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Government Stats: compare key data on Canada & India

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Definitions

  • Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
  • Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
  • Executive branch > Chief of state: The name and title of any person or role roughly equivalent to a U.S. Chief of State. This means the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government
  • Executive branch > Head of government: Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government.
  • Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
  • Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
  • Legal system: A brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
  • Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Political parties and leaders: Significant political organizations and their leaders.
  • Political pressure groups and leaders: Organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.
  • Suffrage: The age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted
  • International organization participation: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
  • Country name > Conventional long form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Executive branch > Elections: Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election
  • National symbol(s): A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.
  • Flag description: A written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.
  • Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Country name > Conventional short form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Constitutional form: Constitutional form of government.
  • Transnational Issues > Disputes > International: This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.
  • National anthem: A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.
  • Legislative branch > Election results: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Legislative branch > Elections: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Democracy and rights > Press freedom index: Compares countries by their degree of government censorship, according to the Press freedom index. This index, created by the non-governmental organization Reporters without borders (RWS), is ellaborated using data from an extensive annual survey sent to professional reporters throughout the world. The survey contains questions about the type and ownership of media present in the country, freedom of speech, violence exerted against reporters, election campaigns, access of political parties to the media, etc.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage: Percentage of seats held by women in country's national parliament or legislative houses.
  • Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. "
  • Judicial branch > Subordinate courts: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Basis of executive legitimacy: Basis of executive legitimacy.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Transnational Issues > Illicit drugs: This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels.
    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
    Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.
    Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
    Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).
    Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.
    Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.
    Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
    Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
    Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
    Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
    Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
    Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in Southwest Asia and Africa.
    Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussin AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics ...
    Full definition
  • Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press: Compares countries by freedom of the press. The lower the score, the more free the press of that country is. The scores are taken from the Freedom of the Press Index, elaborated by Freedom House, self-defined as "an independent watchdog organization dedicated to the expansion of freedom around the world". The data used in the index come from an annual survey of media independence in 197 countries and territories, assessing the degree of print, broadcast, and internet freedom in each of them.
  • Corruption > Bribe Payers Index: 2008
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament: Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber occupied by women.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Embassy: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
  • Democracy > Civil and political liberties: Civil and political liberties
    Units: Index Ranging from 7 (High Levels of Liberties) to 1 (Low
    Units: This is the average of two indicators - civil liberties and political liberties.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • National holiday: The primary national day of celebration - often independence day.
  • Capital > Geographic coordinates: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Democracy > First female parliamentarian: Year first woman elected or appointed to parliament.
  • Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient: Burden of customs procedure, WEF (1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient). Burden of Customs Procedure measures business executives' perceptions of their country's efficiency of customs procedures. The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher score indicating greater efficiency. Data are from the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The 2009 round included more than 13,000 respondents from 133 countries. Sampling follows a dual stratification based on company size and the sector of activity. Data are collected online or through in-person interviews. Responses are aggregated using sector-weighted averaging. The data for the latest year are combined with the data for the previous year to create a two-year moving average. Respondents evaluated the efficiency of customs procedures in their country. The lowest score (1) rates the customs procedure as extremely inefficient, and the highest score (7) as extremely efficient.
  • Red tape > Time required to register property > Days: Time required to register property (days). Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Politics: Country politics.
  • International law organization participation: This entry includes information on a country's acceptance of jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and of the International Criminal Court (ICCt); 55 countries have accepted ICJ jurisdiction with reservations and 11 have accepted ICJ jurisdiction without reservations; 114 countries have accepted ICCt jurisdiction. Appendix B: International Organizations and Groups explains the differing mandates of the ICJ and ICCt.
  • Parliament > Seats held by men: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses.
  • Red tape > Time to resolve insolvency > Years: Time to resolve insolvency (years). Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets.
  • Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Telephone: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Chief of mission: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses.
  • Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel: Date on which Israel was officially recognized as a state. Note that some countries had a “de facto” recognition in place long before the legal recognition.
  • Democracy > Democratic institutions rating: Democratic institutions
    Units: Scale ranging from -10 (autocratic) to +10 (democratic)
  • UN membership date: Date of United Nations Membership
  • Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number: Procedures to build a warehouse (number). Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers.
  • Capital city: The location of the seat of government.
  • Capital > Name: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Legal origin: Legal origin identifies the origin of the Company Law or Commercial Code in each country
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Spending > Expense > Current LCU: Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends."
  • Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days: Time required to get electricity (days). Time required to get electricity is the number of days to obtain a permanent electricity connection. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Registered voter turnout: The proportion of registered voters who actually voted.
  • Legislature (parliament) > People per member: Number of people each member of the legislature represents on average. The number of members of the legislature is the sum of the members of all chambers of parliament, if applicable.
