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Government Stats: compare key data on Ecuador & United States

Definitions

  • Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
  • Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
  • Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
  • Executive branch > Chief of state: The name and title of any person or role roughly equivalent to a U.S. Chief of State. This means the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government
  • Executive branch > Head of government: Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government.
  • Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
  • International organization participation: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
  • Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
  • Legal system: A brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
  • Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Political parties and leaders: Significant political organizations and their leaders.
  • Political pressure groups and leaders: Organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.
  • Suffrage: The age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted
  • Country name > Conventional long form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Executive branch > Elections: Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election
  • National symbol(s): A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.
  • Flag description: A written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.
  • Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Country name > Conventional short form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Constitutional form: Constitutional form of government.
  • Transnational Issues > Disputes > International: This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.
  • National anthem: A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.
  • Legislative branch > Election results: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Legislative branch > Elections: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Democracy and rights > Press freedom index: Compares countries by their degree of government censorship, according to the Press freedom index. This index, created by the non-governmental organization Reporters without borders (RWS), is ellaborated using data from an extensive annual survey sent to professional reporters throughout the world. The survey contains questions about the type and ownership of media present in the country, freedom of speech, violence exerted against reporters, election campaigns, access of political parties to the media, etc.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage: Percentage of seats held by women in country's national parliament or legislative houses.
  • Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. "
  • Executive branch > Election results: Election results includes the percent of vote for each candidate in the last election (if any)
  • Judicial branch > Subordinate courts: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Basis of executive legitimacy: Basis of executive legitimacy.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Transnational Issues > Illicit drugs: This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels.
    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
    Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.
    Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
    Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).
    Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.
    Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.
    Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
    Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
    Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
    Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
    Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
    Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in Southwest Asia and Africa.
    Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussin AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics ...
    Full definition
  • Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press: Compares countries by freedom of the press. The lower the score, the more free the press of that country is. The scores are taken from the Freedom of the Press Index, elaborated by Freedom House, self-defined as "an independent watchdog organization dedicated to the expansion of freedom around the world". The data used in the index come from an annual survey of media independence in 197 countries and territories, assessing the degree of print, broadcast, and internet freedom in each of them.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament: Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber occupied by women.
  • Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
  • Democracy > Civil and political liberties: Civil and political liberties
    Units: Index Ranging from 7 (High Levels of Liberties) to 1 (Low
    Units: This is the average of two indicators - civil liberties and political liberties.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • National holiday: The primary national day of celebration - often independence day.
  • Capital > Geographic coordinates: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Democracy > First female parliamentarian: Year first woman elected or appointed to parliament.
  • Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Leaders > President: Government > Leaders > President
  • Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient: Burden of customs procedure, WEF (1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient). Burden of Customs Procedure measures business executives' perceptions of their country's efficiency of customs procedures. The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher score indicating greater efficiency. Data are from the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The 2009 round included more than 13,000 respondents from 133 countries. Sampling follows a dual stratification based on company size and the sector of activity. Data are collected online or through in-person interviews. Responses are aggregated using sector-weighted averaging. The data for the latest year are combined with the data for the previous year to create a two-year moving average. Respondents evaluated the efficiency of customs procedures in their country. The lowest score (1) rates the customs procedure as extremely inefficient, and the highest score (7) as extremely efficient.
  • Red tape > Time required to register property > Days: Time required to register property (days). Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Politics: Country politics.
  • International law organization participation: This entry includes information on a country's acceptance of jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and of the International Criminal Court (ICCt); 55 countries have accepted ICJ jurisdiction with reservations and 11 have accepted ICJ jurisdiction without reservations; 114 countries have accepted ICCt jurisdiction. Appendix B: International Organizations and Groups explains the differing mandates of the ICJ and ICCt.
  • Parliament > Seats held by men: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses.
  • Red tape > Time to resolve insolvency > Years: Time to resolve insolvency (years). Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets.
  • Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses.
  • Leaders > President > Summary: Government > Leaders > President > Summary
  • Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel: Date on which Israel was officially recognized as a state. Note that some countries had a “de facto” recognition in place long before the legal recognition.
  • Democracy > Democratic institutions rating: Democratic institutions
    Units: Scale ranging from -10 (autocratic) to +10 (democratic)
  • UN membership date: Date of United Nations Membership
  • Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number: Procedures to build a warehouse (number). Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers.
