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Government Stats: compare key data on Australia & Russia

Definitions

  • Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
  • Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
  • Executive branch > Chief of state: The name and title of any person or role roughly equivalent to a U.S. Chief of State. This means the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government
  • Executive branch > Head of government: Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government.
  • Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
  • Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
  • Legal system: A brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
  • Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Political parties and leaders: Significant political organizations and their leaders.
  • Political pressure groups and leaders: Organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.
  • Suffrage: The age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted
  • International organization participation: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
  • Country name > Conventional long form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Executive branch > Elections: Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election
  • National symbol(s): A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.
  • Flag description: A written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.
  • Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Country name > Conventional short form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Constitutional form: Constitutional form of government.
  • Transnational Issues > Disputes > International: This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.
  • Total businesses registered > Number: Total businesses registered. Because of underreporting of firms that have closed or exited, especially in developing countries, the data on total registered firms may be biased upward.
  • National anthem: A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.
  • Legislative branch > Elections: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Legislative branch > Election results: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Democracy and rights > Press freedom index: Compares countries by their degree of government censorship, according to the Press freedom index. This index, created by the non-governmental organization Reporters without borders (RWS), is ellaborated using data from an extensive annual survey sent to professional reporters throughout the world. The survey contains questions about the type and ownership of media present in the country, freedom of speech, violence exerted against reporters, election campaigns, access of political parties to the media, etc.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage: Percentage of seats held by women in country's national parliament or legislative houses.
  • Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. "
  • Judicial branch > Subordinate courts: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Basis of executive legitimacy: Basis of executive legitimacy.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Transnational Issues > Illicit drugs: This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels.
    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
    Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.
    Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
    Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).
    Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.
    Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.
    Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
    Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
    Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
    Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
    Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
    Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in Southwest Asia and Africa.
    Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussin AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics ...
    Full definition
  • Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press: Compares countries by freedom of the press. The lower the score, the more free the press of that country is. The scores are taken from the Freedom of the Press Index, elaborated by Freedom House, self-defined as "an independent watchdog organization dedicated to the expansion of freedom around the world". The data used in the index come from an annual survey of media independence in 197 countries and territories, assessing the degree of print, broadcast, and internet freedom in each of them.
  • Corruption > Bribe Payers Index: 2008
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament: Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber occupied by women.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Embassy: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
  • Democracy > Civil and political liberties: Civil and political liberties
    Units: Index Ranging from 7 (High Levels of Liberties) to 1 (Low
    Units: This is the average of two indicators - civil liberties and political liberties.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • National holiday: The primary national day of celebration - often independence day.
  • Capital > Geographic coordinates: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Democracy > First female parliamentarian: Year first woman elected or appointed to parliament.
  • Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient: Burden of customs procedure, WEF (1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient). Burden of Customs Procedure measures business executives' perceptions of their country's efficiency of customs procedures. The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher score indicating greater efficiency. Data are from the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The 2009 round included more than 13,000 respondents from 133 countries. Sampling follows a dual stratification based on company size and the sector of activity. Data are collected online or through in-person interviews. Responses are aggregated using sector-weighted averaging. The data for the latest year are combined with the data for the previous year to create a two-year moving average. Respondents evaluated the efficiency of customs procedures in their country. The lowest score (1) rates the customs procedure as extremely inefficient, and the highest score (7) as extremely efficient.
  • Red tape > Time required to register property > Days: Time required to register property (days). Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Politics: Country politics.
  • International law organization participation: This entry includes information on a country's acceptance of jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and of the International Criminal Court (ICCt); 55 countries have accepted ICJ jurisdiction with reservations and 11 have accepted ICJ jurisdiction without reservations; 114 countries have accepted ICCt jurisdiction. Appendix B: International Organizations and Groups explains the differing mandates of the ICJ and ICCt.
  • Parliament > Seats held by men: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses.
  • Red tape > Time to resolve insolvency > Years: Time to resolve insolvency (years). Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets.
  • Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Telephone: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Chief of mission: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses.
  • Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel: Date on which Israel was officially recognized as a state. Note that some countries had a “de facto” recognition in place long before the legal recognition.
  • Democracy > Democratic institutions rating: Democratic institutions
    Units: Scale ranging from -10 (autocratic) to +10 (democratic)
  • UN membership date: Date of United Nations Membership
  • Total businesses registered > Number per 1000: Total businesses registered. Because of underreporting of firms that have closed or exited, especially in developing countries, the data on total registered firms may be biased upward. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number: Procedures to build a warehouse (number). Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers.
  • Capital city: The location of the seat of government.
  • Capital > Name: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Legal origin: Legal origin identifies the origin of the Company Law or Commercial Code in each country
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Spending > Expense > Current LCU: Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends."
  • Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days: Time required to get electricity (days). Time required to get electricity is the number of days to obtain a permanent electricity connection. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Registered voter turnout: The proportion of registered voters who actually voted.
  • Democracy and rights > Year women first voted at national level: Year women first voted at national level.
  • Legislature (parliament) > People per member: Number of people each member of the legislature represents on average. The number of members of the legislature is the sum of the members of all chambers of parliament, if applicable.
  • Capital > Time difference: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • International relations: Country international relations.
  • Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days per million: Time required to get electricity (days). Time required to get electricity is the number of days to obtain a permanent electricity connection. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Legislature (parliament) > Lower house members: Members of the lower house of the legislature or of the only chamber in a unicameral system.
  • Legislature (parliament) > Upper house members: Members of the upper house of the legislature. Does not include countries with a unicameral system.
  • Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days: Time required to enforce a contract (days). Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment.
  • Democracy > Female parliamentarians: Seats in parliament held by women (as % of total). Data are as of 8 March 2002. Where there are lower and upper houses, data refer to the weighted average of women's shares of seats in both houses.
  • Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number: Procedures to register property (number). Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Role of head of state: Head of state.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
  • Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong: Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit."
  • Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient per million: Burden of customs procedure, WEF (1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient). Burden of Customs Procedure measures business executives' perceptions of their country's efficiency of customs procedures. The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher score indicating greater efficiency. Data are from the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The 2009 round included more than 13,000 respondents from 133 countries. Sampling follows a dual stratification based on company size and the sector of activity. Data are collected online or through in-person interviews. Responses are aggregated using sector-weighted averaging. The data for the latest year are combined with the data for the previous year to create a two-year moving average. Respondents evaluated the efficiency of customs procedures in their country. The lowest score (1) rates the customs procedure as extremely inefficient, and the highest score (7) as extremely efficient. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Compensation of employees > Current LCU: Compensation of employees consists of all payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such as social security and pensions that provide benefits to employees."
  • Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU: Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organisations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind."
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women per million people: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Democracy > Female suffrage: Year in which women received the right to vote. Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial recognition of the right to vote.
  • Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days: Time required to build a warehouse (days). Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Syrian National Council: Date on which the Syrian National Council was recognized, at least as a legitimate representative of the Syrian people. For more information, please see http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Government/Foreign-relations/International-recognition-of-the-Syrian-National-Council-notes
  • Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days per million: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million: Procedures to enforce a contract (number). Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to register property > Days per million: Time required to register property (days). Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million: Procedures to build a warehouse (number). Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days per million: Time required to build a warehouse (days). Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Capital > Daylight saving time: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Total businesses registered > Number > Per capita: Total businesses registered. Because of underreporting of firms that have closed or exited, especially in developing countries, the data on total registered firms may be biased upward. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Spending > Interest payments > Current LCU: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Foreign relations > Diplomatic representation in the US > Ambassador: Name of ambassador to the USA.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Time required to build a warehouse > Days: Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age
  • Democracy > Female candidacy: Year in which women received the right to stand for election. Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial recognition of the right to stand for election.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents per 1000: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents > Per capita: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voter registration: The number of registered voters. The figure represents the number of names on the voters' register at the time that the registration process closes, as reported by the electoral management body.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Total vote: The total number of votes cast in the relevant election. Total vote includes valid and invalid votes, as well as blank votes in cases where these are separated from invalid votes. More information on valid, invalid and blank votes can be found at aceproject.org
  • Time required to enforce a contract > Days: Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number > Per capita: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Procedures to register property > Number: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment.
  • Time required to register property > Days: Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth: Annual percentage growth of general government final consumption expenditure based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. General government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.
  • Time to resolve insolvency > Years: Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Consulate(s) general: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number per million: Procedures to register property (number). Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number: Procedures to enforce a contract (number). Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > %: Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%). Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
  • Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > % of expense: Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organisations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind."
  • Parliament > Seats held by men per million people: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Spending > Interest payments > % of revenue: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Consulate(s) general: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current local currency.
  • Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours: Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Procedures to register property > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant local currency.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trademarks > Residents > Per capita: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Trademarks > Residents per million: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Ruling party: In power now.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Legislature (parliament) > Total members of parliament: Number of members of the legislature (sum of members of all chambers of parliament where applicable).
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > FAX: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Foreign relations > International recognition of the Syrian National Council notes:

    Degree to which the Syrian National Council is recognized as a legitimate representative of the Syrian people.

