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Environment Stats: compare key data on Australia & Indonesia

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Definitions

  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • CO2 Emissions per 1000: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Pollution perceptions > Air pollution: Air Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Air quality: Air quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean water: Water Quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution: Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Water pollution: Water Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Proportion of land area under protection: Terrestrial areas protected to total surface area, percentage.
  • Transport CO2 emission index: CO2 Emission Index is an estimation of CO2 consumption due to traffic time. Measurement unit is grams for the return trip. To calculate an average estimation of emission in grams for one way commute to work, divide this value with 2.
  • Waste > Local garbage collected: Municipal waste collected.
  • Marine fish catch per 1000: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Water > Severe water stress: Percent of country's territory under severe water stress
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: This data is derived from the WaterGap 2.1 gridded hydrological model developed by the Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany. The modellers derived, for each country, grid cell by grid cell estimates of whether the water consumption exceeds 40 percent of the water available in that particular grid cell. These were then converted to land area equivalents in order to calculate the percentage of the territory under severe water stress.
  • CFC > Consumption: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.
  • Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution: Noise and Light Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Endangered species > Mammal species > Number: Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened: Mammal species, threatened. Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality: Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Pollution perceptions > Pollution index: Pollution Index is an estimation of the overall pollution in the city. The biggest weight is given to air pollution, than to water pollution/accessibility, two main pollution factors. Small weight is given to other pollution types.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, total.
  • National parks > Number of parks: Number of parks.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened: Bird species, threatened. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Endangered species > Bird species: Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • SO2 emissions per populated area: SO2 emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Waste > Local garbage collected per thousand people: Municipal waste collected. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened: Fish species, threatened. Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Endangered species > Fish species > Number: Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity: Percentage of population who responded yes when asked if they believed global warming was a result of human activities. In this survey, global warming refers to the current rise in earth's temperature and not climate change as a whole.
  • Water > Percent of water resources used: Proportion of total water resources used, percentage.
  • Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number: Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons.
  • NOx emissions per populated area: NOx emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Biodiversity richness: Caldecott, J.O., M.D. Jenkins, T. Johnson and B. Groombridge. 1994. Priorities for Conserving Global Species Richness and Endemism. In World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Biodiversity Series No. 3 (N. Mark Collins, ed.) pp. 17. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration: Dissolved oxygen concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, total.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities: Clean and Tidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, rural.
  • Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened: Plant species (higher), threatened. Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Threatened species: Number of Threatened Species (1990-99)
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Biodiversity > Number: GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential)."
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness: Percentage of each country's population who claimed knowing "something" or a "great deal" about climate change when asked: "How much do you know about global warming or climate change?"
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution: Comfortable to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CFC > Consumption per 1000: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities: Dirty and Untidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential).
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas.
  • Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution: Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.
  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.
  • Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent: Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production.
  • Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry per capita: Water supplied annually, where losses during transportation have been subtracted. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates.
  • Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter). Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Proportion of land and marine area under protection: Terrestrial and marine areas protected to total territorial area, percentage.
  • Endangered species protection: Percent of CITES reporting requirements met
    Units: Percent of Requirements Met
    Units: Countries that have not ratified the CITES convention are recorded as having zero percent of their requirements met.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution: Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, urban.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction: Garbage Disposal Satisfaction. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 per million: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat: Percentage of country's population that perceives climate change as a threat. Results are from a 2008 Gallop Poll.
  • Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management."
  • Wildness: Percent of land area having very low anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Forest area > Sq. km per 1000: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Threatened species > Mammal: Number of threatened mammal species (1997)
  • World Heritage Sites (environmental): Natural sites.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2).
  • Breeding birds threatened: Percentage of breeding birds threatened
    Units: Percent of Breeding Birds
    Units: The number of bird species threatened divided by known bird species in the country, expressed as a percentage.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, urban.
  • Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride."
  • Urban SO2 concentration: Urban SO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Sustainability-satisfying companies: Dow Jones Sustainability Group Index: percent of eligible companies in index
    Units: Percentage
    Units: For each country, the number of companies in the Sustainability Index was divided by the number of companies in the Global Index.
  • Water > Proportion of marine area under protection: Marine areas protected to territorial waters, percentage.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Environmental agreement compliance: Compliance with environmental agreements (WEF survey)
    Units: Survey Responses Ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7
    Units: Response to the statement: "Compliance with international environmental agreements is a high priority.
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2). Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Freshwater > Withdrawal per million: . Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations."
  • Water > Salinisation: Electrical conductivity
    Units: Micro-Siemens/Centimeter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of water bodies; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 > Per $ GDP: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas. Per $ GDP figures expressed per $100 million of Gross Domestic Product.
  • Kyoto Protocol signatories > Signed and ratified > Date: Date different countries signed the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol is an international environmental treaty drafted at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1997 in Kyoto Japan. The protocol mandates signatory countries to commit themselves to reducing carbon dioxide emission. At present, there are 37 countries that have signed and ratified the protocol.
  • Fertiliser > Consumption: Fertilizer consumption per hectare of arable land
    Units: Hundreds Grams/Hectare of Arable Land
  • Urban NO2 concentration: Urban NO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Non-wildness: Percent of land area having very high anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons.
  • Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water > Phosphorus concentration: Phosphorus concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction: Quality of Green and Parks. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Total natural resources rents > % of GDP: Total natural resources rents (% of GDP). Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
  • Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters: Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters). Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted net national income > Annual % growth: Adjusted net national income (annual % growth). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • CO2 Emissions: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Kyoto Protocol sign date: Signed.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total: Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Forest area > % of land area: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total: Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Natural gas rents > % of GDP: Natural gas rents (% of GDP). Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use: Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a countryÂ’s technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total: Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Oil rents > % of GDP: Oil rents (% of GDP). Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Water > Suspended solids: Suspended solids
    Units: Natural Log of Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. Data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of majorwatersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries. The data in this table was transformed using the natural logarithm.
  • Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry: Water supplied annually, where losses during transportation have been subtracted.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date: Signature.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • International agreements > Signed but not ratified: The various international environmental agreements which a country has signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
STAT Australia Indonesia HISTORY
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $661.67 billion
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Indonesia
$303.37 billion
Ranked 10th.

