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Country vs country: United Kingdom and United States compared: Environment stats

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Definitions

  • Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened: Bird species, threatened. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened: Mammal species, threatened. Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Municipal waste generation: Kilograms of municipal waste generated per year (2000).
  • Pollution perceptions > Air pollution: Air Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Air quality: Air quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution: Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Pollution index: Pollution Index is an estimation of the overall pollution in the city. The biggest weight is given to air pollution, than to water pollution/accessibility, two main pollution factors. Small weight is given to other pollution types.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Water pollution: Water Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Transport CO2 emission index: CO2 Emission Index is an estimation of CO2 consumption due to traffic time. Measurement unit is grams for the return trip. To calculate an average estimation of emission in grams for one way commute to work, divide this value with 2.
  • Water > Freshwater pollution: Industrial organic pollutants per available freshwater
    Units: Metric Tons of BOD Emissions per Cubic Km of Water
    Units: Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. The data from the World Bank, which represented BOD emissions (kilograms per day) were normalized by the combination of water availability per capita and water inflow availability per capita from the WaterGap2.1 model. In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.

  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality: Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Proportion of land area under protection: Terrestrial areas protected to total surface area, percentage.
  • Waste generation: Kilograms of waste generated per person per year ( 2000).
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • CO2 Emissions per 1000: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction: Garbage Disposal Satisfaction. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Municipal waste generation per million: Kilograms of municipal waste generated per year (2000). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean water: Water Quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, total.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities: Dirty and Untidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Waste > Local garbage collected: Municipal waste collected.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution: Noise and Light Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Waste > Hazardous waste created: Annual generation of hazardous waste (as defined by the Basel Convention).
  • Waste > Local garbage collected per thousand people: Municipal waste collected. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Waste generation per million: Kilograms of waste generated per person per year ( 2000). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, total.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide per capita: Tons of Carbon Dioxide produced per capita in 1998 or latest available year. Carbon dioxide from energy use only. Excludes international marine bunkers.
  • Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened: Fish species, threatened. Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Water > Percent of water resources used: Proportion of total water resources used, percentage.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness: Percentage of each country's population who claimed knowing "something" or a "great deal" about climate change when asked: "How much do you know about global warming or climate change?"
  • Water > Severe water stress: Percent of country's territory under severe water stress
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: This data is derived from the WaterGap 2.1 gridded hydrological model developed by the Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany. The modellers derived, for each country, grid cell by grid cell estimates of whether the water consumption exceeds 40 percent of the water available in that particular grid cell. These were then converted to land area equivalents in order to calculate the percentage of the territory under severe water stress.

  • Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities: Clean and Tidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, rural.
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution: Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Nuclear waste: Wastes from spent fuel arising in nuclear power plants, measured in terms of heavy metal. Data for 1998 or latest available year.
  • SO2 emissions per populated area: SO2 emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.

  • Waste water treatment expenditure: Annual spending on waste water treatment (USD per person) per year (2000).
  • Water > Population supplied by water supply industry: Total population supplied by water supply industry.
  • Endangered species protection: Percent of CITES reporting requirements met
    Units: Percent of Requirements Met
    Units: Countries that have not ratified the CITES convention are recorded as having zero percent of their requirements met.

  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)

  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution: Comfortable to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter). Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Marine fish catch per 1000: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.

  • Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity: Percentage of population who responded yes when asked if they believed global warming was a result of human activities. In this survey, global warming refers to the current rise in earth's temperature and not climate change as a whole.
  • Biodiversity > Number: GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential)."
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Endangered species > Bird species: Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Waste > Hazardous waste created per thousand people: Annual generation of hazardous waste (as defined by the Basel Convention). Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • NOx emissions per populated area: NOx emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.

  • Areas under protection: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • National parks > Proportion of country area: Country area.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • National parks > Total area: Total area km².

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Known mammal species: Known mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Waste > Population served by local garbage collection: Total population served by municipal waste collection.
  • Pollution > Nuclear waste per million: Wastes from spent fuel arising in nuclear power plants, measured in terms of heavy metal. Data for 1998 or latest available year. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, urban.
  • Endangered species > Mammal species > Number: Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential).
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Proportion of land and marine area under protection: Terrestrial and marine areas protected to total territorial area, percentage.
  • CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Waste water treatment expenditure per million: Annual spending on waste water treatment (USD per person) per year (2000). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration: Dissolved oxygen concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.

  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Carbon dioxide (CO2) > CO2 emissions: Amount of carbon dioxide emissions by select Western countries. Amounts are by thousand metric tons. 
  • Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution: Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened: Plant species (higher), threatened. Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Threatened species: Number of Threatened Species (1990-99)
  • Wildness: Percent of land area having very low anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.

  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • National parks > Number of parks: Number of parks.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • World Heritage Sites (environmental): Natural sites.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Wetlands of intl importance > Area: Wetlands of international importance 2002
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, urban.
  • Urban SO2 concentration: Urban SO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.