  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population per 1000: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Invalid votes: The number of invalid votes, as reported by each country.
  • Capital city > Note: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Capital city > Time difference: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Spending > Goods and services expense > % of expense: Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded.
  • Democracy and rights > Last election: Last election.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Democracy and rights > Next election: Next election.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Spending > Interest payments > % of expense: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Spending > Other expense > % of expense: Other expense is spending on dividends, rent, and other miscellaneous expenses, including provision for consumption of fixed capital."
  • Spending > Other expense > Current LCU: Other expense is spending on dividends, rent, and other miscellaneous expenses, including provision for consumption of fixed capital."
  • Spending > Compensation of employees > % of expense: Compensation of employees consists of all payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such as social security and pensions that provide benefits to employees."
  • Procedures to register property > Number per million: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Expense > % of GDP: Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends."
  • Trademarks > Residents: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment.
  • Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days per million: Time required to enforce a contract (days). Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members: Members of the lower (or sole) house.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU: Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded.
STAT Australia Russia HISTORY
Administrative divisions 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia 46 provinces (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')<br /><strong>oblasts:</strong> Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan', Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver', Tyumen', Ul'yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl'<br /><strong>republics:</strong> Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan'), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)<br /><strong>autonomous okrugs:</strong> Chukotka (Anadyr'), Khanty-Mansi (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar'yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)<br /><strong>krays:</strong> Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm', Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol', Zabaykal'sk (Chita)<br /><strong>federal cities:</strong> Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg]<br /><strong>autonomous oblast:</strong> Yevrey [Jewish] (Birobidzhan)
Capital city > Geographic coordinates 35 17 S, 149 13 E 55 45 N, 37 35 E
Capital city > Name Canberra Moscow
Constitution 9 July 1900; effective 1 January 1901; amended several times, last in 1977 several previous (during Russian Empire and Soviet eras); latest drafted 12 July 1993, adopted by referendum 12 December 1993, effective 25 December 1993; amended 2008
Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address APO AP 96549 PSC-77, APO AE 09721
Executive branch > Cabinet prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament, candidates who are subsequently sworn in by the governor general to serve as government ministers the "Government" is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers; all are appointed by the president, and the premier is also confirmed by the Duma
Executive branch > Chief of state Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Quentin BRYCE (since 5 September 2008) President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)
Executive branch > Head of government Prime Minister Anthony John "Tony" ABBOTT (since 18 September 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Warren TRUSS (since 18 September 2013) Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 8 May 2012); First Deputy Premier Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Arkadiy Vladimirovich DVORKOVICH (since 21 May 2012), Olga Yuryevna GOLODETS (since 21 May 2012), Aleksandr Gennadiyevich KHLOPONIN (since 19 January 2010), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Dmitriy Olegovich ROGOZIN (since 23 December 2011), Sergey Eduardovich PRIKHODKO (since 22 May 2013), Yuriy Petrovich TRUTNEV (since 31 August 2013)
Government type federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm federation
Judicial branch High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general acting on the advice of the government) Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Supreme Arbitration Court; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president
Legal system common law system based on the English model civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of an upper house, the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (168 seats; as of July 2000, members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials in each of the 84 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; to serve four-year terms) and a lower house, the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of 2007, all members elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 7% of the vote; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Political parties and leaders Australian Greens Party [Christine MILNE]<br />Australian Labor Party [Bill SHORTEN]<br />Country Liberal Party [Terry MILLS]<br />Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]<br />Katter's Australian Party [Bob KATTER]<br />Liberal National Party of Queensland [Campbell NEWMAN]<br />Liberal Party [Tony ABBOTT]<br />National Party of Australia [Warren TRUSS]<br />Palmer United Party [Clive PALMER] A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]<br />Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]<br />Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]<br />Right Cause [Andrey DUNAYEV]<br />Rodina [Aleksey ZHURAVLEV]<br />United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]<br />Yabloko Party [Sergey MITROKHIN]
Political pressure groups and leaders <strong>other: </strong>business groups, environmental groups, social groups, trade unions Association of Citizens with Initiative of Russia (TIGR)<br />Confederation of Labor of Russia (KTR)<br />Federation of Independent Labor Unions of Russia<br />Freedom of Choice Interregional Organization of Automobilists<br />Glasnost Defense Foundation<br />Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights<br />Greenpeace Russia<br />Human Rights Watch (Russian chapter)<br />Institute for Collective Action<br />Memorial (human rights group)<br />Movement Against Illegal Migration<br />Pamjat (preservation of historical monuments and recording of history)<br />PARNAS<br />Russian Orthodox Church<br />Russian Federation of Car Owners<br />Russian-Chechen Friendship Society<br />Solidarnost<br />SOVA Analytical-Information Center<br />Union of the Committees of Soldiers' Mothers<br />World Wildlife Fund (Russian chapter)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory 18 years of age; universal
International organization participation ADB, ANZUS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CP, EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Paris Club, PCA, PIF, SAARC (observer), SICA (observer), Sparteca, SPC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-8, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Country name > Conventional long form Commonwealth of Australia Russian Federation
Executive branch > Elections the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018)
National symbol(s) Southern Cross constellation (five, seven-pointed stars); kangaroo; emu bear; double-headed eagle
Flag description blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as the Commonwealth or Federation Star, representing the federation of the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and external territories; on the fly half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small, five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days 2.5
Ranked 183th.
15
Ranked 97th. 6 times more than Australia