CO2 Emissions per 1000 16.71
Ranked 7th. 13 times more than Indonesia
1.31
Ranked 97th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons 241.7
Ranked 9th. 46% more than Indonesia
165.13
Ranked 17th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million 10.83
Ranked 5th. 16 times more than Indonesia
0.677
Ranked 86th.

Current issues soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Ecological footprint 8.49
Ranked 7th. 8 times more than Indonesia
1.1
Ranked 45th.

Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita 80.52 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 5th. 20 times more than Indonesia
4.01 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 86th.

Marine fish catch 134,900 tons
Ranked 49th.
3.41 million tons
Ranked 6th. 25 times more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Air pollution 16.32
Ranked 57th.
64.77
Ranked 23th. 4 times more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Air quality 83.68
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Indonesia
35.23
Ranked 37th.
Pollution perceptions > Clean water 76.03
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Indonesia
32.47
Ranked 46th.
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution 15.29
Ranked 54th.
53.4
Ranked 16th. 3 times more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Water pollution 23.97
Ranked 55th.
67.53
Ranked 14th. 3 times more than Australia
Proportion of land area under protection 12.85%
Ranked 115th.
14.7%
Ranked 106th. 14% more than Australia

Transport CO2 emission index 4,192.63
Ranked 21st.
7,365.36
Ranked 6th. 76% more than Australia
Waste > Local garbage collected 8.9 million tonnes
Ranked 14th.
9.6 million tonnes
Ranked 12th. 8% more than Australia

Marine fish catch per 1000 7.13 tons
Ranked 57th.
16.58 tons
Ranked 34th. 2 times more than Australia
Water > Severe water stress 8
Ranked 64th. 6 times more than Indonesia
1.4
Ranked 80th.
CFC > Consumption 0.22
Ranked 99th.
88,310.7
Ranked 18th. 401412 times more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution 25.74
Ranked 56th.
47.22
Ranked 35th. 83% more than Australia
Endangered species > Mammal species > Number 57
Ranked 9th.
183
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Australia
Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened 55
Ranked 10th.
185
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality 84.71
Ranked 6th. 82% more than Indonesia
46.6
Ranked 44th.
CO2 emissions > Kt 354,054.6 kt
Ranked 15th. 20% more than Indonesia
295,032.7 kt
Ranked 21st.

Pollution perceptions > Pollution index 20.52
Ranked 56th.
72.1
Ranked 19th. 4 times more than Australia
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural 100
Ranked 21st. 19% more than Indonesia
84.26
Ranked 144th.