  • Democracy and rights > Year women first voted at national level: Year women first voted at national level.
  • Capital > Time difference: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • International relations: Country international relations.
  • Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days per million: Time required to get electricity (days). Time required to get electricity is the number of days to obtain a permanent electricity connection. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Democracy > Female ministers: Women in government at ministerial level in 2000 (as % of total). Data were provided by states based on their definition of national executive and may therefore include women serving as ministers and vice ministers and those holding other ministerial positions, including parliamentary secretaries.
  • Legislature (parliament) > Upper house members: Members of the upper house of the legislature. Does not include countries with a unicameral system.
  • Legislature (parliament) > Lower house members: Members of the lower house of the legislature or of the only chamber in a unicameral system.
  • Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days: Time required to enforce a contract (days). Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment.
  • Democracy > Female parliamentarians: Seats in parliament held by women (as % of total). Data are as of 8 March 2002. Where there are lower and upper houses, data refer to the weighted average of women's shares of seats in both houses.
  • Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number: Procedures to register property (number). Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Role of head of state: Head of state.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
  • Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong: Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit."
  • Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient per million: Burden of customs procedure, WEF (1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient). Burden of Customs Procedure measures business executives' perceptions of their country's efficiency of customs procedures. The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher score indicating greater efficiency. Data are from the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The 2009 round included more than 13,000 respondents from 133 countries. Sampling follows a dual stratification based on company size and the sector of activity. Data are collected online or through in-person interviews. Responses are aggregated using sector-weighted averaging. The data for the latest year are combined with the data for the previous year to create a two-year moving average. Respondents evaluated the efficiency of customs procedures in their country. The lowest score (1) rates the customs procedure as extremely inefficient, and the highest score (7) as extremely efficient. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Compensation of employees > Current LCU: Compensation of employees consists of all payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such as social security and pensions that provide benefits to employees."
  • Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU: Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organisations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind."
  • Foreign relations > Comprehensive National Power: Comprehensive National Power (CNP) is an index devised in the People's Republic of China, used to measure the general power of a nation-state. It takes into account both military factors (called hard power) and economic and cultural factors (called soft power). It's widely thought the main goal of contemporary China is to maximize the country's CNP, though by their own projections it's unlikely they will surpass nations like the USA, Russia, and the UK during this century.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women per million people: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Democracy > Female suffrage: Year in which women received the right to vote. Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial recognition of the right to vote.
  • Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days: Time required to build a warehouse (days). Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million: Procedures to enforce a contract (number). Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days per million: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to register property > Days per million: Time required to register property (days). Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days per million: Time required to build a warehouse (days). Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million: Procedures to build a warehouse (number). Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Interest payments > Current LCU: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Foreign relations > Diplomatic representation in the US > Ambassador: Name of ambassador to the USA.
  • Democracy and rights > Major left wing party: Left-wing major party.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Time required to build a warehouse > Days: Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age
  • Democracy > Female candidacy: Year in which women received the right to stand for election. Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial recognition of the right to stand for election.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents > Per capita: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents per 1000: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Total vote: The total number of votes cast in the relevant election. Total vote includes valid and invalid votes, as well as blank votes in cases where these are separated from invalid votes. More information on valid, invalid and blank votes can be found at aceproject.org
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Turnout: The number of votes divided by the Voting Age Population figure, expressed as a percentage.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voter registration: The number of registered voters. The figure represents the number of names on the voters' register at the time that the registration process closes, as reported by the electoral management body.
  • Time required to enforce a contract > Days: Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number > Per capita: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Democracy and rights > Electoral system: Political scientist Robert A. Dahl compares the constitutions of countries which have been “steadily democratic since 1950” on the characteristic of electoral system (First Past the Post electoral system; Single-Member District Plurality, also known as First Past the Post (FPTP): There is one seat per district, the candidate with the most votes wins it; Proportional Representation: There are multiple seats for each voting district, allocation is based on either party lists, multi-member proportional (MMP), single transferable vote (STV) or semi-PR; FrenchTtwo-RoundSsystem; Alternative Vote (AV)).
  • Procedures to register property > Number: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers.
  • Democracy and rights > Party system: Political scientist Robert A. Dahl compares the constitutions of countries which have been “steadily democratic since 1950” on the characteristic of party system (two-party or multi-party).
  • Democracy and rights > Structure: Political scientist Robert A. Dahl compares the constitutions of countries which have been “steadily democratic since 1950” on the characteristic of structure (presidential or parliamentary).
  • Foreign relations > Date of establishment of relations with China: The date on which each country established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Legislature (parliament) > Strongly bicameral?: Political scientist Robert A. Dahl compares the constitutions of countries which have been “steadily democratic since 1950” on the characteristic of bicameralism, determing if there are two houses in the legislature, both with substantial powers. (Strongly bicameral or not strongly bicameral).
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current local currency.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Consulate(s) general: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Spending > Interest payments > % of revenue: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Parliament > Seats held by men per million people: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > % of expense: Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organisations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind."
  • Trademarks > Residents: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Commonwealth of Nations > Date joined: Date each member country joined the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number: Procedures to enforce a contract (number). Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer.
  • Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number per million: Procedures to register property (number). Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Capital city > Time difference: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Consulate(s) general: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Spending > Goods and services expense > % of expense: Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trademarks > Residents > Per capita: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Time to resolve insolvency > Years: Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets.
  • Trademarks > Residents per million: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Procedures to register property > Number per million: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth: Annual percentage growth of general government final consumption expenditure based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. General government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.
  • Time required to register property > Days: Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment.
  • Democracy and rights > Strongly federal?: Political scientist Robert A. Dahl compares the constitutions of countries which have been “steadily democratic since 1950” on the characteristic of federalism (strongly federal or not strongly federal).
  • Democracy and rights > Strong judicial review?: Political scientist Robert A. Dahl compares the constitutions of countries which have been “steadily democratic since 1950” on the characteristic of judicial review, which is the power to declare unconstitutional laws duly passed by parliament and/or signed by the president. (As distinct from the ability to strike down acts of subordinate governments, such as states or provinces. (Strong judicial review or no strong judicial review).
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > %: Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%). Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
  • Spending > Expense > % of GDP: Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends."
  • Spending > Compensation of employees > % of expense: Compensation of employees consists of all payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such as social security and pensions that provide benefits to employees."
  • Democracy and rights > Next election: Next election.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Democracy and rights > Last election: Last election.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population per 1000: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer.
  • Democracy and rights > Major right wing party: Right-wing major party.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Legislature (parliament) > Total members of parliament: Number of members of the legislature (sum of members of all chambers of parliament where applicable).
  • Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members: Members of the lower (or sole) house.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days per million: Time required to enforce a contract (days). Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours: Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions.
  • Procedures to register property > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU: Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > FAX: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Spending > Interest payments > % of expense: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Spending > Other expense > % of expense: Other expense is spending on dividends, rent, and other miscellaneous expenses, including provision for consumption of fixed capital."
  • Spending > Other expense > Current LCU: Other expense is spending on dividends, rent, and other miscellaneous expenses, including provision for consumption of fixed capital."
  • Ruling party: In power now.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
STAT Canada India HISTORY
Administrative divisions 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon* 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
Capital city > Geographic coordinates 45 25 N, 75 42 W 28 36 N, 77 12 E
Capital city > Name Ottawa New Delhi
Constitution made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982, which transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to Canada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as procedures for constitutional amendments previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950; amended many times, last in 2013
Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430; P.O. Box 866, Station B, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5T1 use embassy street address
Executive branch > Cabinet Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament Union Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
Executive branch > Chief of state Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Michaelle JEAN (since 27 September 2005) President Pranab MUKHERJEE (since 22 July 2012); Vice President Mohammad Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007)
Executive branch > Head of government Prime Minister Stephen Joseph HARPER (since 6 February 2006) Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since 22 May 2004)
Government type a parliamentary democracy, a federation, and a constitutional monarchy federal republic
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Tax Court of Canada; Provincial/Territorial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queen's Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice) Supreme Court (one chief justice and 25 associate justices are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65 or are removed for "proved misbehavior")
Legal system common law system except in Quebec where civil law based on the French civil code prevails common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members up to 12 of whom are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha
Political parties and leaders Bloc Quebecois [Daniel PAILLE]<br />Conservative Party of Canada [Stephen HARPER]<br />Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]<br />Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU]<br />New Democratic Party or NDP [Thomas MULCAIR] Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]<br />All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHAA]<br />All India Trinamool Congress or TMC [Mamata BANERJEE]<br />Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]<br />Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Rajnath SINGH]<br />Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]<br />Communist Party of India or CPI [A.B. BARDHAN]<br />Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Prakash KARAT]<br />Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or DMK [M.KARUNANIDHI]<br />Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]<br />Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADAV]<br />Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]<br />Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]<br />Rashtriya Lok Dal or RLD [Ajit SINGH]<br />Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]<br />Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]<br />Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]<br />Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]<br />
Political pressure groups and leaders <strong>other: </strong>agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)<br />Bajrang Dal (religious organization)<br />India Against Corruption [Anna HAZAREI]<br />Jamiat Ulema-e Hind (religious organization)<br />Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (religious organization)<br />Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Ashok SINGHAL] (religious organization)<br /><br /><strong>other:</strong><br />numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations<br />hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level<br />various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal 18 years of age; universal
International organization participation ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-20, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC ABEDA, ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Country name > Conventional long form none Republic of India
Executive branch > Elections the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held in July 2012 (next to be held in July 2017); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held in August 2012 (next to be held in August 2017); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held April - May 2009 (next to be held no later than May 2014)
National symbol(s) maple leaf the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; the Bengal tiger is the national animal
Flag description two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the maple leaf has long been a Canadian symbol; the official colors of Canada are red and white three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation
Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days 5
Ranked 174th.
27
Ranked 55th. 5 times more than Canada