Country name > Conventional short form Australia Russia
Constitutional form Constitutional monarchy Republic
Transnational Issues > Disputes > International In 2007, Australia and Timor-Leste agreed to a 50-year development zone and revenue sharing arrangement and deferred a maritime boundary; Australia asserts land and maritime claims to Antarctica; Australia's 2004 submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) extends its continental margins over 3.37 million square kilometers, expanding its seabed roughly 30 percent beyond its claimed exclusive economic zone; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission
Total businesses registered > Number 3.16 million
Ranked 6th.
8.95 million
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Australia

National anthem <strong>name: </strong>"Advance Australia Fair"<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> Peter Dodds McCORMICK <strong>name: </strong>"Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (National Anthem of the Russian Federation)<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> Sergei Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Alexandr Vasilievich ALEXANDROV
FAX 61 7
Legislative branch > Elections Senate - last held on 7 September 2013; House of Representatives - last held on 7 September 2013 (the latest a simultaneous half-Senate and House of Representative elections can be held is 30 November 2016) State Duma - last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in December 2015)
Legislative branch > Election results Senate NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - Liberal/National Coalition 53.45%, Australian Labor Party 46.55%; seats by party - Liberal/National Coalition 90 (Liberal 58, Liberal National 22, Nationals 9, Country Liberals 1), Australian Labor Party 55, Australian Greens Party 1, Katter's Australian Party 1, Palmer United Party 1, independents 2 State Duma - United Russia 49.6%, CPRF 19.2%, Just Russia 13.2%, LDPR 11.7%, other 6.3%; total seats by party - United Russia 238, CPRF 92, Just Russia 64, LDPR 56
Democracy and rights > Press freedom index 15.24
Ranked 16th.
43.42
Ranked 32nd. 3 times more than Australia
Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage 24.67%
Ranked 50th. 82% more than Russia
13.56%
Ranked 119th.

Independence 1 January 1901 (from the federation of UK colonies) 24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)
Judicial branch > Subordinate courts subordinate courts at the federal level: Federal Court; Federal Magistrates' Courts of Australia; Family Court; subordinate courts at the state and territory level: Local Court - New South Wales; Magistrates' Courts – Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory; District Courts – New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia; County Court – Victoria; Family Court – Western Australia; Court of Petty Sessions – Norfolk Island Higher Arbitration Court; regional (kray) and provincial (oblast) courts; Moscow and St. Petersburg city courts; autonomous province and district courts
Basis of executive legitimacy Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
Transnational Issues > Illicit drugs Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate; major consumer of cocaine and amphetamines limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates
Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press 21
Ranked 163th.
80
Ranked 23th. 4 times more than Australia
Corruption > Bribe Payers Index 8.5
Ranked 7th. 44% more than Russia
5.9
Ranked 21st.
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 24.7%
Ranked 35th. 3 times more than Russia
9.8%
Ranked 122nd.