  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Biosphere > Reserves area: Biosphere reserves area 2002.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Water > Proportion of marine area under protection: Marine areas protected to territorial waters, percentage.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of nitrous oxide emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total NO2 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of NO2 emitted, which is 310 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of sulphur hexafluoride emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total SF6 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of SF6 emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since SF6 has a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Municipal waste treatment expenditure per million: Annual spending on municipal waste disposal (USD per person). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number: Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Sustainability-satisfying companies: Dow Jones Sustainability Group Index: percent of eligible companies in index
    Units: Percentage
    Units: For each country, the number of companies in the Sustainability Index was divided by the number of companies in the Global Index.

  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Forest area > Sq. km per 1000: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Water > Population connected to wastewater collecting system: Population connected to wastewater collecting system.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 per million: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Environmental agreement compliance: Compliance with environmental agreements (WEF survey)
    Units: Survey Responses Ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7
    Units: Response to the statement: "Compliance with international environmental agreements is a high priority.

  • Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride."
  • Municipal waste treatment expenditure: Annual spending on municipal waste disposal (USD per person).
  • Endangered species > Fish species > Number: Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Known breeding bird species: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Water > Salinisation: Electrical conductivity
    Units: Micro-Siemens/Centimeter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of water bodies; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system.

  • Threatened species > Mammal: Number of threatened mammal species (1997)
  • Urban NO2 concentration: Urban NO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.

  • Areas under protection per million: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Marine areas under protection: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Known mammal species per million: Known mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Fertiliser > Consumption: Fertilizer consumption per hectare of arable land
    Units: Hundreds Grams/Hectare of Arable Land
  • Breeding birds threatened: Percentage of breeding birds threatened
    Units: Percent of Breeding Birds
    Units: The number of bird species threatened divided by known bird species in the country, expressed as a percentage.

  • Pollution > Nuclear waste efficiency: This is the amount of nuclear waste produced per unit of energy obtained. Energy obtained is measured in units equivalent to the energy obtained from using one million tons of oil. Data from 1998 or latest available year. "Nuclear Waste" is waste from spent fuel arising in nuclear power plants, measured in terms of heavy metal.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters: Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters). Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a countryÂ’s technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • International agreements > Signed but not ratified: The various international environmental agreements which a country has signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2). Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Known breeding bird species per million: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Municipal waste treatment expenditure, % of GDP: Annual spending on municipal waste disposal (USD per person). Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Natural gas rents > % of GDP: Natural gas rents (% of GDP). Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers."
  • Total natural resources rents > % of GDP: Total natural resources rents (% of GDP). Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Waste water treatment expenditure, % of GDP: Annual spending on waste water treatment (USD per person) per year (2000). Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Water > Phosphorus concentration: Phosphorus concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.

  • Water > Suspended solids: Suspended solids
    Units: Natural Log of Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. Data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of majorwatersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries. The data in this table was transformed using the natural logarithm.

  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total: Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total: Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use: Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total: Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels."
  • Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent: Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production.
  • Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates.
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day per worker). Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Non-wildness: Percent of land area having very high anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.

  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Pollution > Nitrogen Oxides per capita: Kilogram weight of Nitrogen Oxides produced per capita in 1998 or latest available year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat: Percentage of country's population that perceives climate change as a threat. Results are from a 2008 Gallop Poll.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Biosphere > Reserves area per million: Biosphere reserves area 2002. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Wetlands of intl importance > Area per million: Wetlands of international importance 2002. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Oil rents > % of GDP: Oil rents (% of GDP). Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Carbon dioxide (CO2) > CO2 emissions per thousand people: Amount of carbon dioxide emissions by select Western countries. Amounts are by thousand metric tons. . Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Marine areas under protection per million: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of perfluorocarbons emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total PFCs emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of PFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since PFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of all greenhouse gas emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total greenhouse gas emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of greenhouse gases emitted. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of methane emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total methane emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the amount of methane emitted, which is 21 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of methane emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total methane emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the amount of methane emitted, which is 21 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions over a 100 year period. These numbers do not represent total HFCs emissions over 100 years, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of HFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year timeframe is used since HFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date: Signature.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of nitrous oxide emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total NO2 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of NO2 emitted, which is 310 times more CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent): Carbon dioxide equivalent of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions over a 100 year period. These numbers do not represent total HFCs emissions over 100 years, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of HFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year timeframe is used since HFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of perfluorocarbons emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total PFCs emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of PFCs emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since PFCs have a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of all greenhouse gas emissions not including human-based land use, land use change and forestry. These numbers do not represent total greenhouse gas emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of greenhouse gases emitted. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people: Carbon dioxide equivalent of sulphur hexafluoride emissions over 100 years. These numbers do not represent total SF6 emissions, but rather the total amount of CO2 that would have to be emitted to have the same global warming potential (GWP) as the total amount of SF6 emitted over 100 years. A 100 year time scale is used since SF6 has a shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2. The GWP of a greenhouse gas is useful in determining a country's overall impact on climate change. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Commitment to Development Index (environment): The Commitment to Development Index (CDI) ranks the world’s richest countries on their commitment to policies that benefit the poorer nations. The environment component of the index measures what these countries do to reduce their use of scarce natural resources. The score goes up if their "greenhouse gas" emissions are falling, their fuel taxes are high, do not subsidize the fishing industry, or have a low fossil fuel rate per capita.
  • Forest area > % of land area: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2).
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Water pollution > Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
  • Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, chemical industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, clay and glass industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, metal industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, food industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, other industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, paper and pulp industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, textile industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, wood industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Expenditure pollution control as % of GDP: Expenditure on pollution controland abatement as % of GDP, 1999 .
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 > Per $ GDP: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas. Per $ GDP figures expressed per $100 million of Gross Domestic Product.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CO2 Emissions: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction: Quality of Green and Parks. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
STAT United Kingdom United States HISTORY
Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened 4
Ranked 174th.
78
Ranked 9th. 20 times more than United Kingdom
Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened 5
Ranked 148th.
36
Ranked 21st. 7 times more than United Kingdom
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons 196.7
Ranked 12th.
2,478.03
Ranked 2nd. 13 times more than United Kingdom