Country name > Conventional short form Canada India
Constitutional form Constitutional monarchy Republic
Transnational Issues > Disputes > International managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
National anthem <strong>name: </strong>"O Canada"<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> Adolphe-Basile ROUTHIER [French], Robert Stanley WEIR [English]/Calixa LAVALLEE <strong>name: </strong>"Jana-Gana-Mana" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> Rabindranath TAGORE
FAX 1 91
Legislative branch > Election results House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative Party 39.6%, NDP 30.6%, Liberal Party 18.9%, Bloc Quebecois 6%, Greens 3.9%; seats by party - Conservative Party 166, NDP 103, Liberal Party 34, Bloc Quebecois 4, Greens 1 People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - INC 206, BJP 116, SP 23, BSP 21, JD(U) 20, TMC 19, DMK 18, CPI(M) 16, BJD 14, SS 11, AIADMK 9, NCP 9, TDP 6, RLD 5, CPI 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, independent 9, other 29, vacant 2(as of February 2013) - INC 204, BJP 115, SP 22, BSP 21, JD(U) 20, AITC 19, DMK 18, CPI(M) 16, BJD 14, SS 11, AIADMK 9, NCP 9, TDP 6, RLD 5, CPI 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, independents 9, other 31, nominated (INC) 2, vacant 2
Legislative branch > Elections House of Commons - last held on 2 May 2011 (next to be held no later than 19 October 2015) People's Assembly - last held in five phases on 16, 22-23, 30 April and 7, 13 May 2009 (next must be held by May 2014)
Democracy and rights > Press freedom index 12.69
Ranked 20th.
41.22
Ranked 39th. 3 times more than Canada
Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage 24.68%
Ranked 49th. 2 times more than India
11.01%
Ranked 138th.