Diplomatic representation from the US > Embassy Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow
Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number 3
Ranked 174th.
7
Ranked 77th. 2 times more than Australia

Democracy > Civil and political liberties 6
Ranked 9th. 3 times more than Russia
2
Ranked 95th.
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ 119.87 billion$
Ranked 11th.
125.84 billion$
Ranked 9th. 5% more than Australia

National holiday Australia Day (commemorates the arrival of the First Fleet of Australian settlers), 26 January (1788); ANZAC Day (commemorates the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915) Russia Day, 12 June
Capital > Geographic coordinates 35 16 S, 149 08 E 55 45 N, 37 36 E
Democracy > First female parliamentarian 1943 (elected) 1993 (elected)
Time required to start a business > Days 2 days
Ranked 170th.
28 days
Ranked 108th. 14 times more than Australia

Democracy > Gender Parity Index in primary level enrolment 0.994
Ranked 47th.
0.996
Ranked 38th. About the same as Australia

Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office justices appointed by the governor-general in council for life with mandatory retirement at age 70 all members of Russia's three highest courts nominated by the president and appointed by the Federation Council (the upper house of the legislature); members of all three courts appointed for life
Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient 5.3
Ranked 10th. 83% more than Russia
2.9
Ranked 137th.

Red tape > Time required to register property > Days 4.5
Ranked 174th.
22
Ranked 125th. 5 times more than Australia

Politics Tony Abbott&#039;s conservative Liberal-National coalition swept into office in elections in September 2013 Vladimir Putin, Russia&#039;s dominant political figure since 2000, resumed the presidency in 2012
International law organization participation accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Parliament > Seats held by men 113
Ranked 86th.
389
Ranked 18th. 3 times more than Australia

Red tape > Time to resolve insolvency > Years 1
Ranked 163th.
2
Ranked 101st. Twice as much as Australia

Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million 0.132
Ranked 161st. 2 times more than Russia
0.0557
Ranked 179th.

Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission Ambassador Kim Christian BEAZLEY (since 7 February 2010) Ambassador Sergey Ivanovich KISLYAK
Diplomatic representation from the US > Telephone [61] (02) 6214-5600 [7] (495) 728-5000
Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery None None
Diplomatic representation from the US > Chief of mission Ambassador John BERRY (since 25 September 2013) Ambassador Michael A. MCFAUL
Parliament > Seats held by women 37
Ranked 64th.
61
Ranked 41st. 65% more than Australia

Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel None
None
Democracy > Democratic institutions rating 10
Ranked 23th. Twice as much as Russia
5
Ranked 77th.
UN membership date 1 Nov. 1945 24 Oct. 1945
Total businesses registered > Number per 1000 158.93
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Russia
61.87
Ranked 22nd.

Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number 11
Ranked 152nd.
36
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Australia

Capital city Canberra Moscow
Capital > Name Canberra Moscow
Legal origin <a href=/encyclopedia/England>English</a> Socialist
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita 5,965.83$ per capita
Ranked 16th. 7 times more than Russia
879.31$ per capita
Ranked 40th.

Spending > Expense > Current LCU 287.94 billion
Ranked 40th.
8.89 trillion
Ranked 6th. 31 times more than Australia

Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days 75
Ranked 111th.
162
Ranked 24th. 2 times more than Australia

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Registered voter turnout 94.9%
Ranked 3rd. 57% more than Russia
60.5%
Ranked 114th.
Democracy and rights > Year women first voted at national level 1902 1917
Legislature (parliament) > People per member 97,044
Ranked 35th.
229,584
Ranked 12th. 2 times more than Australia
Capital > Time difference UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
International relations Australia is a regional policeman; further afield, its troops have served in Iraq and Afghanistan A planned US-led missile shield for Europe is a stumbling block in ties with the US. Russia is at odds with the West over some key international issues, including Syria and Iran. Russia drove Georgian forces from breakaway South Ossetia during a brief war in 2008
Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days per million 3.31
Ranked 145th. 69% more than Russia
1.96
Ranked 160th.