  • Capital city: The location of the seat of government.
  • Capital > Name: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Legal origin: Legal origin identifies the origin of the Company Law or Commercial Code in each country
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Spending > Expense > Current LCU: Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends."
  • Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days: Time required to get electricity (days). Time required to get electricity is the number of days to obtain a permanent electricity connection. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Registered voter turnout: The proportion of registered voters who actually voted.
  • Democracy and rights > Year women first voted at national level: Year women first voted at national level.
  • Capital > Time difference: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Democracy > Presidential elections > Voting age population: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age
  • International relations: Country international relations.
  • Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days per million: Time required to get electricity (days). Time required to get electricity is the number of days to obtain a permanent electricity connection. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Leaders > Head of state > Term limit for head of state: Head(s) of state.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Democracy > Female ministers: Women in government at ministerial level in 2000 (as % of total). Data were provided by states based on their definition of national executive and may therefore include women serving as ministers and vice ministers and those holding other ministerial positions, including parliamentary secretaries.
  • Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days: Time required to enforce a contract (days). Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment.
  • Democracy > Female parliamentarians: Seats in parliament held by women (as % of total). Data are as of 8 March 2002. Where there are lower and upper houses, data refer to the weighted average of women's shares of seats in both houses.
  • Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number: Procedures to register property (number). Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Leaders > President > Profile: Government > Leaders > President > Profile
  • Role of head of state: Head of state.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Democracy > Presidential elections > Registered voter turnout: The proportion of registered voters who actually voted.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
  • Democracy > Presidential elections > Voting age population per 1000: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong: Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit."
  • Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient per million: Burden of customs procedure, WEF (1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient). Burden of Customs Procedure measures business executives' perceptions of their country's efficiency of customs procedures. The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher score indicating greater efficiency. Data are from the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The 2009 round included more than 13,000 respondents from 133 countries. Sampling follows a dual stratification based on company size and the sector of activity. Data are collected online or through in-person interviews. Responses are aggregated using sector-weighted averaging. The data for the latest year are combined with the data for the previous year to create a two-year moving average. Respondents evaluated the efficiency of customs procedures in their country. The lowest score (1) rates the customs procedure as extremely inefficient, and the highest score (7) as extremely efficient. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Compensation of employees > Current LCU: Compensation of employees consists of all payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such as social security and pensions that provide benefits to employees."
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women per million people: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Democracy > Female suffrage: Year in which women received the right to vote. Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial recognition of the right to vote.
  • Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days: Time required to build a warehouse (days). Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million: Procedures to enforce a contract (number). Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days per million: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to register property > Days per million: Time required to register property (days). Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days per million: Time required to build a warehouse (days). Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million: Procedures to build a warehouse (number). Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Interest payments > Current LCU: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Time required to build a warehouse > Days: Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age
  • Democracy > Female candidacy: Year in which women received the right to stand for election. Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial recognition of the right to stand for election.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents per 1000: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents > Per capita: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voter registration: The number of registered voters. The figure represents the number of names on the voters' register at the time that the registration process closes, as reported by the electoral management body.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Turnout: The number of votes divided by the Voting Age Population figure, expressed as a percentage.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Total vote: The total number of votes cast in the relevant election. Total vote includes valid and invalid votes, as well as blank votes in cases where these are separated from invalid votes. More information on valid, invalid and blank votes can be found at aceproject.org
  • Time required to enforce a contract > Days: Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number > Per capita: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Procedures to register property > Number: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers.
  • Democracy > Presidential elections > Turnout: The number of votes divided by the Voting Age Population figure, expressed as a percentage.
  • Democracy > Presidential elections > Turnout per million: The number of votes divided by the Voting Age Population figure, expressed as a percentage. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Democracy > Presidential elections > Total vote: The total number of votes cast in the relevant election. Total vote includes valid and invalid votes, as well as blank votes in cases where these are separated from invalid votes. More information on valid, invalid and blank votes can be found at aceproject.org
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment.
  • Time required to register property > Days: Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth: Annual percentage growth of general government final consumption expenditure based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. General government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.
  • Time to resolve insolvency > Years: Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets.
  • Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number per million: Procedures to register property (number). Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number: Procedures to enforce a contract (number). Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > %: Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%). Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