National parks > Number of parks 685
Ranked 1st. 14 times more than Indonesia
50
Ranked 6th.
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 17.74
Ranked 11th. 10 times more than Indonesia
1.77
Ranked 106th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 16.91
Ranked 12th. 9 times more than Indonesia
1.8
Ranked 116th.

Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened 51
Ranked 14th.
122
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Australia
Carbon efficiency 2.07 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 33th. 86% more than Indonesia
1.11 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 73th.
CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 17.8 kt
Ranked 11th. 13 times more than Indonesia
1.35 kt
Ranked 111th.

Endangered species > Bird species 49
Ranked 14th.
115
Ranked 2nd. 2 times more than Australia

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $29,639.38
Ranked 1st. 24 times more than Indonesia
$1,244.33
Ranked 48th.

SO2 emissions per populated area 2,840 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 18th. 8 times more than Indonesia
360 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 85th.
Waste > Local garbage collected per thousand people 447.49 tonnes
Ranked 29th. 11 times more than Indonesia
40.99 tonnes
Ranked 70th.

Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened 106
Ranked 8th.
145
Ranked 5th. 37% more than Australia
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 373,080.58
Ranked 18th.
433,989.45
Ranked 15th. 16% more than Australia

CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita 17.82 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 13th. 13 times more than Indonesia
1.37 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 114th.

Endangered species > Fish species > Number 84
Ranked 6th.
111
Ranked 4th. 32% more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction 15.5
Ranked 58th.
68.67
Ranked 10th. 4 times more than Australia
Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity 54%
Ranked 68th.
55%
Ranked 62nd. 2% more than Australia
Water > Percent of water resources used 4.58%
Ranked 79th.
5.61%
Ranked 72nd. 22% more than Australia

Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number 55
Ranked 39th.
386
Ranked 4th. 7 times more than Australia

Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption 46.81
Ranked 50th.
337.5
Ranked 20th. 7 times more than Australia

NOx emissions per populated area 1 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 21st. 6 times more than Indonesia
0.18 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 94th.
Biodiversity richness 1
Ranked 48th. The same as Indonesia
1
Ranked 35th.
Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration 10.64 mls/litre
Ranked 11th. 3 times more than Indonesia
3.31 mls/litre
Ranked 140th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 16.91
Ranked 12th. 9 times more than Indonesia
1.8
Ranked 116th.

Forest area > Sq. km 1.64 million km²
Ranked 6th. 85% more than Indonesia
884,950 km²
Ranked 8th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.47
Ranked 91st.
$1.15
Ranked 35th. 2 times more than Australia

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural 100
Ranked 23th. 70% more than Indonesia
58.68
Ranked 136th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt 373,738.99
Ranked 15th.
396,818.53
Ranked 14th. 6% more than Australia

Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities 79.41
Ranked 3rd. 89% more than Indonesia
41.98
Ranked 39th.
Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people 2.1
Ranked 80th. 51% more than Indonesia
1.38
Ranked 95th.

Water > Availability 27.81 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 19th. 3 times more than Indonesia
10.96 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 38th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural 100
Ranked 22nd. 32% more than Indonesia
75.53
Ranked 138th.

Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened 89
Ranked 37th.
404
Ranked 5th. 5 times more than Australia
Threatened species 483
Ranked 2nd. 42% more than Indonesia
340
Ranked 3rd.
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $46,204.01
Ranked 6th. 17 times more than Indonesia
$2,767.35
Ranked 89th.

Biodiversity > Number 87.69
Ranked 3rd. 8% more than Indonesia
80.96
Ranked 4th.

Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $1.03 trillion
Ranked 14th. 53% more than Indonesia
$674.69 billion
Ranked 18th.

Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness 97%
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Indonesia
39%
Ranked 106th.
Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution 86.5
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than Indonesia
41.28
Ranked 39th.
CFC > Consumption per 1000 1.19e-05
Ranked 100th.
0.441
Ranked 45th. 37155 times more than Australia
Protected area 7%
Ranked 59th.
9.7%
Ranked 41st. 39% more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities 20.59
Ranked 57th.
58.02
Ranked 21st. 3 times more than Australia
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum 87.69
Ranked 3rd. 8% more than Indonesia
80.96
Ranked 4th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.72
Ranked 76th.
$1.70
Ranked 26th. 2 times more than Australia

Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 97
Ranked 15th. 41% more than Indonesia
69
Ranked 21st.
Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution 74.26
Ranked 4th. 41% more than Indonesia
52.78
Ranked 25th.
Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters 492
Ranked 17th.
2,838
Ranked 4th. 6 times more than Australia

Acidification 0.0
Ranked 122nd.
8.15%
Ranked 27th.
Freshwater > Withdrawal 24.06
Ranked 25th.
82.78
Ranked 6th. 3 times more than Australia
Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent 116,840
Ranked 9th.
224,330
Ranked 7th. 92% more than Australia

Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry per capita 563.26 cubic metres
Ranked 4th. 55 times more than Indonesia
10.29 cubic metres
Ranked 45th.