Legislature (parliament) > Lower house members 150
Ranked 63th.
450
Ranked 22nd. 3 times more than Australia
Legislature (parliament) > Upper house members 76
Ranked 29th.
168
Ranked 10th. 2 times more than Australia
Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days 395
Ranked 156th. 46% more than Russia
270
Ranked 179th.

Democracy > Female parliamentarians 26.5%
Ranked 14th. 4 times more than Russia
6.4%
Ranked 124th.
Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number 5
Ranked 127th. 25% more than Russia
4
Ranked 143th.

Role of head of state Ceremonial Executive
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 5,955.33$
Ranked 16th. 7 times more than Russia
879.09$
Ranked 39th.

Start-up procedures to register a business > Number 2
Ranked 169th.
7
Ranked 126th. 4 times more than Australia

Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong 9
Ranked 17th. 3 times more than Russia
3
Ranked 130th.

Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient per million 0.234
Ranked 90th. 12 times more than Russia
0.0202
Ranked 138th.

Spending > Compensation of employees > Current LCU 29.57 billion
Ranked 48th.
1.61 trillion
Ranked 5th. 55 times more than Australia

Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU 201.9 billion
Ranked 31st.
5.69 trillion
Ranked 4th. 28 times more than Australia

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.183$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 55th. 11% more than Russia
0.165$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 57th.

Parliament > Seats held by women per million people 1.66
Ranked 127th. 4 times more than Russia
0.428
Ranked 168th.

Democracy > Female suffrage "1902 ,1962" 1918
Political pressure groups and leaders > Other business groups; environmental groups; social groups; trade unions ecology groups; human rights groups; nationalist pragmatists (no foreign influence over Central Eurasia); neo-Eurasianists (against Western influence for the area); religious groups; westernizers (lean towards the West)
Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days 112
Ranked 133th.
297
Ranked 15th. 3 times more than Australia

Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Syrian National Council Informal relations Rejection of Assad government Informal relations
Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days per million 0.11
Ranked 178th.
0.125
Ranked 174th. 14% more than Australia

Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million 1.23
Ranked 147th. 5 times more than Russia
0.251
Ranked 180th.

Red tape > Time required to register property > Days per million 0.198
Ranked 172nd.
0.307
Ranked 164th. 55% more than Australia

Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million 0.485
Ranked 142nd. 74% more than Russia
0.279
Ranked 159th.

Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days per million 4.94
Ranked 145th. 2 times more than Russia
2.18
Ranked 165th.

Capital > Daylight saving time +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends first Sunday in April +1hr
Total businesses registered > Number > Per capita 159.11 per 1,000 people
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than Russia
61.87 per 1,000 people
Ranked 23th.

Spending > Interest payments > Current LCU 10.21 billion
Ranked 47th.
155.5 billion
Ranked 13th. 15 times more than Australia

Foreign relations > Diplomatic representation in the US > Ambassador Beazley, Kim Kim Beazley Kislyak, Sergey Ivanovich Sergey Ivanovich Kislyak
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita 4,126.37 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 18th. 14 times more than Russia
296.1 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 52nd.

Countries' copyright length > Usual term of copyright protection 70 pma;<br/>50 pma (death before 1955)<br/>photographs 50 pd 50 pma (death before 1953); 70 pma starting July 28, 2004
Time required to build a warehouse > Days 140 days
Ranked 123th.
531 days
Ranked 3rd. 4 times more than Australia

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population 14.04 million
Ranked 36th.
109.21 million
Ranked 4th. 8 times more than Australia
Democracy > Female candidacy 1,902
Ranked 160th.
1,918
Ranked 148th. 1% more than Australia
Trademarks > Nonresidents per 1000 0.795
Ranked 8th. 16 times more than Russia
0.0493
Ranked 43th.

Trademarks > Nonresidents > Per capita 0.797 per 1,000 people
Ranked 8th. 16 times more than Russia
0.049 per 1,000 people
Ranked 43th.