  • Democracy and rights > Next election: Next election.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Parliament > Seats held by men per million people: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Foreign relations > Date of establishment of relations with China: The date on which each country established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Foreign relations > Recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia: Statements on the status of Abkhazia and South Ossetia issued by countries who do not recognize their sovereignty.
  • Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members: Members of the lower (or sole) house.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours: Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Procedures to register property > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU: Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded.
  • Republic establishment date: The date on which each country (or its precursor) changed its form of government to a republic. In a republic, the power resides in the country’s people, the government and legislature is elected and the country is ruled according to its laws.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Trademarks > Residents > Per capita: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Spending > Interest payments > % of expense: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Trademarks > Residents per million: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Procedures to register property > Number per million: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Expense > % of GDP: Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends."
  • Spending > Compensation of employees > % of expense: Compensation of employees consists of all payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such as social security and pensions that provide benefits to employees."
  • Spending > Interest payments > % of revenue: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Democracy and rights > Last election: Last election.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Democracy > Presidential elections > Voter registration: The number of registered voters. The figure represents the number of names on the voters' register at the time that the registration process closes, as reported by the electoral management body.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population per 1000: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current local currency.
  • Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days per million: Time required to enforce a contract (days). Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Trademarks > Residents: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Capital city > Time difference: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Spending > Goods and services expense > % of expense: Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Ruling party: In power now.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
STAT Ecuador United States HISTORY
Administrative divisions 24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Capital city > Geographic coordinates 0 13 S, 78 30 W 38 53 N, 77 02 W
Capital city > Name Quito Washington, DC
Constitution 20 October 2008; this is Ecuador's 20th constitution previous 1781 (Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union); latest drafted July - September 1787, submitted to the Congress of the Confederation 20 September 1787, submitted for states' ratification 28 September 1787, ratification completed by nine sta
Executive branch > Cabinet Cabinet appointed by the president Cabinet appointed by the president with Senate approval
Executive branch > Chief of state President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 January 2007) President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)
Executive branch > Head of government President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 January 2007) President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)
Government type republic Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition
International organization participation CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), ANZUS, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CICA (observer), CP, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-20, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Judicial branch National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (according to the Constitution, justices are elected through a procedure overseen by the Judiciary Council); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitucional (Constitutional Court justices are appointed by a commission composed of two delegates each from the Executive, Legislative, and Transparency branches of government) Supreme Court (nine justices; nominated by the president and confirmed with the advice and consent of the Senate; appointed to serve for life); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts
Legal system civil law based on the Chilean civil code with modifications common law system based on English common law at the federal level; state legal systems based on common law except Louisiana, which is based on Napoleonic civil code; judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional bicameral Congress consists of the Senate
Political parties and leaders Alianza PAIS movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado]<br />Avanza Party or AVANZA [Ramiro GONZALEZ]<br />Breakaway Party [Martha ROLDOS]<br />Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Guillermo LASSO]<br />Institutional Renewal and National Action Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]<br />Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Rafael ANTUNI]<br />Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]<br />Plurinational Union Movement of the Left [Alberto ACOSTA]<br />Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Pulley, director]<br />Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]<br />Socialist Party<br />Society United for More Action or SUMA [Mauricio RODAS]<br />Warrior's Spirit Movement [Jaime NEBOT] Democratic Party [Debbie Wasserman SCHULTZ]<br />Green Party<br />Libertarian Party [Mark HINKLE]<br />Republican Party [Reince PRIEBUS]
Political pressure groups and leaders Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Humberto CHOLANGO]<br />Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Manuel CHUGCHILAN, president]<br />National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN<br />National Teacher's Union or UNE [Mariana PALLASCO] environmentalists; business groups; labor unions; churches; ethnic groups; political action committees or PACs; health groups; education groups; civic groups; youth groups; transportation groups; agricultural groups; veterans groups; women's groups; reform lobbies
Suffrage 18-65 years of age, universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, optional 18 years of age; universal
Country name > Conventional long form Republic of Ecuador United States of America
Executive branch > Elections the president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term and can be re-elected for another consecutive term; election last held on 17 February 2013 (next to be held in 2017) president and vice president elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state; president and vice president serve four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2012 (next to be held on 8 November 2016)
National symbol(s) Andean condor bald eagle
Flag description three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Columbia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; the yellow color represents sunshine, grain, and mineral wealth, blue the sky, sea, and rivers, and red the blood of patriots spilled in the struggle for freedom and justice 13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; the blue stands for loyalty, devotion, truth, justice, and friendship; red symbolizes courage, zeal, and fervency, while white denotes purity and rectitude of conduct; commonly referred to by its nickname of Old Glory
Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days 55.5
Ranked 19th. 11 times more than United States
5
Ranked 170th.