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters 22,956.54
Ranked 32nd. 84% more than Indonesia
12,483.23
Ranked 47th.

Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 13.11
Ranked 161st.
60.14
Ranked 25th. 5 times more than Australia

Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number 5,485
Ranked 7th. 12 times more than Indonesia
469
Ranked 35th.
CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP 0.65 kg/PPP$
Ranked 32nd. 51% more than Indonesia
0.43 kg/PPP$
Ranked 56th.

Proportion of land and marine area under protection 15.05%
Ranked 85th. 66% more than Indonesia
9.05%
Ranked 120th.

Endangered species protection 100%
Ranked 18th. 5% more than Indonesia
95%
Ranked 27th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 6.45
Ranked 24th.
8.41
Ranked 19th. 30% more than Australia

Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution 13.5
Ranked 56th.
58.72
Ranked 21st. 4 times more than Australia
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million 4.1
Ranked 32nd. 12 times more than Indonesia
0.346
Ranked 92nd.

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 100%
Ranked 23th. 2 times more than Indonesia
43.51%
Ranked 133th.

Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban 100
Ranked 30th. 8% more than Indonesia
92.75
Ranked 154th.

Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction 84.5
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Indonesia
31.33
Ranked 50th.
Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 per million 5.06
Ranked 3rd. 15 times more than Indonesia
0.33
Ranked 23th.
Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat 75%
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Indonesia
33%
Ranked 100th.
Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 114,500
Ranked 6th. 64% more than Indonesia
69,910
Ranked 11th.

Wildness 74%
Ranked 6th. 5 times more than Indonesia
15.95%
Ranked 53th.
Forest area > Sq. km per 1000 80.25 km²
Ranked 5th. 20 times more than Indonesia
3.94 km²
Ranked 85th.

Threatened species > Mammal 58
Ranked 6th.
128
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Australia
World Heritage Sites (environmental) 12
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Indonesia
4
Ranked 9th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 12.69
Ranked 32nd.
19.47
Ranked 25th. 53% more than Australia

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters 23.93
Ranked 29th.
82.78
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than Australia

Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 94,008
Ranked 13th. 46% more than Indonesia
64,308
Ranked 19th.
Breeding birds threatened 4.93%
Ranked 31st.
7.39%
Ranked 19th. 50% more than Australia
Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 9.03
Ranked 2nd. 17 times more than Indonesia
0.539
Ranked 57th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt 60,674.18
Ranked 30th.
73,791.04
Ranked 23th. 22% more than Australia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 4.9
Ranked 25th. 6 times more than Indonesia
0.871
Ranked 120th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt 199,294.12
Ranked 11th. 54% more than Indonesia
129,621.12
Ranked 14th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 2.75
Ranked 25th. 9 times more than Indonesia
0.307
Ranked 79th.

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million 410.19
Ranked 11th. 80 times more than Indonesia
5.16
Ranked 91st.

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number 384
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than Indonesia
139
Ranked 9th.
Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban 100
Ranked 25th. 36% more than Indonesia
73.43
Ranked 138th.

Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 4,580
Ranked 16th. 5 times more than Indonesia
900
Ranked 40th.

Urban SO2 concentration 13.17 micrograms/m3
Ranked 120th.
51.05 micrograms/m3
Ranked 65th. 4 times more than Australia
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$ $142.69 billion
Ranked 12th. 3 times more than Indonesia
$49.02 billion
Ranked 25th.

Sustainability-satisfying companies 20.8%
Ranked 13th.
0.0
Ranked 24th.
Water > Proportion of marine area under protection 33.24%
Ranked 15th. 6 times more than Indonesia
5.81%
Ranked 70th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$ $145.64 billion
Ranked 7th.
$-10,889,648,071.10
Ranked 117th.