Foreign relations > Croatia > Date of Establishment February 13, 1992 May 25, 1992
National anthem > Name "Advance Australia Fair" "Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (National Anthem of the Russian Federation)
Executive branch > A note <a href=/cat/Government>government</a> coalition - <a href=/encyclopedia/The-Liberal-Party-(UK)><a href=/encyclopedia/The-Liberal-Party-(UK)>Liberal Party</a></a> and National Party there is also a <a href=/encyclopedia/President-of-the-United-States><a href=/encyclopedia/President-of-the-United-States>Presidential</a></a> Administration (<a href=/encyclopedia/Pennsylvania>PA</a>) that provides staff and policy support to the <a href=/kp/president>president</a>, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among <a href=/cat/Government>government</a> agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the <a href=/kp/president>president</a>
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voter registration 12.71 million
Ranked 34th.
108.07 million
Ranked 5th. 9 times more than Australia
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Total vote 12.05 million
Ranked 27th.
65.37 million
Ranked 4th. 5 times more than Australia
Time required to enforce a contract > Days 181 days
Ranked 165th. 2% more than Russia
178 days
Ranked 166th.

Start-up procedures to register a business > Number > Per capita 0.097 per 1 million people
Ranked 156th. 98% more than Russia
0.049 per 1 million people
Ranked 167th.

Procedures to register property > Number 5
Ranked 121st.
6
Ranked 75th. 20% more than Australia

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number 17
Ranked 87th.
22
Ranked 30th. 29% more than Australia

Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million 0.918
Ranked 135th. 4 times more than Russia
0.218
Ranked 162nd.

Trademarks > Nonresidents 16,007
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Russia
7,088
Ranked 10th.

Time required to register property > Days 5 days
Ranked 157th.
52 days
Ranked 77th. 10 times more than Australia

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth 3.73%
Ranked 48th. 2 times more than Russia
1.8%
Ranked 74th.

Time to resolve insolvency > Years 1 years
Ranked 142nd.
3.8 years
Ranked 51st. 4 times more than Australia

Diplomatic representation from the US > Consulate(s) general Melbourne, Perth, Sydney Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg
Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number per million 0.22
Ranked 136th. 6 times more than Russia
0.0348
Ranked 177th.

Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number 28
Ranked 177th.
36
Ranked 117th. 29% more than Australia

National anthem > Note adopted 1984; although originally written in the late 19th century, the anthem did not become official until 1984; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom) in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > % 26%
Ranked 51st. 91% more than Russia
13.6%
Ranked 124th.

Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > % of expense 70.12%
Ranked 8th. 10% more than Russia
63.97%
Ranked 22nd.

Parliament > Seats held by men per million people 5.08
Ranked 159th. 86% more than Russia
2.73
Ranked 176th.

Spending > Interest payments > % of revenue 3.26%
Ranked 55th. 3 times more than Russia
1.1%
Ranked 82nd.

Diplomatic representation in the US > Consulate(s) general Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco Houston, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
FAX > Consulate(s) general Perth, Sydney Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg
Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million 0.0966
Ranked 156th. 97% more than Russia
0.0491
Ranked 166th.

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU 162993000000 3558800000000
Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours 107 hours
Ranked 145th.
256 hours
Ranked 82nd. 2 times more than Australia

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ 82.91 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 12th. 96% more than Russia
42.38 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 15th.

Procedures to register property > Number > Per capita 0.244 per 1 million people
Ranked 123th. 6 times more than Russia
0.042 per 1 million people
Ranked 159th.

Procedures to enforce a contract > Number > Per capita 0.926 per 1 million people
Ranked 136th. 4 times more than Russia
0.218 per 1 million people
Ranked 163th.

Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX [1] (202) 797-3168 [1] (202) 298-5735
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant LCU 142998000000 1192051000000
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita 4,119.11 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 18th. 14 times more than Russia
296.03 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 52nd.

Trademarks > Residents > Per capita 1.85 per 1,000 people
Ranked 5th. 11 times more than Russia
0.164 per 1,000 people
Ranked 40th.

Trademarks > Residents per million 1,848.33
Ranked 5th. 11 times more than Russia
163.86
Ranked 40th.