Independence 1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster) 15 August 1947 (from the UK)
Judicial branch > Subordinate courts federal level: Federal Court of Appeal; Federal Court; Tax Court; federal administrative tribunals; courts martial; provincial/territorial: provincial superior, appeals, first instance, and specialized courts; in 1999, the Nunavut Court - a circuit court with the power of a superior court and the territorial courts - was established to serve isolated settlements District Courts; Labour Court
Basis of executive legitimacy Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Transnational Issues > Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production, some of which is destined for the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production
Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press 19
Ranked 170th.
37
Ranked 116th. 95% more than Canada
Corruption > Bribe Payers Index 8.8
Ranked 1st. 29% more than India
6.8
Ranked 18th.
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 20.8%
Ranked 50th. 3 times more than India
8.3%
Ranked 135th.

Diplomatic representation from the US > Embassy 490 Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number 1
Ranked 188th.
12
Ranked 18th. 12 times more than Canada

Democracy > Civil and political liberties 6
Ranked 15th. 33% more than India
4.5
Ranked 51st.
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ 190.45 billion$
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than India
91.37 billion$
Ranked 12th.

National holiday Canada Day, 1 July Republic Day, 26 January
Capital > Geographic coordinates 45 25 N, 75 42 W 28 36 N, 77 12 E
Democracy > First female parliamentarian 1921 (elected) 1952 (elected)
Time required to start a business > Days 3 days
Ranked 169th.
35 days
Ranked 87th. 12 times more than Canada

Democracy > Gender Parity Index in primary level enrolment 0.996
Ranked 41st. 7% more than India
0.934
Ranked 114th.

Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office chief justice and judges appointed by the prime minister in council; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 75 justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient 4.8
Ranked 35th. 26% more than India
3.8
Ranked 83th.

Red tape > Time required to register property > Days 16.5
Ranked 142nd.
44
Ranked 75th. 3 times more than Canada

Politics Canada gradually emerged as a federation of former British colonies, and the provinces retain extensive powers. It follows the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, and the UK monarch is head of state, represented by a largely ceremonial governor-general. French-speaking Quebec has wide-ranging cultural and linguistic autonomy. 344m people voted in 2009 election - Congress-led alliance of PM Manmohan Singh won second mandate
International law organization participation accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
Parliament > Seats held by men 232
Ranked 41st.
485
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Canada

Red tape > Time to resolve insolvency > Years 0.8
Ranked 168th.
4.3
Ranked 19th. 5 times more than Canada

Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million 0.0287
Ranked 184th. 3 times more than India
0.0097
Ranked 187th.

Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery None None
Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission Ambassador Gary DOER (since 23 October 2009) Ambassador Nirupama RAO (since 7 September 2011)
Diplomatic representation from the US > Telephone [1] (613) 688-5335 [91] (11) 2419-8000
Diplomatic representation from the US > Chief of mission Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Richard M. Sanders (since 25 July 2013) Ambassador Nancy J. POWELL (since 19 April 2012)
Parliament > Seats held by women 76
Ranked 29th. 27% more than India
60
Ranked 42nd.

Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel None
None
Democracy > Democratic institutions rating 10
Ranked 30th. 11% more than India
9
Ranked 36th.
UN membership date 9 Nov. 1945 30 Oct. 1945
Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number 13
Ranked 114th.
35
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Canada

Capital city Ottawa New Delhi
Capital > Name Ottawa New Delhi
Legal origin <a href=/encyclopedia/England>English</a> <a href=/encyclopedia/England>English</a>
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita 5,953.57$ per capita
Ranked 17th. 71 times more than India
83.47$ per capita
Ranked 111th.

Spending > Expense > Current LCU 283.79 billion
Ranked 42nd.
8.6 trillion
Ranked 7th. 30 times more than Canada

Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days 142
Ranked 39th. 2 times more than India
67
Ranked 125th.