Current issues continues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (has met Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5% reduction from 1990 levels and intends to meet the legally binding target and move toward a domestic goal of a 20% cut in emissions by 2010); by 2005 the government reduced the amount of industrial and commercial waste disposed of in landfill sites to 85% of 1998 levels and recycled or composted at least 25% of household waste, increasing to 33% by 2015 air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification
Ecological footprint 4.7
Ranked 5th.
12.22
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than United Kingdom
Marine fish catch 711,809 tons
Ranked 18th.
3.33 million tons
Ranked 7th. 5 times more than United Kingdom
Municipal waste generation 560 kgs per person per year
Ranked 9th.
760 kgs per person per year
Ranked 1st. 36% more than United Kingdom
Pollution perceptions > Air pollution 29.68
Ranked 49th. 19% more than United States
25.04
Ranked 52nd.
Pollution perceptions > Air quality 70.32
Ranked 11th.
74.96
Ranked 8th. 7% more than United Kingdom
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution 22.35
Ranked 47th.
29.66
Ranked 41st. 33% more than United Kingdom
Pollution perceptions > Pollution index 34.29
Ranked 49th.
35.37
Ranked 47th. 3% more than United Kingdom
Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction 37.95
Ranked 39th. 41% more than United States
26.97
Ranked 48th.
Pollution perceptions > Water pollution 27.23
Ranked 51st.
45.87
Ranked 38th. 68% more than United Kingdom
Transport CO2 emission index 3,369.84
Ranked 23th.
7,004.01
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
Water > Freshwater pollution 3.34 tons/cubic km
Ranked 17th. 3 times more than United States
1.14 tons/cubic km
Ranked 30th.
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality 77.65
Ranked 13th. 10% more than United States
70.34
Ranked 19th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million 3.13
Ranked 38th.
7.95
Ranked 10th. 3 times more than United Kingdom

Proportion of land area under protection 27.91%
Ranked 36th. 2 times more than United States
13.82%
Ranked 111th.

Waste generation 480 kgs per person per year
Ranked 3rd. 4% more than United States
460 kgs per person per year
Ranked 4th.
CO2 emissions > Kt 558,461 kt
Ranked 8th.
5.79 million kt
Ranked 1st. 10 times more than United Kingdom

Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $2.10 trillion
Ranked 7th.
$12.91 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than United Kingdom

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 493,504.86
Ranked 11th.
5.43 million
Ranked 2nd. 11 times more than United Kingdom

CO2 Emissions per 1000 9.37
Ranked 25th.
19.86
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita 0.472 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 163th.
10.22 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 44th. 22 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction 62.05
Ranked 21st.
73.03
Ranked 12th. 18% more than United Kingdom
Municipal waste generation per million 9.51 kgs per person per year
Ranked 12th. 4 times more than United States
2.69 kgs per person per year
Ranked 17th.
Pollution perceptions > Clean water 72.77
Ranked 9th. 34% more than United States
54.13
Ranked 22nd.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural 100
Ranked 14th. 1% more than United States
98.76
Ranked 62nd.

CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita 9.37 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 35th.
19.9 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 11th. 2 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities 44.25
Ranked 40th. 12% more than United States
39.66
Ranked 44th.
Waste > Local garbage collected 32.6 million tonnes
Ranked 5th.
222.86 million tonnes
Ranked 1st. 7 times more than United Kingdom

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 7.93
Ranked 39th.
17.56
Ranked 10th. 2 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution 43.41
Ranked 41st.
47.89
Ranked 34th. 10% more than United Kingdom
Waste > Hazardous waste created 7.29 million tonnes
Ranked 9th.
34.79 million tonnes
Ranked 2nd. 5 times more than United Kingdom

Waste > Local garbage collected per thousand people 527.41 tonnes
Ranked 24th.
754.15 tonnes
Ranked 5th. 43% more than United Kingdom

Waste generation per million 8.15 kgs per person per year
Ranked 12th. 5 times more than United States
1.63 kgs per person per year
Ranked 16th.
Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural 100
Ranked 18th. About the same as United States
99.59
Ranked 40th.