Ruling party Liberal/National United Russia
Legislature (parliament) > Total members of parliament 226
Ranked 50th.
618
Ranked 15th. 3 times more than Australia
Diplomatic representation from the US > FAX [61] (02) 6214-5970 [7] (495) 728-5090
Foreign relations > International recognition of the Syrian National Council notes On 20 January 2012, Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd publicly rejected the Assad regime in a joint press conference with French foreign Minister Alan Juppe. "Our view in Australia is that Assad must go." On 24 January, Rudd met with UK foreign minister William Hague, and announced that he had met with Burhan Ghalioun, the President of the SNC, in the previous week. The Syrian National Council sent a delegation to Moscow to meet with Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov on 15 November 2011 in response to an official invitation. While in Moscow, the council met with high level Russian government officials, notably the Deputy Foreign Minister of Russia, Mikhail Bogdanov ; and the Vice Chairman of the Russian Federation, Ilyas Umakhanov .
Procedures to enforce a contract > Number 19
Ranked 161st.
31
Ranked 91st. 63% more than Australia

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population per 1000 705.65
Ranked 44th.
755.27
Ranked 31st. 7% more than Australia
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Invalid votes 4.8%
Ranked 26th. 2 times more than Russia
2%
Ranked 64th.
Capital city > Note Australia is divided into three time zones Russia is divided into 11 time zones
Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone [1] (202) 797-3000 [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708
Capital city > Time difference UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Spending > Goods and services expense > % of expense 10.75%
Ranked 60th.
13.84%
Ranked 37th. 29% more than Australia

Democracy and rights > Last election September 2013 March 2012
Democracy and rights > Next election January 2017 March 2018
Spending > Interest payments > % of expense 3.55%
Ranked 55th. 2 times more than Russia
1.75%
Ranked 74th.

Spending > Other expense > % of expense 6.54%
Ranked 39th.
7.17%
Ranked 32nd. 10% more than Australia

Spending > Other expense > Current LCU 18.82 billion
Ranked 32nd.
637.5 billion
Ranked 6th. 34 times more than Australia

Spending > Compensation of employees > % of expense 10.27%
Ranked 78th.
18.15%
Ranked 55th. 77% more than Australia

Procedures to register property > Number per million 0.242
Ranked 122nd. 6 times more than Russia
0.0421
Ranked 158th.

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million 0.821
Ranked 117th. 5 times more than Russia
0.154
Ranked 153th.

Spending > Expense > % of GDP 24.37%
Ranked 51st. 14% more than Russia
21.44%
Ranked 62nd.

Trademarks > Residents 37,202
Ranked 8th. 58% more than Russia
23,571
Ranked 9th.

Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days per million 17.41
Ranked 150th. 9 times more than Russia
1.88
Ranked 184th.

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number > Per capita 0.828 per 1 million people
Ranked 119th. 5 times more than Russia
0.155 per 1 million people
Ranked 155th.

Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members 3
Ranked 181st.
5
Ranked 32nd. 67% more than Australia
Spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU 30.95 billion
Ranked 40th.
1.23 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 40 times more than Australia

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).; Wikipedia: List of countries by system of government (Alphabetical list of countries); All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; World Development Indicators database; Wikipedia: Censorship by country (Censorship by country) ("Press Freedom Index 2013" , Reporters Without Borders, 30 January 2013); United Nations Statistics Division; "2012 Freedom of the Press Data" , Freedom House, 1 May 2012; Wikipedia: Bribe Payers Index; Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2000-2001, New York: Freedom House, 2001; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva.; Source: Millennium Development Goals Database | United Nations Statistics Division; World Economic Forum, Global Competiveness Report and data files.; British Broadcasting Corporation 2014; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wikipedia: International recognition of Israel (UN member states); Polity IV Project, University of Maryland, at Polity IV Project; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbook, 28 July 2005; International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files.; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003; Wikipedia: Women's suffrage (Summary); Wikipedia: List of legislatures by number of members; calculated on the basis of data on parliamentary seats from IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2002. Parline Database. March 2002; World Economic Forum, Global Competiveness Report and data files. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva; Wikipedia: International recognition of the Syrian National Council (UN member states); Wikipedia: List of ambassadors to the United States; Wikipedia: List of countries' copyright length; Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Croatia; CIA World Factbook, December 2003; Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) (www.ipu.org); United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: List of next general elections (Africa); Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.; Wikipedia: Term of office (Terms of office by country)

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