Environmental agreement compliance 5.42
Ranked 17th. 48% more than Indonesia
3.65
Ranked 53th.
Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000 4.97
Ranked 10th. 16 times more than Indonesia
0.312
Ranked 117th.
Freshwater > Withdrawal per million 1.26
Ranked 14th. 3 times more than Indonesia
0.396
Ranked 60th.
Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 15.39
Ranked 156th.
82.88
Ranked 21st. 5 times more than Australia

Water > Salinisation 655.39
Ranked 66th. 4 times more than Indonesia
167.13
Ranked 126th.
Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 > Per $ GDP 0.0159 per $100 million
Ranked 6th. 90% more than Indonesia
0.00834 per $100 million
Ranked 20th.
Kyoto Protocol signatories > Signed and ratified > Date 4/29/1998 7/13/1998
Fertiliser > Consumption 392.38 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 86th.
1,545.57 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 34th. 4 times more than Australia
Urban NO2 concentration 16.47 micrograms/m3
Ranked 134th.
34.62 micrograms/m3
Ranked 111th. 2 times more than Australia
Non-wildness 0.48%
Ranked 119th.
3.34%
Ranked 70th. 7 times more than Australia
Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent 53.97
Ranked 1st.
164.12
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Australia
Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 6.32%
Ranked 42nd. 3 times more than Indonesia
2.43%
Ranked 23th.

Water > Phosphorus concentration 0.06 mls/litre
Ranked 132nd.
0.56 mls/litre
Ranked 23th. 9 times more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction 84.07
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Indonesia
41.14
Ranked 48th.
Total natural resources rents > % of GDP 10.74%
Ranked 47th. 7% more than Indonesia
10%
Ranked 51st.

Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.07% of GNI
Ranked 143th.
1.11% of GNI
Ranked 25th. 16 times more than Australia

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Agricultural 75%
Ranked 59th.
91%
Ranked 30th. 21% more than Australia
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI 4.12%
Ranked 42nd.
12.6%
Ranked 26th. 3 times more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI 14.73%
Ranked 7th. 38% more than Indonesia
10.66%
Ranked 86th.

Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 22.77%
Ranked 16th. 3 times more than Indonesia
8.16%
Ranked 25th.

Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters 28.34%
Ranked 14th. 13 times more than Indonesia
2.2%
Ranked 91st.

Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.37% of GNI
Ranked 86th.
0.84% of GNI
Ranked 37th. 2 times more than Australia

Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 5.14%
Ranked 52nd.
19.42%
Ranked 8th. 4 times more than Australia

Adjusted net national income > Annual % growth 4.94%
Ranked 32nd. 9% more than Indonesia
4.52%
Ranked 35th.

CO2 Emissions 332,377
Ranked 14th. 16% more than Indonesia
286,027
Ranked 18th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 100
Ranked 23th. 2 times more than Indonesia
43.51
Ranked 133th.

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 9,051
Ranked 15th. 7 times more than Indonesia
1,241
Ranked 48th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total 53.42%
Ranked 17th. 79% more than Indonesia
29.87%
Ranked 40th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million 0.568
Ranked 33th. 7 times more than Indonesia
0.0799
Ranked 98th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Kyoto Protocol sign date 29 April 1998 13 July 1998
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI 18.13%
Ranked 37th. 56% more than Indonesia
11.59%
Ranked 57th.

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area 70.65%
Ranked 2nd. 39 times more than Indonesia
1.8%
Ranked 60th.
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area 0.1%
Ranked 188th.
15.75%
Ranked 72nd. 158 times more than Australia
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP $0.49
Ranked 39th. 4% more than Indonesia
$0.47
Ranked 42nd.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP $0.52
Ranked 39th. 4% more than Indonesia
$0.50
Ranked 42nd.

Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total 94.88%
Ranked 31st. 31% more than Indonesia
72.62%
Ranked 94th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$ $175.59 billion
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than Indonesia
$53.30 billion
Ranked 19th.

Forest area > % of land area 21.31% of land area
Ranked 119th.
48.85% of land area
Ranked 42nd. 2 times more than Australia

Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 12.42%
Ranked 25th. 5 times more than Indonesia
2.5%
Ranked 19th.

Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total 61.53%
Ranked 37th. 49% more than Indonesia
41.2%
Ranked 67th.

Natural gas rents > % of GDP 0.684%
Ranked 34th.
0.802%
Ranked 33th. 17% more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$ $36.45 billion
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than Indonesia
$6.34 billion
Ranked 11th.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP 47.8%
Ranked 60th. 33% more than Indonesia
35.84%
Ranked 76th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI 15.04%
Ranked 30th.
-2.37%
Ranked 102nd.

Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP 74.52%
Ranked 118th.
79.7%
Ranked 103th. 7% more than Australia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt 108,158.16
Ranked 21st.
209,587.39
Ranked 13th. 94% more than Australia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 3.2%
Ranked 111th.
4.57%
Ranked 98th. 43% more than Australia

Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions 77.11%
Ranked 5th. 44% more than Indonesia
53.66%
Ranked 12th.

Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use 3.01
Ranked 20th. 45% more than Indonesia
2.08
Ranked 73th.

PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 15.91 mcg/m³
Ranked 163th.
102.1 mcg/m³
Ranked 17th. 6 times more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI 32.86%
Ranked 25th. 48% more than Indonesia
22.25%
Ranked 63th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI 3.76%
Ranked 14th. 3 times more than Indonesia
1.38%
Ranked 24th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.02%
Ranked 141st.
0.52%
Ranked 31st. 26 times more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$ $198.44 million
Ranked 41st.
$2.37 billion
Ranked 10th. 12 times more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$ $145.84 billion
Ranked 8th.
$-8,516,075,169.96
Ranked 119th.

Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.24%
Ranked 33th. 71% more than Indonesia
0.14%
Ranked 26th.

Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total 24.59%
Ranked 54th.
36.2%
Ranked 42nd. 47% more than Australia

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal 14.71%
Ranked 72nd. 84% more than Indonesia
8%
Ranked 104th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal 10.03%
Ranked 64th. 15 times more than Indonesia
0.68%
Ranked 126th.

Oil rents > % of GDP 0.823%
Ranked 56th.
2.96%
Ranked 40th. 4 times more than Australia

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal 75.26%
Ranked 59th.
91.33%
Ranked 24th. 21% more than Australia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total 28.99%
Ranked 165th.
48.29%
Ranked 131st. 67% more than Australia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total 16.26%
Ranked 73th.
17%
Ranked 71st. 5% more than Australia

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Industrial 10%
Ranked 44th. 10 times more than Indonesia
1%
Ranked 113th.
Water > Suspended solids 7.64 mls/litre
Ranked 10th. 42% more than Indonesia
5.37 mls/litre
Ranked 61st.
Water > Net freshwater supplied by water supply industry 11.34 billion cubic metres
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than Indonesia
2.41 billion cubic metres
Ranked 10th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date June 4, 1992 June 5, 1992
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources 4.86%
Ranked 85th. 66% more than Indonesia
2.92%
Ranked 95th.
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 134th.
0.0
Ranked 142nd.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$ 0.0
Ranked 143th.
0.0
Ranked 151st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI 15.06%
Ranked 31st.
-1.85%
Ranked 103th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$ $39.90 billion
Ranked 18th.
$57.95 billion
Ranked 11th. 45% more than Australia

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Domestic 15%
Ranked 62nd. 88% more than Indonesia
8%
Ranked 87th.
Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction 15.93
Ranked 59th.
58.86
Ranked 12th. 4 times more than Australia
Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 5.32%
Ranked 8th. 17% more than Indonesia
4.53%
Ranked 6th.

Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 5.64%
Ranked 53th.
9.17%
Ranked 13th. 63% more than Australia

Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.18 kg per day per worker
Ranked 34th. The same as Indonesia
0.18 kg per day per worker
Ranked 12th.

International agreements > Signed but not ratified none of the selected agreements Marine Life Conservation
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.29%
Ranked 91st.
0.61%
Ranked 32nd. 2 times more than Australia

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million 2.48
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Indonesia
0.859
Ranked 8th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 1.63%
Ranked 80th.
1.97%
Ranked 71st. 21% more than Australia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion 60.92%
Ranked 17th. 57% more than Indonesia
38.77%
Ranked 65th.

SOURCES: The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency; International Energy Agency. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Living Planet Report 2000, Gland, Switzerland: 2000, and Redefining Progress.; World Development Indicators database; FAOSTAT on-line database; pollution; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; traffic; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; FAOSTAT on-line database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGap 2.1, 2000 via ciesin.org; UNEP, Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances, 1986-1998, October 1999. via ciesin.org; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wikipedia: List of national parks (Africa); Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Data Version 1.1, B1Illustrative Marker Scenario with model IMAGE; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. 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