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Registered voter turnout 61.2%
Ranked 110th. 3% more than India
59.7%
Ranked 117th.
Legislature (parliament) > People per member 81,845
Ranked 41st.
1.46 million
Ranked 1st. 18 times more than Canada
Democracy and rights > Year women first voted at national level 1916 1947
Capital > Time difference UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
International relations Canada often cooperates closely with the US, but does go its own way sometimes. Strong historical ties to the UK remain, while Quebec looks towards France. Canada often plays a major role in UN peacekeeping missions. Ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir region; nuclear weapons state; world&#039;s most prolific film industry - Bollywood
Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days per million 4.07
Ranked 137th. 75 times more than India
0.0542
Ranked 188th.

Democracy > Female ministers 6.1%
Ranked 98th. 3% more than India
5.9%
Ranked 99th.
Legislature (parliament) > Upper house members 105
Ranked 20th.
250
Ranked 7th. 2 times more than Canada
Legislature (parliament) > Lower house members 308
Ranked 35th.
552
Ranked 11th. 79% more than Canada
Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days 570
Ranked 89th.
1,420
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Canada

Democracy > Female parliamentarians 23.6%
Ranked 22nd. 3 times more than India
8.9%
Ranked 104th.
Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number 6
Ranked 101st. 20% more than India
5
Ranked 115th.

Role of head of state Ceremonial Ceremonial
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 5,952.46$
Ranked 17th. 73 times more than India
81.06$
Ranked 109th.

Start-up procedures to register a business > Number 2
Ranked 170th.
11
Ranked 50th. 6 times more than Canada

Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong 6
Ranked 85th.
8
Ranked 29th. 33% more than Canada

Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient per million 0.138
Ranked 105th. 45 times more than India
0.00307
Ranked 144th.

Spending > Compensation of employees > Current LCU 34.19 billion
Ranked 45th.
565.67 billion
Ranked 11th. 17 times more than Canada

Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU 190.41 billion
Ranked 34th.
4.65 trillion
Ranked 5th. 24 times more than Canada

Foreign relations > Comprehensive National Power 57.09
Ranked 8th. 13% more than India
50.43
Ranked 10th.
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.195$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 47th. 73% more than India
0.113$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 102nd.

Parliament > Seats held by women per million people 2.2
Ranked 120th. 45 times more than India
0.0491
Ranked 180th.

Foreign relations > Nepal > Date of Establishment January 18, 1965 June 13, 1947
Democracy > Female suffrage "1917, 1950" 1950
Political pressure groups and leaders > Other agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days 249
Ranked 26th. 48% more than India
168
Ranked 73th.

Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million 1.03
Ranked 152nd. 28 times more than India
0.0372
Ranked 187th.

Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days per million 0.143
Ranked 173th. 7 times more than India
0.0218
Ranked 187th.

Red tape > Time required to register property > Days per million 0.473
Ranked 154th. 13 times more than India
0.0356
Ranked 182nd.

Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days per million 7.14
Ranked 139th. 53 times more than India
0.136
Ranked 185th.

Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million 0.373
Ranked 153th. 13 times more than India
0.0283
Ranked 183th.

Spending > Interest payments > Current LCU 28.96 billion
Ranked 30th.
1.87 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 64 times more than Canada

Foreign relations > Diplomatic representation in the US > Ambassador Doer, Gary Gary Doer Jaishankar, S S Jaishankar
Democracy and rights > Major left wing party New Democratic Party of Canada Indian National Congress
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita 4,726.59 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 14th. 71 times more than India
66.7 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 86th.

Time required to build a warehouse > Days 77 days
Ranked 158th.
270 days
Ranked 38th. 4 times more than Canada

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population 23.79 million
Ranked 27th.
565.78 million
Ranked 1st. 24 times more than Canada
Democracy > Female candidacy 1,920
Ranked 137th.
1,950
Ranked 76th. 2% more than Canada
Trademarks > Nonresidents > Per capita 0.693 per 1,000 people
Ranked 10th. 139 times more than India
0.005 per 1,000 people
Ranked 81st.