Country name > Conventional short form Ecuador United States
Constitutional form Republic Republic
Transnational Issues > Disputes > International organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country the US has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea still awaits Russian Duma ratification; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; The Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other states; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island; Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island among the islands listed in its 2006 draft constitution
National anthem <strong>name: </strong>"Salve, Oh Patria!" (We Salute You Our Homeland)<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> Juan Leon MERA/Antonio NEUMANE <strong>name: </strong>"The Star-Spangled Banner"<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> Francis Scott KEY/John Stafford SMITH
Legislative branch > Election results percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAIS 100, CREO 11, PSC 6, AVANZA 5, MUPP 5, PSP 5, other 5 Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 54, Republican Party 45, independent 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 201, Republican Party 234
Legislative branch > Elections last held on 17 February 2013 (next to be held in 2017) Senate - last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held on 4 November 2014); House of Representatives - last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held on 4 November 2014)
Democracy and rights > Press freedom index 34.69
Ranked 60th. 90% more than United States
18.22
Ranked 13th.
Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage 32.26%
Ranked 28th. 81% more than United States
17.78%
Ranked 91st.

Independence 24 May 1822 (from Spain) 4 July 1776 (declared); 3 September 1783 (recognized by Great Britain)
Executive branch > Election results President Rafael CORREA Delgado reelected president; percent of vote - Rafael CORREA Delgado 57.2%, Guillermo LASSO 22.7%, Lucio GUTIERREZ 6.8%, Mauricio RODAS 3.9%, other 9.4% Barack H. OBAMA reelected president; percent of popular vote - Barack H. OBAMA 50.6%, Mitt ROMNEY 47.9%, other 1.5%;
Judicial branch > Subordinate courts Fiscal Tribunal; Superior Court (one for each province); lower provincial and cantonal courts Courts of Appeal (includes the US Court of Appeal for the Federal District and 12 regional appeals courts); 94 federal district courts in 50 states and territories
Basis of executive legitimacy Presidency is independent of legislature Presidency is independent of legislature
Transnational Issues > Illicit drugs significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru, with much of the US-bound cocaine passing through Ecuadorian Pacific waters; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents world's largest consumer of cocaine (shipped from Colombia through Mexico and the Caribbean), Colombian heroin, and Mexican heroin and marijuana; major consumer of ecstasy and Mexican methamphetamine; minor consumer of high-quality Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamine; money-laundering center
Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press 58
Ranked 69th. 3 times more than United States
18
Ranked 171st.
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 16%
Ranked 74th. 5% more than United States
15.2%
Ranked 79th.

Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number 13
Ranked 15th. 2 times more than United States
6
Ranked 103th.

Democracy > Civil and political liberties 4
Ranked 62nd.
6
Ranked 6th. 50% more than Ecuador
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ 4.13 billion$
Ranked 61st.
1.84 trillion$
Ranked 1st. 446 times more than Ecuador

National holiday Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Capital > Geographic coordinates 0 13 S, 78 30 W 38 53 N, 77 02 W
Democracy > First female parliamentarian 1956 (elected) 1917 (elected)
Time required to start a business > Days 65 days
Ranked 31st. 13 times more than United States
5 days
Ranked 167th.

Leaders > President Rafael Correa Barack Obama
Democracy > Gender Parity Index in primary level enrolment 0.998
Ranked 32nd. 1% more than United States
0.991
Ranked 52nd.

Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office justices of National Court of Justice elected by the Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body of professionals; judges elected for 9-year, non-renewable terms, with one-third of the judges renewed every 3 years; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from candidates selected by the president, Supreme Court, and other government officials; judges appointed for 2-year terms president nominates, and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints Supreme Court justices; justices appointed for life
Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient 3.6
Ranked 98th.
4.5
Ranked 43th. 25% more than Ecuador

Red tape > Time required to register property > Days 39
Ranked 87th. 3 times more than United States
12
Ranked 158th.

Politics Three presidents have been ousted since 1997; current leader Rafael Correa has been elected for a third term and has introduced sweeping left-wing policies Barack Obama, America&#039;s first black president, was re-elected in November 2012
International law organization participation has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction withdrew acceptance of compulsory ICJ jurisdiction in 2005; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2002
Parliament > Seats held by men 84
Ranked 114th.
356
Ranked 21st. 4 times more than Ecuador

Red tape > Time to resolve insolvency > Years 5.3
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than United States
1.5
Ranked 144th.

Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million 0.839
Ranked 92nd. 44 times more than United States
0.0191
Ranked 185th.

Parliament > Seats held by women 40
Ranked 58th.
77
Ranked 27th. 93% more than Ecuador

Leaders > President > Summary President Correa has mounted a nationalisation drive Barack Obama, the country&#039;s first black president
Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel None
None
Democracy > Democratic institutions rating 8
Ranked 45th.
10
Ranked 9th. 25% more than Ecuador
UN membership date 21 Dec. 1945 24 Oct. 1945
Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number 16
Ranked 67th. The same as United States
16
Ranked 60th.

