
Non-wildness 0.43%
Ranked 120th.
6.59%
Ranked 49th. 15 times more than Saudi Arabia
Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction 28.7
Ranked 54th.
71.71
Ranked 11th. 2 times more than Saudi Arabia
Total natural resources rents > % of GDP 58.65%
Ranked 3rd. 34 times more than United States
1.73%
Ranked 104th.

Water > Prevalence of public-private partnerships Riyadh , Jeddah , Mecca and Taif 73 million people, including through PPPs 14% of water revenues without PPPs
Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 21.08%
Ranked 1st. 51% more than United States
13.95%
Ranked 9th.

Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.14 kg per day per worker
Ranked 99th. 8% more than United States
0.13 kg per day per worker
Ranked 47th.

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Agricultural 89%
Ranked 35th. 2 times more than United States
41%
Ranked 108th.
Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 14.38%
Ranked 28th. 3 times more than United States
4.29%
Ranked 53th.

International agreements > Signed but not ratified none of the selected agreements Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI 43.51%
Ranked 9th. 23 times more than United States
1.93%
Ranked 52nd.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.62%
Ranked 31st. Twice as much as United States
0.31%
Ranked 80th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI 12.46%
Ranked 49th.
13.96%
Ranked 18th. 12% more than Saudi Arabia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million 0.169
Ranked 77th.
1.7
Ranked 6th. 10 times more than Saudi Arabia

Oil rents > % of GDP 55.53%
Ranked 3rd. 60 times more than United States
0.933%
Ranked 53th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.0
Ranked 29th.
3.44%
Ranked 21st.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal 3%
Ranked 99th.
46.05%
Ranked 20th. 15 times more than Saudi Arabia

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal 9%
Ranked 97th.
12.7%
Ranked 83th. 41% more than Saudi Arabia

Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total 91.8%
Ranked 5th. 63% more than United States
56.37%
Ranked 20th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 0.0
Ranked 126th.
0.816%
Ranked 102nd.

Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 1.04%
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than United States
0.21%
Ranked 31st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$ $-5,098,677,292.42
Ranked 116th.
$152.63 billion
Ranked 7th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$ $3.51 billion
Ranked 7th.
$20.07 billion
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than Saudi Arabia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 120th.
0.11%
Ranked 53th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI 48.33%
Ranked 10th. 4 times more than United States
12.6%
Ranked 108th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.0
Ranked 26th.
4.09%
Ranked 21st.

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Domestic 10%
Ranked 75th.
13%
Ranked 68th. 30% more than Saudi Arabia
Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI -1.8%
Ranked 101st.
0.93%
Ranked 90th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt 291,053.46
Ranked 7th.
2.16 million
Ranked 1st. 7 times more than Saudi Arabia

Water pollution > Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.0
Ranked 29th.
13.13%
Ranked 15th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 106th.
0.0
Ranked 87th.

Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions 45.06%
Ranked 62nd. 7% more than United States
42.06%
Ranked 31st.

Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.39
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than United States
0.14
Ranked 47th.

Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction 71.3
Ranked 6th. 3 times more than United States
28.29
Ranked 49th.
Forest area > % of land area 1.36% of land area
Ranked 178th.
33.08% of land area
Ranked 83th. 24 times more than Saudi Arabia

Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area 38.35%
Ranked 13th. 42% more than United States
27.08%
Ranked 26th.
Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area 1.13%
Ranked 72nd.
67.57%
Ranked 3rd. 60 times more than Saudi Arabia
Water > Phosphorus concentration 0.11 mls/litre
Ranked 116th. 38% more than United States
0.08 mls/litre
Ranked 127th.
Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 3.76%
Ranked 97th.
5.42%
Ranked 40th. 44% more than Saudi Arabia

Known breeding bird species 125
Ranked 127th.
508
Ranked 8th. 4 times more than Saudi Arabia
Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP 44.97%
Ranked 150th.
86.15%
Ranked 49th. 92% more than Saudi Arabia

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP 49.25%
Ranked 102nd.
88.62%
Ranked 31st. 80% more than Saudi Arabia
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$ 0.0
Ranked 148th.
$16.10 billion
Ranked 7th.

Natural gas rents > % of GDP 3.09%
Ranked 14th. 513 times more than United States
0.00603%
Ranked 78th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.73%
Ranked 20th. 5 times more than United States
0.14%
Ranked 86th.

Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total 1.94%
Ranked 120th.
18.38%
Ranked 102nd. 9 times more than Saudi Arabia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$ $171.79 billion
Ranked 6th.
$-194,522,724,898.49
Ranked 131st.

Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total 92.1%
Ranked 42nd. 23% more than United States
74.74%
Ranked 90th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP $0.78
Ranked 14th. 77% more than United States
$0.44
Ranked 44th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP $0.73
Ranked 13th. 74% more than United States
$0.42
Ranked 44th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI 35.88%
Ranked 9th.
-1.36%
Ranked 115th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 96.92%
Ranked 1st. 12 times more than United States
8.33%
Ranked 14th.

Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 1.23% of GNI
Ranked 17th. 4 times more than United States
0.35% of GNI
Ranked 85th.

Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 10.71%
Ranked 9th. 3 times more than United States
3.86%
Ranked 46th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal 88%
Ranked 31st. 2 times more than United States
41.26%
Ranked 107th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.0
Ranked 30th.
4.65%
Ranked 42nd.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total 62.66%
Ranked 105th. 58% more than United States
39.68%
Ranked 152nd.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total 32.8%
Ranked 36th. 38% more than United States
23.72%
Ranked 58th.

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Industrial 1%
Ranked 108th.
46%
Ranked 6th. 46 times more than Saudi Arabia
Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total 0.0
Ranked 161st.
35.82%
Ranked 33th.

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 2,874
Ranked 27th.
348,460
Ranked 1st. 121 times more than Saudi Arabia

Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 100
Ranked 16th. 1% more than United States
98.6
Ranked 40th.

CO2 Emissions 266,083
Ranked 19th.
5.76 million
Ranked 1st. 22 times more than Saudi Arabia
Water > Suspended solids 8.01 mls/litre
Ranked 4th. 91% more than United States
4.19 mls/litre
Ranked 95th.
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources 986.08%
Ranked 4th. 58 times more than United States
17.12%
Ranked 61st.
Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 4.38%
Ranked 60th.
9.62%
Ranked 13th. 2 times more than Saudi Arabia

Known breeding bird species per million 5.73
Ranked 119th. 3 times more than United States
1.77
Ranked 140th.
Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 3.3%
Ranked 32nd.
4.13%
Ranked 27th. 25% more than Saudi Arabia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 1.03%
Ranked 124th.
10.03%
Ranked 47th. 10 times more than Saudi Arabia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$ 0.0
Ranked 114th.
0.0
Ranked 95th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI -1.06%
Ranked 102nd.
1.07%
Ranked 91st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$ $208.35 billion
Ranked 4th.
$276.06 billion
Ranked 3rd. 32% more than Saudi Arabia

Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use 2.67
Ranked 34th. 7% more than United States
2.49
Ranked 52nd.

PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 133.25 mcg/m³
Ranked 8th. 6 times more than United States
22.63 mcg/m³
Ranked 140th.

Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions 19.96%
Ranked 22nd. 66% more than United States
12.02%
Ranked 51st.

Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions 29.97%
Ranked 36th.
51.06%
Ranked 7th. 70% more than Saudi Arabia

Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 6.88%
Ranked 21st.
8.14%
Ranked 11th. 18% more than Saudi Arabia

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent -15.24
Ranked 34th.
-990.062
Ranked 41st. 65 times more than Saudi Arabia

Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 1.97%
Ranked 51st.
4.24%
Ranked 14th. 2 times more than Saudi Arabia

Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 6.8%
Ranked 37th.
13.9%
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Saudi Arabia

Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 15.92%
Ranked 30th. 50% more than United States
10.61%
Ranked 35th.

Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters 14.44%
Ranked 36th. 7 times more than United States
2%
Ranked 95th.

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million -0.94
Ranked 28th.
-3.227
Ranked 33th. 3 times more than Saudi Arabia

Water pollution > Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.57%
Ranked 28th.
50.59%
Ranked 7th. 20 times more than Saudi Arabia

Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 11.56%
Ranked 21st.
13.05%
Ranked 12th. 13% more than Saudi Arabia

Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.73% of GNI
Ranked 45th. 2 times more than United States
0.34% of GNI
Ranked 93th.

Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 3.24%
Ranked 30th.
3.45%
Ranked 28th. 7% more than Saudi Arabia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion 52.77%
Ranked 33th. 13% more than United States
46.87%
Ranked 45th.

SOURCES: The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency; International Energy Agency. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. 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Source tables; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Report on National Reports Required Under Article VIII, Paragraph 7(a), of the Convention, Eleventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Gigiri, Kenya, April 2000; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. 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Original sources: World Conservation Monitoring Center, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other sources.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Resources Institute, World Resources 1998-99; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2000; WHO,Air Management Information System-AMIS 2.0, 1998; and Global Urban Observatory, Citibase, 1999. via ciesin.org; World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Statistics Division's National Accounts Statistics.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank staff estimates. The conceptual underpinnings of the savings measure appear in Hamilton and Clemens' ""Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries"" (1999).; Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. 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Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. ""Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS),"" World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).; World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. 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