Trademarks > Nonresidents per 1000 0.693
Ranked 10th. 132 times more than India
0.00526
Ranked 82nd.

Foreign relations > Croatia > Date of Establishment April 14, 1993 July 9, 1992
National anthem > Name "O Canada" -
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Total vote 13 million
Ranked 25th.
370.58 million
Ranked 1st. 29 times more than Canada
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Turnout 54.6
Ranked 79th.
65.5
Ranked 53th. 20% more than Canada
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voter registration 21.24 million
Ranked 25th.
620.39 million
Ranked 1st. 29 times more than Canada
Time required to enforce a contract > Days 346 days
Ranked 124th.
1,420 days
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than Canada

Start-up procedures to register a business > Number > Per capita 0.061 per 1 million people
Ranked 164th. 6 times more than India
0.01 per 1 million people
Ranked 170th.

Democracy and rights > Electoral system FPTP FPTP
Procedures to register property > Number 6
Ranked 98th. The same as India
6
Ranked 80th.

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number 15
Ranked 113th.
20
Ranked 46th. 33% more than Canada

Democracy and rights > Party system Multi Multi
Democracy and rights > Structure Parliamentary Parliamentary
Foreign relations > Date of establishment of relations with China October 13, 1970 January 1, 1950
Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million 0.522
Ranked 147th. 11 times more than India
0.049
Ranked 167th.

Legislature (parliament) > Strongly bicameral? No Yes
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU 247774000000 4045110000000
Diplomatic representation in the US > Consulate(s) general Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Tucson Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Spending > Interest payments > % of revenue 9.96%
Ranked 19th.
23.35%
Ranked 6th. 2 times more than Canada

Parliament > Seats held by men per million people 6.71
Ranked 138th. 17 times more than India
0.397
Ranked 186th.

Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > % of expense 67.1%
Ranked 16th. 24% more than India
54.07%
Ranked 32nd.

Trademarks > Residents 17,719
Ranked 11th.
60,985
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than Canada

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ 151.2 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than India
73 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 10th.

Commonwealth of Nations > Date joined <span style="display:none">1931-12-11</span>11 December 1931 <span style="display:none">1947-08-15</span>15 August 1947
Procedures to build a warehouse > Number > Per capita 0.461 per 1 million people
Ranked 137th. 26 times more than India
0.018 per 1 million people
Ranked 167th.

National anthem > Note adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, "O Canada" served as an unofficial anthem many years before its official adoption; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a Commonwealth realm, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom) adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem
Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number 36
Ranked 126th.
46
Ranked 24th. 28% more than Canada

Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number per million 0.172
Ranked 145th. 43 times more than India
0.00404
Ranked 183th.

Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX [1] (202) 682-7726 [1] (202) 265-4351
Capital city > Time difference UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Diplomatic representation from the US > Consulate(s) general Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Spending > Goods and services expense > % of expense 8.9%
Ranked 70th.
10.83%
Ranked 59th. 22% more than Canada

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita 4,725.7 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 14th. 73 times more than India
64.77 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 84th.

Trademarks > Residents > Per capita 0.554 per 1,000 people
Ranked 23th. 9 times more than India
0.061 per 1,000 people
Ranked 61st.

Time to resolve insolvency > Years 0.8 years
Ranked 148th.
10 years
Ranked 2nd. 13 times more than Canada

Trademarks > Residents per million 553.81
Ranked 22nd. 9 times more than India
59.5
Ranked 63th.

Procedures to register property > Number per million 0.184
Ranked 129th. 35 times more than India
0.00525
Ranked 164th.

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth 2.7%
Ranked 67th.
9.8%
Ranked 12th. 4 times more than Canada

Time required to register property > Days 10 days
Ranked 148th.
62 days
Ranked 64th. 6 times more than Canada

Trademarks > Nonresidents 22,169
Ranked 3rd. 4 times more than India
5,393
Ranked 18th.

Democracy and rights > Strongly federal? Yes Yes
Democracy and rights > Strong judicial review? Yes Yes
Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million 0.0614
Ranked 163th. 6 times more than India
0.00962
Ranked 169th.

Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > % 24.7%
Ranked 55th. 2 times more than India
11%
Ranked 142nd.

Spending > Expense > % of GDP 17.74%
Ranked 70th. 15% more than India
15.43%
Ranked 75th.

Spending > Compensation of employees > % of expense 12.05%
Ranked 76th. 83% more than India
6.57%
Ranked 86th.

Democracy and rights > Next election October 2015 May 2014
Democracy and rights > Last election May 2011 May 2009
FAX > Consulate(s) general Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad; Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population per 1000 750.92
Ranked 34th. 45% more than India
517.27
Ranked 97th.
Procedures to enforce a contract > Number 17
Ranked 165th.
56
Ranked 10th. 3 times more than Canada

Democracy and rights > Major right wing party Conservative Party of Canada Bharatiya Janata Party
Legislature (parliament) > Total members of parliament 413
Ranked 33th.
802
Ranked 5th. 94% more than Canada
Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members 5
Ranked 104th. The same as India
5
Ranked 52nd.
Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days per million 16.34
Ranked 152nd. 14 times more than India
1.15
Ranked 186th.

Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours 119 hours
Ranked 140th.
264 hours
Ranked 79th. 2 times more than Canada

Procedures to register property > Number > Per capita 0.184 per 1 million people
Ranked 130th. 37 times more than India
0.005 per 1 million people
Ranked 165th.

Procedures to enforce a contract > Number > Per capita 0.522 per 1 million people
Ranked 149th. 10 times more than India
0.05 per 1 million people
Ranked 168th.

Spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU 25.26 billion
Ranked 42nd.
931.79 billion
Ranked 7th. 37 times more than Canada

Diplomatic representation from the US > FAX [1] (613) 688-3082 [91] (11) 2419-0017
Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone [1] (202) 682-1740 [1] (202) 939-7000
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant LCU 224545500000 3060870000000
Spending > Interest payments > % of expense 10.21%
Ranked 20th.
21.7%
Ranked 7th. 2 times more than Canada

Spending > Other expense > % of expense 3.23%
Ranked 68th.
6.82%
Ranked 37th. 2 times more than Canada

Spending > Other expense > Current LCU 9.17 billion
Ranked 44th.
587.1 billion
Ranked 7th. 64 times more than Canada

Ruling party Conservative Congress
Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million 0.46
Ranked 138th. 26 times more than India
0.0175
Ranked 166th.

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).; Wikipedia: List of countries by system of government (Alphabetical list of countries); All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia: Censorship by country (Censorship by country) ("Press Freedom Index 2013" , Reporters Without Borders, 30 January 2013); United Nations Statistics Division; "2012 Freedom of the Press Data" , Freedom House, 1 May 2012; Wikipedia: Bribe Payers Index; World Development Indicators database; Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2000-2001, New York: Freedom House, 2001; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva.; Source: Millennium Development Goals Database | United Nations Statistics Division; World Economic Forum, Global Competiveness Report and data files.; British Broadcasting Corporation 2014; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wikipedia: International recognition of Israel (UN member states); Polity IV Project, University of Maryland, at Polity IV Project; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; CIA World Factbook, 28 July 2005; International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files.; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003; Wikipedia: List of legislatures by number of members; Wikipedia: Women's suffrage (Summary); IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on women in government at the ministerial level. March. Geneva; calculated on the basis of data on parliamentary seats from IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2002. Parline Database. March 2002; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Economic Forum, Global Competiveness Report and data files. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: Comprehensive National Power; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Nepal; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva; Wikipedia: List of ambassadors to the United States; Wikipedia: Major party (List of major parties); Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Croatia; How Democratic is the American Constitution? Robert A. Dahl.2001. ISBN 0-300-09218-0. Table 1.; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dates_of_establishment_of_diplomatic_relations_with_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Various sources compiled into Wikipedia's Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations; Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) (www.ipu.org); International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.; Wikipedia: List of next general elections (Africa); Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: Term of office (Terms of office by country)

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