Capital city Quito Washington, DC
Capital > Name Quito Washington, DC
Legal origin <a href=/country/fr>French</a> <a href=/encyclopedia/England>English</a>
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita 312.48$ per capita
Ranked 74th.
6,281.51$ per capita
Ranked 14th. 20 times more than Ecuador

Spending > Expense > Current LCU 4.88 billion
Ranked 23th.
3.7 trillion
Ranked 1st. 757 times more than Ecuador

Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days 74
Ranked 113th. 23% more than United States
60
Ranked 144th.

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Registered voter turnout 47.3%
Ranked 138th.
63.8%
Ranked 101st. 35% more than Ecuador
Democracy and rights > Year women first voted at national level 1929 1920
Capital > Time difference UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC-5 (during Standard Time)
Democracy > Presidential elections > Voting age population 6.89 million
Ranked 31st.
213.95 million
Ranked 1st. 31 times more than Ecuador
International relations Free trade talks with US are frozen; Ecuador has complained of border incursions by the Colombian military The US has a leading role on the world stage, militarily and diplomatically. Its combat troops are set to leave Afghanistan by late 2014
Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days per million 5.74
Ranked 122nd. 30 times more than United States
0.191
Ranked 186th.

Leaders > Head of state > Term limit for head of state 4
Ranked 139th. The same as United States
4
Ranked 129th.
Democracy > Female ministers 0.0
Ranked 122nd.
7.1%
Ranked 92nd.
Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days 588
Ranked 81st. 59% more than United States
370
Ranked 164th.

Democracy > Female parliamentarians 14.6%
Ranked 54th. 6% more than United States
13.8%
Ranked 60th.
Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number 8
Ranked 37th. Twice as much as United States
4
Ranked 145th.

Leaders > President > Profile <p>Rafael Correa won the presidential elections in November 2006 - promising a social revolution to benefit the poor - and was re-elected in 2009 and again in February 2013.</p> <p>When he originally took up his post in January 2007 he joined Latin America&#039;s club of left-leaning leaders, including Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez and Bolivia&#039;s Evo Morales, who have been highly critical of the US and led a South American nationalisation drive.</p> <p>Following the 2013 poll he promised to press ahead with laws to control the media and redistribute land to the poor, apparently deepening his socialist revolution after a resounding re-election victory.</p> <p>When he was first elected Mr Correa, an outsider with no political party backing, moved quickly to win voters&#039; approval for a special assembly to rewrite the constitution in a referendum.</p> <p>He said the new basic law would hand more power to the poor and reduce the role of the traditional parties, whom he blames for the country&#039;s problems. Critics said it was solely aimed at increasing his powers.</p> <p>Despite resistance from the opposition-led Congress, the revised constitution was approved by 64% of voters in a referendum in September 2008.</p> <p>The new basic law also allowed Mr Correa to stand for re-election, enabling him to win a second term with a convincing victory in April 2009 polls and a third term in 2013.</p><p>In a further referendum in May 2011, voters approved further reforms proposed by Mr Correa, including giving the president more power over judicial appointments, regulating the media - and a ban on bullfighting.</p> <p>On coming to power, Mr Correa froze talks on a free trade pact with the US, saying it would hurt Ecuador&#039;s farmers, and refused to extend the US military&#039;s use of an air base on the Pacific coast for drug surveillance flights.</p> <p>In 2010, Mr Correa had tear gas fired at him and was trapped inside a hospital for more than 12 hours by protesting policemen before being freed by army forces.</p> <p>He said the unrest, sparked by anger at a law scrapping police bonuses, was a coup attempt and declared a state of emergency, but his government later promised to change parts of the bill.</p> <p>He has been highly critical of Ecuador&#039;s media, which he accuses of trying to undermine his reform programme. His opponents in turn accuse him of seeking to silence criticism.</p> <p>Rafael Correa obtained his doctorate in economics from the University of Illinois in 2001 and was a professor at Quito&#039;s San Francisco University.</p> <p>He was appointed economy minister in April 2005 but was forced to resign after four months when he failed to consult the president before publicly lambasting the World Bank for denying Ecuador a loan. </p> <p>Barack Obama, a Democrat and America&#039;s first black president, was re-elected for a second term in November 2012 after a bitterly-fought campaign against Republican challenger Mitt Romney.</p> <p>The Democrats kept control of the Senate and the Republicans remained in control of the House of Representatives, leading to political gridlock in Congress on the budget in late 2013.</p> <p>The campaign focused on the ailing US economy. In his inaugural speech in January 2013, Mr Obama called on Democrats and Republicans to work together to sustain the country&#039;s fragile economic recovery. He also pledged an end to &quot;ten years of war&quot;, signalling the departure of US troops from Afghanistan in 2014.</p> <p>First term challenges</p> <p>The worst economic crisis in the US since the Great Depression of the 1930s dominated much of Mr Obama&#039;s first term. The president pursued an aggressive policy of economic stimulus, including bail-outs of major car makers.</p> <p>He made reform of the healthcare system to extend coverage and reduce ballooning costs one of his top domestic priorities.</p> <p>Despite a tortuous drafting process and vociferous Republican opposition, Mr Obama and Democrats in Congress finally succeeded in passing a health care bill in March 2010.</p> <p>However, the health reform, along with the $787bn stimulus package passed in February 2010 to shore up an ailing economy, galvanised opposition among opponents to Mr Obama&#039;s agenda.</p> <p>The American Right in particular worried about what it saw as moves to extend the role of the state in the economy, and the threat of excessive public debt.</p> <p>Tea Party boost for Republicans</span> <p>The rise of the conservative Tea Party movement in 2009 re-energised the Republicans and helped them to capitalise on popular discontent at the slow pace of America&#039;s economic recovery.</p> <p>The Republicans made sweeping gains in mid-term elections in November 2010, regaining control of the House of Representatives.</p> <p>In autumn 2011 anti-capitalist protestors took to the streets of major cities, marching under the slogan &quot;Occupy Wall Street&quot;, against &quot;corporate greed&quot; and increasing government debt. The protests inspired marches in other cities worldwide in October 2011.</p> <p>Bin Laden operation</span> <p>In May 2011, Mr Obama was widely applauded domestically - including by the Right - for his decision to order the operation that killed Al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden. </p> <p>Barack Obama was born in 1961 in Hawaii, the son of a black Kenyan father and a white American mother. After attending an elite Hawaiian academy and Columbia University in New York, he went on to Harvard Law School, where he graduated in 1991.</p> <p>Mr Obama practiced law and did community work in Chicago, where he also became active in the Democratic Party. He won a seat in the Illinois state senate in 1996, and followed this up by winning a US Senate seat in 2004.</p> <p>He emphatic victory over his opponent John McCain in the 2008 presidential election ended eight years of Republican rule in the White House.</p> <p>Mr Obama ran for president on a ticket promising change, and came to office riding a wave of high expectations from his supporters, both at home and abroad.</p> <p>He is widely acknowledged to be a charismatic figure and is noted for his stirring oratory. </p>
Role of head of state Executive Executive
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 300.03$
Ranked 74th.
6,299.75$
Ranked 14th. 21 times more than Ecuador

