- Corruption > Bribe Payers Index: 2008
- Democracy > Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Status Index 2006: The Status Indexâ€™s overall result represents the mean value of the scores for the dimensions â€œPolitical Transformationâ€? and â€œEconomic Transformationâ€?. The mean value was calculated using the exact, unrounded values for both these dimensions, which, in turn, were derived from the ratings for the five political criteria (based on 18 indicators) and the seven economic criteria (based on 14 indicators). The table shows rounded scores for political and economic transformation as well as for the Status Indexâ€™s overall result. In some cases, therefore, the overall result differs slightly from the mean value.
- Democracy > CPIA gender equality rating: Gender equality assesses the extent to which the country has installed institutions and programs to enforce laws and policies that promote equal access for men and women in education, health, the economy, and protection under law.
Democracy > Civil and political liberties:
Civil and political liberties
Units: Index Ranging from 7 (High Levels of Liberties) to 1 (Low
Units: This is the average of two indicators - civil liberties and political liberties.
- General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
- Government corruption rating: Transparency, accountability, and corruption in the public sector assess the extent to which the executive can be held accountable for its use of funds and for the results of its actions by the electorate and by the legislature and judiciary, and the extent to which public employees within the executive are required to account for administrative decisions, use of resources, and results obtained. The three main dimensions assessed here are the accountability of the executive to oversight institutions and of public employees for their performance, access of civil society to information on public affairs, and state capture by narrow vested interests."
- Government spending > Government expenditure as a percentage of GDP: Government expenditure as a percentage of GDP. Figures are according to 2011 Index of Economic Freedom.
- Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament: Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber occupied by women.
- Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient: Burden of customs procedure, WEF (1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient). Burden of Customs Procedure measures business executives' perceptions of their country's efficiency of customs procedures. The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher score indicating greater efficiency. Data are from the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The 2009 round included more than 13,000 respondents from 133 countries. Sampling follows a dual stratification based on company size and the sector of activity. Data are collected online or through in-person interviews. Responses are aggregated using sector-weighted averaging. The data for the latest year are combined with the data for the previous year to create a two-year moving average. Respondents evaluated the efficiency of customs procedures in their country. The lowest score (1) rates the customs procedure as extremely inefficient, and the highest score (7) as extremely efficient.
- Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
- Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
- Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
- Total businesses registered > Number: Total businesses registered. Because of underreporting of firms that have closed or exited, especially in developing countries, the data on total registered firms may be biased upward.
Transnational Issues > Refugees and internally displaced persons > IDPs:
This entry is derived from Government > Transnational Issues > Refugees and internally displaced persons, which includes those persons residing in a country as refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs). Each country's refugee entry includes only countries of origin that are the source of refugee populations of 5,000 or more. The definition of a refugee according to a United Nations Convention is "a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution." The UN established the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1950 to handle refugee matters worldwide. The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has a different operational definition for a Palestinian refugee: "a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948 and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict." However, UNHCR also assists some 400,000 Palestinian refugees not covered under the UNRWA definition. The term "internally displaced person" is not specifically covered in the UN Convention; it is used to describe people who have fled their homes for reasons similar to refugees, but who remain within their own national territory and are subject to the laws of that state.
- Algeria: undetermined (civil war during 1990s) (2012)
- Bangladesh: undetermined (land conflicts, religious persecution) (2012)
- Burma: more than 454,200 (government offensives against armed ethnic minority groups near its borders with China and Thailand) (2012)
- Guatemala: undetermined (the UN does not estimate there are any IDPs, although some NGOs estimate over 200,000 IDPs as a result of over three decades of internal conflict that ended in 1996) (2007)
- Guatemala: undetermined (more than three decades of internal conflict that ended in 1996 displaced mainly the indigenous Maya population and rural peasants; ongoing drug cartel and gang violence) (2011)
- India: at least 600,000 (about half are Kashmiri Pandits from Jammu and Kashmir) (2007)
- India: at least 540,000 (about 250,000 are Kashmiri Pandits from Jammu and Kashmir) (2012)
- Kenya: at least 300,000 (2007-08 post-election ...
"Landlocked Government Profile", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/groups/Landlocked-countries/Government
"Landlocked Government Profile, NationMaster." 1960-2013. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/groups/Landlocked-countries/Government>.
'Landlocked Government Profile, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/groups/Landlocked-countries/Government> [assessed 1960-2013]
"Landlocked Government Profile", NationMaster [Internet]. 1960-2013. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/groups/Landlocked-countries/Government>.
"Landlocked Government Profile", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1960-2013.
"Landlocked Government Profile, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/groups/Landlocked-countries/Government (assessed 1960-2013)
"Landlocked Government Profile", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/groups/Landlocked-countries/Government (last visited 1960-2013)
"Landlocked Government Profile", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/groups/Landlocked-countries/Government (as of 1960-2013)