Pollution > Carbon Dioxide per capita 9
Ranked 12th.
20
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than United Kingdom
Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened 43
Ranked 45th.
236
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than United Kingdom
Water > Percent of water resources used 8.84%
Ranked 55th.
15.57%
Ranked 37th. 76% more than United Kingdom

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 7.93
Ranked 39th.
17.56
Ranked 10th. 2 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness 97%
Ranked 4th. The same as United States
97%
Ranked 3rd.
Water > Severe water stress 21
Ranked 51st.
31.3
Ranked 42nd. 49% more than United Kingdom
Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities 55.75
Ranked 20th.
60.34
Ranked 16th. 8% more than United Kingdom
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural 100
Ranked 14th. 6% more than United States
94.03
Ranked 85th.

Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution 21.04
Ranked 51st.
21.83
Ranked 49th. 4% more than United Kingdom
Pollution > Nuclear waste 820
Ranked 5th.
2,100
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than United Kingdom
SO2 emissions per populated area 5,370 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than United States
1,680 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 37th.
Waste water treatment expenditure $11.10
Ranked 15th.
$105.00
Ranked 5th. 9 times more than United Kingdom
Water > Population supplied by water supply industry 99%
Ranked 12th. 16% more than United States
85%
Ranked 25th.
Endangered species protection 100%
Ranked 16th. 14% more than United States
87.5%
Ranked 39th.
Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 521,716.1
Ranked 8th.
1.89 million
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than United Kingdom

Water > Availability 3.1 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 68th.
7.09 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 47th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
Protected area 20.5%
Ranked 11th. 53% more than United States
13.4%
Ranked 26th.
Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution 78.96
Ranked 9th. 1% more than United States
78.17
Ranked 11th.
Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 148
Ranked 8th.
1,571
Ranked 1st. 11 times more than United Kingdom
CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 9.38 kt
Ranked 31st.
19.95 kt
Ranked 9th. 2 times more than United Kingdom

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million 1.21
Ranked 13th.
1.7
Ranked 6th. 41% more than United Kingdom

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.21
Ranked 165th.
$0.40
Ranked 107th. 91% more than United Kingdom

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt 117,677.7
Ranked 16th.
1.95 million
Ranked 2nd. 17 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 12.78
Ranked 163th.
17.78
Ranked 140th. 39% more than United Kingdom

Marine fish catch per 1000 12.13 tons
Ranked 41st. 2% more than United States
11.93 tons
Ranked 42nd.
Acidification 45.75%
Ranked 10th. 3 times more than United States
13.74%
Ranked 25th.
Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity 48%
Ranked 91st.
49%
Ranked 88th. 2% more than United Kingdom
Biodiversity > Number 3.55
Ranked 65th.
94.22
Ranked 2nd. 27 times more than United Kingdom

Forest area > Sq. km 28,450 km²
Ranked 90th.
3.03 million km²
Ranked 4th. 107 times more than United Kingdom

Endangered species > Bird species 2
Ranked 172nd.
74
Ranked 7th. 37 times more than United Kingdom

Waste > Hazardous waste created per thousand people 118.66 tonnes
Ranked 22nd. 1% more than United States
117.72 tonnes
Ranked 5th.

Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 521,716.1
Ranked 9th.
1.85 million
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than United Kingdom

NOx emissions per populated area 2.76 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than United States
1.29 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 13th.
Areas under protection 579
Ranked 18th.
3,481
Ranked 7th. 6 times more than United Kingdom
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $33,876.64
Ranked 9th.
$37,678.22
Ranked 6th. 11% more than United Kingdom
National parks > Proportion of country area 8.2%
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than United States
2.18%
Ranked 4th.
National parks > Total area 19,989
Ranked 3rd.
210,000
Ranked 2nd. 11 times more than United Kingdom
Known mammal species 50
Ranked 134th.
428
Ranked 4th. 9 times more than United Kingdom
Waste > Population served by local garbage collection 100%
Ranked 12th. The same as United States
100%
Ranked 24th.

Pollution > Nuclear waste per million 14.02
Ranked 4th. 84% more than United States
7.61
Ranked 10th.
Carbon efficiency 1.17 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 69th.
1.77 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 42nd. 51% more than United Kingdom
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 100
Ranked 17th. 1% more than United States
98.6
Ranked 40th.

Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban 100
Ranked 20th. About the same as United States
99.77
Ranked 56th.

Endangered species > Mammal species > Number 5
Ranked 139th.
37
Ranked 19th. 7 times more than United Kingdom
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum 3.55
Ranked 66th.
94.22
Ranked 2nd. 27 times more than United Kingdom

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt 194,251.99
Ranked 7th.
1.29 million
Ranked 1st. 7 times more than United Kingdom

Proportion of land and marine area under protection 23.37%
Ranked 44th. 54% more than United States
15.14%
Ranked 83th.

CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP 0.34 kg/PPP$
Ranked 77th.
0.56 kg/PPP$
Ranked 36th. 65% more than United Kingdom

Waste water treatment expenditure per million $0.19
Ranked 15th.
$0.37
Ranked 14th. 97% more than United Kingdom
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt 539,175.92
Ranked 9th.
5.83 million
Ranked 2nd. 11 times more than United Kingdom

Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration 10.4 mls/litre
Ranked 14th. 12% more than United States
9.26 mls/litre
Ranked 33th.
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Carbon dioxide (CO2) > CO2 emissions 505,727.86
Ranked 6th.
5.7 million
Ranked 1st. 11 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution 56.59
Ranked 19th. 9% more than United States
52.11
Ranked 26th.
Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened 15
Ranked 91st.
270
Ranked 13th. 18 times more than United Kingdom
Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 14,291
Ranked 11th.
348,460
Ranked 1st. 24 times more than United Kingdom

Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.12 kg per day per worker
Ranked 31st.
0.13 kg per day per worker
Ranked 47th. 8% more than United Kingdom

Threatened species 17
Ranked 104th.
854
Ranked 1st. 50 times more than United Kingdom
Wildness 0.21%
Ranked 99th.
35.89%
Ranked 32nd. 171 times more than United Kingdom
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $33,451.41
Ranked 17th.
$41,448.39
Ranked 10th. 24% more than United Kingdom

National parks > Number of parks 15
Ranked 10th.
59
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than United Kingdom
World Heritage Sites (environmental) 4
Ranked 10th.
12
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than United Kingdom
Wetlands of intl importance > Area 855 thousand hectares
Ranked 17th.
1,190 thousand hectares
Ranked 14th. 39% more than United Kingdom
Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 100%
Ranked 17th. 1% more than United States
98.6%
Ranked 40th.

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban 100
Ranked 19th. About the same as United States
99.8
Ranked 43th.

Urban SO2 concentration 21.96 micrograms/m3
Ranked 102nd. 42% more than United States
15.43 micrograms/m3
Ranked 114th.
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number 778
Ranked 27th.
6,770
Ranked 5th. 9 times more than United Kingdom
Biosphere > Reserves area 30 thousand hectares
Ranked 79th.
31,570 thousand hectares
Ranked 3rd. 1052 times more than United Kingdom
Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 2.81
Ranked 58th.
6.97
Ranked 13th. 2 times more than United Kingdom

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 1.89
Ranked 32nd.
6.29
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than United Kingdom

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$ $99.83 million
Ranked 55th.
$20.07 billion
Ranked 2nd. 201 times more than United Kingdom

Water > Proportion of marine area under protection 16.61%
Ranked 35th.
30.4%
Ranked 19th. 83% more than United Kingdom

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters 145
Ranked 46th.
2,800
Ranked 6th. 19 times more than United Kingdom

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters 9.54
Ranked 46th.
479.29
Ranked 3rd. 50 times more than United Kingdom
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 561.98
Ranked 33th.
971.54
Ranked 10th. 73% more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 689.99
Ranked 6th.
14,037.64
Ranked 1st. 20 times more than United Kingdom

Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million 0.0578
Ranked 154th.
0.31
Ranked 97th. 5 times more than United Kingdom

Municipal waste treatment expenditure per million $0.20
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than United States
$0.06
Ranked 18th.
Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number 14
Ranked 79th.
244
Ranked 12th. 17 times more than United Kingdom

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$ $105.39 billion
Ranked 10th.
$152.63 billion
Ranked 7th. 45% more than United Kingdom

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$ 0.0
Ranked 121st.
0.0
Ranked 95th.

Sustainability-satisfying companies 68%
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than United States
19.8%
Ranked 14th.
Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number 149
Ranked 7th.
787
Ranked 2nd. 5 times more than United Kingdom
Forest area > Sq. km per 1000 0.472 km²
Ranked 161st.
10.26 km²
Ranked 44th. 22 times more than United Kingdom

Water > Population connected to wastewater collecting system 97.7%
Ranked 8th. 37% more than United States
71.4%
Ranked 14th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 8.84
Ranked 39th.
19.34
Ranked 10th. 2 times more than United Kingdom

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP $0.26
Ranked 99th.
$0.44
Ranked 44th. 69% more than United Kingdom

Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.17
Ranked 24th. 21% more than United States
0.14
Ranked 47th.

Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 per million 2.51
Ranked 8th.
5.57
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than United Kingdom
Environmental agreement compliance 5.69
Ranked 11th. 9% more than United States
5.22
Ranked 20th.
Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 14,030
Ranked 10th.
108,420
Ranked 3rd. 8 times more than United Kingdom

Municipal waste treatment expenditure $11.60
Ranked 3rd.
$18.10
Ranked 1st. 56% more than United Kingdom
Endangered species > Fish species > Number 34
Ranked 26th.
164
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than United Kingdom
Known breeding bird species 229
Ranked 58th.
508
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
Water > Salinisation 368.06
Ranked 101st.
375.65
Ranked 98th. 2% more than United Kingdom
Threatened species > Mammal 4
Ranked 136th.
35
Ranked 14th. 9 times more than United Kingdom
Urban NO2 concentration 64.47 micrograms/m3
Ranked 32nd. 6% more than United States
60.57 micrograms/m3
Ranked 45th.
Areas under protection per million 9.72
Ranked 45th.
12
Ranked 40th. 23% more than United Kingdom
Marine areas under protection 95
Ranked 3rd.
229
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than United Kingdom
Known mammal species per million 0.843
Ranked 141st.
1.49
Ranked 135th. 77% more than United Kingdom
Fertiliser > Consumption 3,325.35 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 17th. 3 times more than United States
1,117.48 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 48th.
Breeding birds threatened 0.87%
Ranked 119th.
8.31%
Ranked 15th. 10 times more than United Kingdom
Pollution > Nuclear waste efficiency 3.7
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than United States
0.9
Ranked 13th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 1.02%
Ranked 97th. 26% more than United States
0.816%
Ranked 102nd.

Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 4%
Ranked 9th.
4.24%
Ranked 14th. 6% more than United Kingdom

Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 17.52%
Ranked 2nd. 26% more than United States
13.95%
Ranked 9th.

Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 5.24%
Ranked 26th.
5.42%
Ranked 40th. 3% more than United Kingdom

Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.03% of GNI
Ranked 151st.
0.35% of GNI
Ranked 85th. 12 times more than United Kingdom

Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.18% of GNI
Ranked 141st.
0.34% of GNI
Ranked 93th. 89% more than United Kingdom

Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters 18.21%
Ranked 28th. 9 times more than United States
2%
Ranked 95th.

Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.61%
Ranked 33th.
42.06%
Ranked 31st. 69 times more than United Kingdom

Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 48.03%
Ranked 2nd. 5 times more than United States
10.61%
Ranked 35th.

PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 15.06 mcg/m³
Ranked 169th.
22.63 mcg/m³
Ranked 140th. 50% more than United Kingdom

Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 15.38%
Ranked 2nd. 11% more than United States
13.9%
Ranked 5th.

Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.26%
Ranked 18th. 24% more than United States
0.21%
Ranked 31st.

International agreements > Signed but not ratified none of the selected agreements Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area 22.35%
Ranked 37th.
27.08%
Ranked 26th. 21% more than United Kingdom
Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area 4.56%
Ranked 38th.
67.57%
Ranked 3rd. 15 times more than United Kingdom
Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000 2.51
Ranked 26th.
5.38
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
Known breeding bird species per million 3.86
Ranked 131st. 2 times more than United States
1.77
Ranked 140th.
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $2.04 trillion
Ranked 5th.
$11.13 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 5 times more than United Kingdom
Municipal waste treatment expenditure, % of GDP 7.24e-10%
Ranked 14th. 4 times more than United States
1.71e-10%
Ranked 18th.
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$ 0.0
Ranked 155th.
$16.10 billion
Ranked 7th.

Natural gas rents > % of GDP 0.238%
Ranked 45th. 40 times more than United States
0.00603%
Ranked 78th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI 14.8%
Ranked 97th. 17% more than United States
12.6%
Ranked 108th.

Total natural resources rents > % of GDP 1.53%
Ranked 110th.
1.73%
Ranked 104th. 13% more than United Kingdom

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI 13.65%
Ranked 28th.
13.96%
Ranked 18th. 2% more than United Kingdom

Waste water treatment expenditure, % of GDP 7.52e-10%
Ranked 15th.
1.06e-09%
Ranked 14th. 41% more than United Kingdom
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$ $368.16 billion
Ranked 6th.
$1.99 trillion
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than United Kingdom

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 126th.
0.11%
Ranked 53th.

Water > Phosphorus concentration 0.09 mls/litre
Ranked 125th. 13% more than United States
0.08 mls/litre
Ranked 127th.
Water > Suspended solids 2.26 mls/litre
Ranked 137th.
4.19 mls/litre
Ranked 95th. 85% more than United Kingdom
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI 2.14%
Ranked 49th. 11% more than United States
1.93%
Ranked 52nd.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI 3.91%
Ranked 81st. 4 times more than United States
1.07%
Ranked 91st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$ $57.72 billion
Ranked 12th.
$276.06 billion
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than United Kingdom

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$ $105.29 billion
Ranked 10th.
$132.56 billion
Ranked 8th. 26% more than United Kingdom

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.16%
Ranked 139th.
0.31%
Ranked 80th. 94% more than United Kingdom

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 113th.
0.0
Ranked 87th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI 1.15%
Ranked 108th.
-1.36%
Ranked 115th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$ $31.06 billion
Ranked 29th.
$-194,522,724,898.49
Ranked 131st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 156th.
0.14%
Ranked 86th.

Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total 50.71%
Ranked 51st. 3 times more than United States
18.38%
Ranked 102nd.

Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total 52.2%
Ranked 114th.
74.74%
Ranked 90th. 43% more than United Kingdom

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.31
Ranked 155th.
$0.51
Ranked 109th. 65% more than United Kingdom

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP $0.25
Ranked 96th.
$0.42
Ranked 44th. 68% more than United Kingdom

Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use 2.55
Ranked 47th. 2% more than United States
2.49
Ranked 52nd.

Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total 35.66%
Ranked 43th.
56.37%
Ranked 20th. 58% more than United Kingdom

Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent 39,400
Ranked 33th.
810,280
Ranked 2nd. 21 times more than United Kingdom

Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 65,480
Ranked 13th.
456,210
Ranked 2nd. 7 times more than United Kingdom

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal 2.94%
Ranked 131st.
41.26%
Ranked 107th. 14 times more than United Kingdom

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal 21.7%
Ranked 48th. 71% more than United States
12.7%
Ranked 83th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal 75.37%
Ranked 5th. 64% more than United States
46.05%
Ranked 20th.