Democracy > Presidential elections > Registered voter turnout 70.1%
Ranked 47th. 4% more than United States
67.4%
Ranked 55th.
Start-up procedures to register a business > Number 14
Ranked 14th. 3 times more than United States
5
Ranked 154th.

Democracy > Presidential elections > Voting age population per 1000 519
Ranked 44th.
737.5
Ranked 17th. 42% more than Ecuador
Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong 3
Ranked 148th.
8
Ranked 27th. 3 times more than Ecuador

Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient per million 0.232
Ranked 91st. 16 times more than United States
0.0143
Ranked 141st.

Spending > Compensation of employees > Current LCU 2.38 billion
Ranked 23th.
399.42 billion
Ranked 14th. 168 times more than Ecuador

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.113$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 105th.
0.158$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 76th. 40% more than Ecuador

Parliament > Seats held by women per million people 2.59
Ranked 106th. 11 times more than United States
0.243
Ranked 175th.

Democracy > Female suffrage "1929 ,1967" "1920 ,1960"
Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days 115
Ranked 129th. 26% more than United States
91
Ranked 157th.

Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million 2.52
Ranked 120th. 25 times more than United States
0.102
Ranked 185th.

Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days per million 3.58
Ranked 72nd. 225 times more than United States
0.0159
Ranked 188th.

Red tape > Time required to register property > Days per million 2.52
Ranked 107th. 66 times more than United States
0.0382
Ranked 181st.

Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days per million 7.42
Ranked 136th. 26 times more than United States
0.29
Ranked 183th.

Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million 1.03
Ranked 115th. 20 times more than United States
0.051
Ranked 182nd.

Spending > Interest payments > Current LCU 1.25 billion
Ranked 21st.
270.49 billion
Ranked 1st. 217 times more than Ecuador

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita 133.27 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 73th.
5,464.23 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 8th. 41 times more than Ecuador

Time required to build a warehouse > Days 149 days
Ranked 113th. 2 times more than United States
69 days
Ranked 164th.

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population 6.89 million
Ranked 59th.
213.95 million
Ranked 2nd. 31 times more than Ecuador
Democracy > Female candidacy 1,929
Ranked 123th. 8% more than United States
1,788
Ranked 161st.
Trademarks > Nonresidents per 1000 0.356
Ranked 14th. 4 times more than United States
0.0922
Ranked 35th.

Trademarks > Nonresidents > Per capita 0.37 per 1,000 people
Ranked 14th. 4 times more than United States
0.092 per 1,000 people
Ranked 35th.

Foreign relations > Croatia > Date of Establishment February 22, 1996 August 11, 1992
National anthem > Name Oh Patria!" (We Salute You Our Homeland) "The Star-Spangled Banner"
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voter registration 7.07 million
Ranked 51st.
156.42 million
Ranked 2nd. 22 times more than Ecuador
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Turnout 48.5
Ranked 87th. 4% more than United States
46.6
Ranked 93th.
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Total vote 3.34 million
Ranked 59th.
99.74 million
Ranked 3rd. 30 times more than Ecuador
Time required to enforce a contract > Days 498 days
Ranked 79th. 66% more than United States
300 days
Ranked 136th.

Start-up procedures to register a business > Number > Per capita 1.04 per 1 million people
Ranked 85th. 61 times more than United States
0.017 per 1 million people
Ranked 168th.

Buenos Aires Convention > Berne 1991-10-09 1989-03-01
Procedures to register property > Number 10
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than United States
4
Ranked 131st.

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number 19
Ranked 61st. 6% more than United States
18
Ranked 67th.

Buenos Aires Convention > Buenos_Aires_Convention 1914-04-27 1911-08-01
Democracy > Presidential elections > Turnout 72
Ranked 35th. 46% more than United States
49.3
Ranked 64th.
Democracy > Presidential elections > Turnout per million 5.42
Ranked 48th. 32 times more than United States
0.17
Ranked 77th.
Democracy > Presidential elections > Total vote 4.96 million
Ranked 24th.
105.41 million
Ranked 1st. 21 times more than Ecuador
Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million 2.92
Ranked 92nd. 51 times more than United States
0.057
Ranked 166th.

Trademarks > Nonresidents 4,822
Ranked 13th.
26,988
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than Ecuador

Time required to register property > Days 20 days
Ranked 135th. 67% more than United States
12 days
Ranked 145th.

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth 3.44%
Ranked 54th. 38% more than United States
2.5%
Ranked 70th.

Time to resolve insolvency > Years 8 years
Ranked 5th. 5 times more than United States
1.5 years
Ranked 127th.

Buenos Aires Convention > UCC 1957-06-05 1955-09-16
Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number per million 0.516
Ranked 97th. 41 times more than United States
0.0127
Ranked 181st.

Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number 39
Ranked 86th. 22% more than United States
32
Ranked 154th.

Flag description > Note similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico
National anthem > Note adopted 1948; Juan Leon MERA wrote the lyrics in 1865; only the chorus and second verse are sung adopted 1931; during the War of 1812, after witnessing the successful American defense of Fort McHenry in Baltimore following British naval bombardment, Francis Scott KEY wrote the lyrics to what would become the national anthem; the lyrics were set to the tune of "The Anacreontic Song;" only the first verse is sung
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > % 38.7%
Ranked 14th. 2 times more than United States
17.9%
Ranked 97th.

Democracy and rights > Next election February 2017 November 2016
Parliament > Seats held by men per million people 5.44
Ranked 156th. 5 times more than United States
1.12
Ranked 185th.

Foreign relations > Date of establishment of relations with China January 2, 1980 January 1, 1979
Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million 0.998
Ranked 87th. 60 times more than United States
0.0168
Ranked 167th.

Foreign relations > Recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia Ecuador 's President Rafael Correa promised to consider recognition if Abkhazia and South Ossetia requested it. Leaders from Abkhazia and South Ossetia responded saying they would send official requests for recognition. Abkhazia submitted such a request in December 2009. President George W. Bush condemned the actions taken by Russia and called on them to "reconsider this irresponsible decision." Bush then stated that in "accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolutions that remain in force, Abkhazia and South Ossetia are within the internationally recognised borders of Georgia, and they must remain so." Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice also said the decision made by Russia was "regrettable" and further stated that since "the United States is a permanent member of the Security Council this simply will be dead on arrival in the Security Council." United States President George W. Bush acknowledged the ceasefire accord brokered by the French President and President of the European Council , Nicolas Sarkozy . The accord was signed by Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on 12 August 2008 Cite error: There are &lt;ref&gt; tags on this page, but the references will not show without a &#123;&#123;reflist&#125;&#125; template (see the help page ).
Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members 4
Ranked 158th. Twice as much as United States
2
Ranked 183th.
Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours 600 hours
Ranked 20th. 85% more than United States
325 hours
Ranked 54th.

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ 1.76 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 66th.
1.6 trillion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 1st. 910 times more than Ecuador

Procedures to register property > Number > Per capita 0.746 per 1 million people
Ranked 73th. 57 times more than United States
0.013 per 1 million people
Ranked 164th.

Procedures to enforce a contract > Number > Per capita 3.06 per 1 million people
Ranked 88th. 54 times more than United States
0.057 per 1 million people
Ranked 167th.

Spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU 300 million
Ranked 35th.
518.29 billion
Ranked 9th. 1728 times more than Ecuador

Republic establishment date May 24, 1822 September 3, 1783
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant LCU 1761628000 1604600000000
Trademarks > Residents > Per capita 0.427 per 1,000 people
Ranked 28th.
0.727 per 1,000 people
Ranked 18th. 70% more than Ecuador

Spending > Interest payments > % of expense 25.55%
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than United States
7.31%
Ranked 3rd.

Trademarks > Residents per million 411.78
Ranked 30th.
729.14
Ranked 18th. 77% more than Ecuador

Procedures to register property > Number per million 0.713
Ranked 76th. 53 times more than United States
0.0134
Ranked 163th.

Spending > Expense > % of GDP 26.3%
Ranked 17th. 1% more than United States
25.94%
Ranked 2nd.

Spending > Compensation of employees > % of expense 48.64%
Ranked 5th. 4 times more than United States
12.08%
Ranked 75th.

Spending > Interest payments > % of revenue 21.76%
Ranked 12th. 82% more than United States
11.93%
Ranked 1st.

Democracy and rights > Last election February 2013 November 2012
Democracy > Presidential elections > Voter registration 7.07 million
Ranked 26th.
156.42 million
Ranked 1st. 22 times more than Ecuador
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population per 1000 519
Ranked 95th.
737.5
Ranked 40th. 42% more than Ecuador
Procedures to enforce a contract > Number 41
Ranked 49th. 2 times more than United States
17
Ranked 164th.

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU 4133613000 1844600000000
Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days per million 37.95
Ranked 121st. 32 times more than United States
1.18
Ranked 185th.

Trademarks > Residents 5,571
Ranked 22nd.
213,495
Ranked 2nd. 38 times more than Ecuador

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number > Per capita 1.42 per 1 million people
Ranked 103th. 24 times more than United States
0.06 per 1 million people
Ranked 165th.

Capital city > Time difference UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC-5 (during Standard Time)
Spending > Goods and services expense > % of expense 6.14%
Ranked 44th.
15.67%
Ranked 32nd. 3 times more than Ecuador

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita 127.96 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 72nd.
5,480.09 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 8th. 43 times more than Ecuador

Ruling party PAIS Alliance Democratic
Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million 1.35
Ranked 104th. 22 times more than United States
0.0603
Ranked 164th.

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).; Wikipedia: List of countries by system of government (Alphabetical list of countries); All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia: Censorship by country (Censorship by country) ("Press Freedom Index 2013" , Reporters Without Borders, 30 January 2013); United Nations Statistics Division; "2012 Freedom of the Press Data" , Freedom House, 1 May 2012; World Development Indicators database; Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2000-2001, New York: Freedom House, 2001; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva.; British Broadcasting Corporation 2014; Source: Millennium Development Goals Database | United Nations Statistics Division; World Economic Forum, Global Competiveness Report and data files.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wikipedia: International recognition of Israel (UN member states); Polity IV Project, University of Maryland, at Polity IV Project; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; CIA World Factbook, 28 July 2005; International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files.; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003; Wikipedia: Women's suffrage (Summary); Wikipedia: Term of office (Terms of office by country); IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on women in government at the ministerial level. March. Geneva; calculated on the basis of data on parliamentary seats from IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2002. Parline Database. March 2002; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Economic Forum, Global Competiveness Report and data files. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva; Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Croatia; Wikipedia: Buenos Aires Convention; Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) (www.ipu.org); Wikipedia: List of next general elections (Africa); United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dates_of_establishment_of_diplomatic_relations_with_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_recognition_of_Abkhazia_and_South_Ossetia#States_that_do_not_recognise_Abkhazia_or_South_Ossetia_as_independent; Wikipedia: List of countries by date of transition to republican system of government (List); International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.

Citation

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