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters 2,361.3
Ranked 92nd.
9,199.18
Ranked 55th. 4 times more than United Kingdom

Water pollution > Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.7%
Ranked 29th.
3.44%
Ranked 21st. 27% more than United Kingdom

Water pollution > Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 4.26%
Ranked 44th.
4.65%
Ranked 42nd. 9% more than United Kingdom

Water pollution > Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 12.47%
Ranked 6th. 50% more than United States
8.33%
Ranked 14th.

Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.167
Ranked 35th. 18% more than United States
0.142
Ranked 52nd.

Non-wildness 32.05%
Ranked 5th. 5 times more than United States
6.59%
Ranked 49th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total 39.36%
Ranked 29th. 66% more than United States
23.72%
Ranked 58th.

Pollution > Nitrogen Oxides per capita 35
Ranked 14th.
80
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than United Kingdom
Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total 23.85%
Ranked 46th.
35.82%
Ranked 33th. 50% more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat 69%
Ranked 20th. 10% more than United States
63%
Ranked 30th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 4.54
Ranked 30th.
43.12
Ranked 3rd. 9 times more than United Kingdom

Biosphere > Reserves area per million 0.506 thousand hectares
Ranked 83th.
109.76 thousand hectares
Ranked 25th. 217 times more than United Kingdom
Wetlands of intl importance > Area per million 14.41 thousand hectares
Ranked 55th. 3 times more than United States
4.14 thousand hectares
Ranked 76th.
Oil rents > % of GDP 1.23%
Ranked 50th. 31% more than United States
0.933%
Ranked 53th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Carbon dioxide (CO2) > CO2 emissions per thousand people 8.12
Ranked 20th.
18.42
Ranked 2nd. 2 times more than United Kingdom

Marine areas under protection per million 1.59
Ranked 22nd. 2 times more than United States
0.789
Ranked 36th.
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 220.47
Ranked 11th.
5,660.73
Ranked 1st. 26 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 594,021.5
Ranked 7th.
6.8 million
Ranked 1st. 11 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people 0.665
Ranked 32nd.
2.14
Ranked 6th. 3 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Methane (CH4) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 41,418.31
Ranked 10th.
661,699
Ranked 1st. 16 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 229.87
Ranked 7th.
397.53
Ranked 1st. 73% more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date June 12, 1992 June 12, 1992
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Nitrous oxide (N2O) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 34,995.46
Ranked 7th.
300,522.75
Ranked 2nd. 9 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) 14,314.07
Ranked 5th.
122,967.12
Ranked 1st. 9 times more than United Kingdom

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 3.12
Ranked 21st.
4.17
Ranked 16th. 34% more than United Kingdom

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million 229.5
Ranked 37th.
1,126.51
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 3.54
Ranked 23th.
18.3
Ranked 7th. 5 times more than United Kingdom

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million -0.066
Ranked 7th.
-3.227
Ranked 33th. 49 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per thousand people 9.54
Ranked 21st.
21.99
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) > Emissions (CO2 equivalent) per million people 11.08
Ranked 13th.
45.38
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than United Kingdom

Commitment to Development Index (environment) 7.2
Ranked 6th. 67% more than United States
4.3
Ranked 23th.
Forest area > % of land area 11.76% of land area
Ranked 142nd.
33.08% of land area
Ranked 83th. 3 times more than United Kingdom

Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 8.97%
Ranked 7th.
9.62%
Ranked 13th. 7% more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 147,199
Ranked 6th.
1.5 million
Ranked 1st. 10 times more than United Kingdom
Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI 3.9%
Ranked 78th. 4 times more than United States
0.93%
Ranked 90th.

Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 15.49
Ranked 154th.
21.34
Ranked 131st. 38% more than United Kingdom

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources 6.58%
Ranked 74th.
17.12%
Ranked 61st. 3 times more than United Kingdom
Water pollution > Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 13.54%
Ranked 12th. 3% more than United States
13.13%
Ranked 15th.

Water pollution > Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 46.14%
Ranked 17th.
50.59%
Ranked 7th. 10% more than United Kingdom

Water pollution > Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.47%
Ranked 33th.
4.09%
Ranked 21st. 66% more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 13.54%
Ranked 11th. 4% more than United States
13.05%
Ranked 12th.

Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 3.56%
Ranked 55th.
3.86%
Ranked 46th. 8% more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.7%
Ranked 38th.
3.45%
Ranked 28th. 28% more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions 14.87%
Ranked 47th. 24% more than United States
12.02%
Ranked 51st.

Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions 46.14%
Ranked 18th.
51.06%
Ranked 7th. 11% more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 12.47%
Ranked 5th. 53% more than United States
8.14%
Ranked 11th.

Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 4.26%
Ranked 59th.
4.29%
Ranked 53th. 1% more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.47%
Ranked 40th.
4.13%
Ranked 27th. 67% more than United Kingdom

Expenditure pollution control as % of GDP 1% of GDP
Ranked 12th.
1.6% of GDP
Ranked 3rd. 60% more than United Kingdom
Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt 174,897.57
Ranked 17th.
2.16 million
Ranked 1st. 12 times more than United Kingdom

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total 35.44%
Ranked 157th.
39.68%
Ranked 152nd. 12% more than United Kingdom

Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 > Per $ GDP 0.00831 per $100 million
Ranked 21st.
0.0134 per $100 million
Ranked 9th. 61% more than United Kingdom
Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent -4.079
Ranked 17th.
-990.062
Ranked 41st. 243 times more than United Kingdom

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 75.86
Ranked 10th.
530.05
Ranked 2nd. 7 times more than United Kingdom

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 17.12%
Ranked 17th. 71% more than United States
10.03%
Ranked 47th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion 44.4%
Ranked 50th.
46.87%
Ranked 45th. 6% more than United Kingdom

Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP 85.86%
Ranked 54th.
86.15%
Ranked 49th. About the same as United Kingdom

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP 88.86%
Ranked 29th. About the same as United States
88.62%
Ranked 31st.
Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction 22.57
Ranked 53th.
28.29
Ranked 49th. 25% more than United Kingdom
CO2 Emissions 558,225
Ranked 7th.
5.76 million
Ranked 1st. 10 times more than United Kingdom
Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction 77.43
Ranked 7th. 8% more than United States
71.71
Ranked 11th.

SOURCES: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; International Energy Agency; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Living Planet Report 2000, Gland, Switzerland: 2000, and Redefining Progress.; FAOSTAT on-line database; OECD Environmental Data Compendium: 2002; pollution; traffic; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2001, Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001 (for BOD emissions)and Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGap 2.1, 2000 (for data on waterquantity). via ciesin.org; International Energy Agency. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Development Indicators database; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; OECD Environmental Data Compendium: 2002. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France, OECD Environmental Data Compendium; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase database, www.fishbase.org.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wikipedia: Climate change opinion by country; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGap 2.1, 2000 via ciesin.org; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Data Version 1.1, B1Illustrative Marker Scenario with model IMAGE; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2003; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Report on National Reports Required Under Article VIII, Paragraph 7(a), of the Convention, Eleventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Gigiri, Kenya, April 2000; 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, ""Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited"" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGAP 2.1B, 2001 via ciesin.org; Jacaranda Atlas; U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual, 2002, and International Energy Outlook, 2001; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department; FAOSTAT on-line database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Stockholm Environment Institute at York, Acidification in Developing Countries: Ecosystem Sensitivity and the Critical Loads Approach at the Global scale, 2000 via ciesin.org; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, ""Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility"" (2006).; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited; World Resources Institute; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: List of national parks (Africa); United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France, OECD Environmental Data Compendium. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; United Nations Statistics Division Original html; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2003. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environmental Monitoring System/Water Quality Monitoring System, with data for an additional 29 countries from Prescott-Allen,R. The Well being of Nations, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; Wild Areas Project (WAP), joint Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and CIESIN project to map the lastwild places on the earth's surface. via ciesin.org; Wikipedia: Table of World Heritage Sites by country (Table of World Heritage Sites); United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Resources Institute, World Resources 1998-99; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2000; WHO,Air Management Information System-AMIS 2.0, 1998; and Global Urban Observatory, Citibase, 1999. via ciesin.org; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.; Kiran D. Pandey and others' ""The Human Costs of Air Pollution: New Estimates for Developing Countries"" (2006).; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Food and Agriculture Organisation, AQUASTAT data.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2002. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank staff estimates. The conceptual underpinnings of the savings measure appear in Hamilton and Clemens' ""Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries"" (1999).; World Bank staff estimates based on sources and methods in Arundhati Kunte and others' ""Estimating National Wealth: Methodology and Results"" (1998).; Assessment of the Country Allocation of the Dow Jones Sustainability Group Index, SAM SustainabilityGroup via ciesin.org; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank and UNIDO's industry database.; U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual, 2002, and International Energy Outlook, 2001. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Michael E. Porter et al, The Global Competitveness Report 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. via ciesin.org; International Energy Agency (IEA Statistics \xA9 OECD/IEA, http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp).; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2002; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. version (07/2008). Accessed: 28 September 2008.; World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2001. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001. via ciesin.org; 2000 IUCN Red List, and World Resources Institute,World Resources 2000-2001, Washington, DC: WRI, 2000. Original sources: World Conservation Monitoring Center, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other sources.; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France, OECD Environmental Data Compendium, 1999; Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2002. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; World Bank national accounts data files.; World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Statistics Division's National Accounts Statistics.; OECD Environmental Data Com¡pendium: 2003. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environmental Monitoring System/Water Quality Monitoring System, with data for an additional 29 countries from Prescott-Allen, R. The Well being of Nations, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001; World Bank staff estimates based on Samuel Fankhauser's ""Valuing Climate Change: The Economics of the Greenhouse"" (1995).; World Bank staff estimates.; World Resources Institute.; Wild Areas Project (WAP), joint Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and CIESIN project to map the last wild places on the earth's surface. Accessed via ciesin.org; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: List of parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (List of parties) (Parties & Observers , UNFCCC, 1 June 2011); United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: Commitment to Development Index (Commitment to Development Index) (http://www.cgdev.org/doc/CDI%202012/CDI%20Postcard_2012.pdf); Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication; Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. ""Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS),"" World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).; OECD Environmental Indicators, p. 104. See also Myriam Linster and Frederique Zegel, 'Pollution Abatement and Control in OECD Countries', OECD Working Group on Environmental Information and Outlooks at www.oecd.org; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute