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Environment Stats: compare key data on Bangladesh & Pakistan

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Definitions

  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • CO2 Emissions per 1000: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Pollution perceptions > Air pollution: Air Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Air quality: Air quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean water: Water Quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution: Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Water pollution: Water Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Proportion of land area under protection: Terrestrial areas protected to total surface area, percentage.
  • Transport CO2 emission index: CO2 Emission Index is an estimation of CO2 consumption due to traffic time. Measurement unit is grams for the return trip. To calculate an average estimation of emission in grams for one way commute to work, divide this value with 2.
  • Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Marine fish catch per 1000: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Water > Severe water stress: Percent of country's territory under severe water stress
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: This data is derived from the WaterGap 2.1 gridded hydrological model developed by the Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany. The modellers derived, for each country, grid cell by grid cell estimates of whether the water consumption exceeds 40 percent of the water available in that particular grid cell. These were then converted to land area equivalents in order to calculate the percentage of the territory under severe water stress.
  • CFC > Consumption: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.
  • Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution: Noise and Light Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Endangered species > Mammal species > Number: Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened: Mammal species, threatened. Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality: Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Pollution perceptions > Pollution index: Pollution Index is an estimation of the overall pollution in the city. The biggest weight is given to air pollution, than to water pollution/accessibility, two main pollution factors. Small weight is given to other pollution types.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, total.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened: Bird species, threatened. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Endangered species > Bird species: Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Total renewable water resources per million: . Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • SO2 emissions per populated area: SO2 emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened: Fish species, threatened. Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Endangered species > Fish species > Number: Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity: Percentage of population who responded yes when asked if they believed global warming was a result of human activities. In this survey, global warming refers to the current rise in earth's temperature and not climate change as a whole.
  • Water > Percent of water resources used: Proportion of total water resources used, percentage.
  • Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number: Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons.
  • NOx emissions per populated area: NOx emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration: Dissolved oxygen concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, total.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • CPIA business regulatory environment rating > 1=low to 6=high per million: CPIA business regulatory environment rating (1=low to 6=high). Business regulatory environment assesses the extent to which the legal, regulatory, and policy environments help or hinder private businesses in investing, creating jobs, and becoming more productive. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities: Clean and Tidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, rural.
  • Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened: Plant species (higher), threatened. Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Threatened species: Number of Threatened Species (1990-99)
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Biodiversity > Number: GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential)."
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness: Percentage of each country's population who claimed knowing "something" or a "great deal" about climate change when asked: "How much do you know about global warming or climate change?"
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution: Comfortable to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CFC > Consumption per 1000: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential).
  • Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities: Dirty and Untidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution: Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.
  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.
  • Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent: Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates.
  • Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter). Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Wetlands of intl importance > Area: Wetlands of international importance 2002
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Proportion of land and marine area under protection: Terrestrial and marine areas protected to total territorial area, percentage.
  • Endangered species protection: Percent of CITES reporting requirements met
    Units: Percent of Requirements Met
    Units: Countries that have not ratified the CITES convention are recorded as having zero percent of their requirements met.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution: Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, urban.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction: Garbage Disposal Satisfaction. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CPIA policy and institutions for environmental sustainability rating: Policy and institutions for environmental sustainability assess the extent to which environmental policies foster the protection and sustainable use of natural resources and the management of pollution.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat: Percentage of country's population that perceives climate change as a threat. Results are from a 2008 Gallop Poll.
  • Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management."
  • Wildness: Percent of land area having very low anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Forest area > Sq. km per 1000: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Threatened species > Mammal: Number of threatened mammal species (1997)
  • Known mammal species: Known mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day per worker). Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2).
  • Breeding birds threatened: Percentage of breeding birds threatened
    Units: Percent of Breeding Birds
    Units: The number of bird species threatened divided by known bird species in the country, expressed as a percentage.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, urban.
  • Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride."
  • Urban SO2 concentration: Urban SO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • CPIA policy and institutions for environmental sustainability rating > 1=low to 6=high per million: CPIA policy and institutions for environmental sustainability rating (1=low to 6=high). Policy and institutions for environmental sustainability assess the extent to which environmental policies foster the protection and sustainable use of natural resources and the management of pollution. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • CPIA business regulatory environment rating > 1=low to 6=high: CPIA business regulatory environment rating (1=low to 6=high). Business regulatory environment assesses the extent to which the legal, regulatory, and policy environments help or hinder private businesses in investing, creating jobs, and becoming more productive.
  • CPIA policy and institutions for environmental sustainability rating > 1=low to 6=high: CPIA policy and institutions for environmental sustainability rating (1=low to 6=high). Policy and institutions for environmental sustainability assess the extent to which environmental policies foster the protection and sustainable use of natural resources and the management of pollution.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Marine areas under protection: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Water > Proportion of marine area under protection: Marine areas protected to territorial waters, percentage.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2). Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Freshwater > Withdrawal per million: . Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations."
  • Known mammal species per million: Known mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Wetlands of intl importance > Area per million: Wetlands of international importance 2002. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Areas under protection per million: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water > Salinisation: Electrical conductivity
    Units: Micro-Siemens/Centimeter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of water bodies; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system.
  • Marine areas under protection per million: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Areas under protection: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Fertiliser > Consumption: Fertilizer consumption per hectare of arable land
    Units: Hundreds Grams/Hectare of Arable Land
  • Urban NO2 concentration: Urban NO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Non-wildness: Percent of land area having very high anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Total natural resources rents > % of GDP: Total natural resources rents (% of GDP). Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
  • Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Oil rents > % of GDP: Oil rents (% of GDP). Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total: Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Natural gas rents > % of GDP: Natural gas rents (% of GDP). Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers."
  • Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, metal industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • CPIA policies for social inclusion/equity cluster average > 1=low to 6=high per million: CPIA policies for social inclusion/equity cluster average (1=low to 6=high). The policies for social inclusion and equity cluster includes gender equality, equity of public resource use, building human resources, social protection and labor, and policies and institutions for environmental sustainability. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Forest area > % of land area: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date: Signature.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Known breeding bird species per million: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, wood industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, food industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, other industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, paper and pulp industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons.
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction: Quality of Green and Parks. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters: Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters). Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • CPIA policies for social inclusion/equity cluster average > 1=low to 6=high: CPIA policies for social inclusion/equity cluster average (1=low to 6=high). The policies for social inclusion and equity cluster includes gender equality, equity of public resource use, building human resources, social protection and labor, and policies and institutions for environmental sustainability.
  • CPIA structural policies cluster average > 1=low to 6=high: CPIA structural policies cluster average (1=low to 6=high). The structural policies cluster includes trade, financial sector, and business regulatory environment.
  • Known breeding bird species: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total: Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total: Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, clay and glass industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, textile industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Water > Suspended solids: Suspended solids
    Units: Natural Log of Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. Data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of majorwatersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries. The data in this table was transformed using the natural logarithm.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • CO2 Emissions: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use: Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a countryÂ’s technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water > Phosphorus concentration: Phosphorus concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • International agreements > Signed but not ratified: The various international environmental agreements which a country has signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • CPIA structural policies cluster average > 1=low to 6=high per million: CPIA structural policies cluster average (1=low to 6=high). The structural policies cluster includes trade, financial sector, and business regulatory environment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, chemical industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
STAT Bangladesh Pakistan HISTORY
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $55.50 billion
Ranked 54th.
$102.95 billion
Ranked 23th. 85% more than Bangladesh

CO2 Emissions per 1000 0.215
Ranked 143th.
0.695
Ranked 119th. 3 times more than Bangladesh
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons 25.04
Ranked 52nd.
40.2
Ranked 41st. 61% more than Bangladesh

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million 0.164
Ranked 109th.
0.228
Ranked 107th. 39% more than Bangladesh

Current issues many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Ecological footprint 0.7
Ranked 50th.
0.8
Ranked 49th. 14% more than Bangladesh

Marine fish catch 169,087 tons
Ranked 44th.
431,873 tons
Ranked 29th. 3 times more than Bangladesh
Pollution perceptions > Air pollution 82.81
Ranked 2nd. 10% more than Pakistan
75.4
Ranked 9th.
Pollution perceptions > Air quality 17.19
Ranked 8th.
24.6
Ranked 51st. 43% more than Bangladesh
Pollution perceptions > Clean water 10.42
Ranked 9th.
22.4
Ranked 55th. 2 times more than Bangladesh
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution 69.23
Ranked 1st. 7% more than Pakistan
64.5
Ranked 7th.
Pollution perceptions > Water pollution 89.58
Ranked 1st. 15% more than Pakistan
77.6
Ranked 5th.
Proportion of land area under protection 4.72%
Ranked 172nd.
10.75%
Ranked 127th. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Total renewable water resources 1,210.6 cu km
Ranked 4th. 5 times more than Pakistan
233.8 cu km
Ranked 5th.
Transport CO2 emission index 10,722
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Pakistan
5,123.33
Ranked 16th.
Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita 0.061 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 186th.
0.122 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 182nd. Twice as much as Bangladesh

Marine fish catch per 1000 1.3 tons
Ranked 86th.
3.07 tons
Ranked 72nd. 2 times more than Bangladesh
Water > Severe water stress 22.1
Ranked 50th.
76.3
Ranked 24th. 3 times more than Bangladesh
CFC > Consumption 5,643.89
Ranked 44th.
11,091.5
Ranked 40th. 97% more than Bangladesh
Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution 71.15
Ranked 2nd. 14% more than Pakistan
62.5
Ranked 12th.
Endangered species > Mammal species > Number 34
Ranked 23th. 48% more than Pakistan
23
Ranked 37th.
Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened 34
Ranked 25th. 42% more than Pakistan
24
Ranked 36th.
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality 30.77
Ranked 9th.
35.5
Ranked 53th. 15% more than Bangladesh
CO2 emissions > Kt 34,622.68 kt
Ranked 68th.
114,139.1 kt
Ranked 34th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

Pollution perceptions > Pollution index 95.87
Ranked 1st. 16% more than Pakistan
82.67
Ranked 10th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural 83.22
Ranked 148th.
91.43
Ranked 125th. 10% more than Bangladesh

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 0.28
Ranked 157th.
0.96
Ranked 130th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 0.372
Ranked 161st.
0.932
Ranked 138th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened 31
Ranked 31st. 7% more than Pakistan
29
Ranked 32nd.
Carbon efficiency 0.36 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 120th.
1.14 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 70th. 3 times more than Bangladesh
CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 0.249 kt
Ranked 159th.
0.749 kt
Ranked 135th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

Endangered species > Bird species 28
Ranked 29th. 4% more than Pakistan
27
Ranked 31st.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $387.76
Ranked 139th.
$616.42
Ranked 76th. 59% more than Bangladesh

Total renewable water resources per million 9.31 cu km
Ranked 8th. 6 times more than Pakistan
1.53 cu km
Ranked 15th.
SO2 emissions per populated area 690 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 64th. 2 times more than Pakistan
300 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 89th.
Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened 18
Ranked 122nd.
34
Ranked 61st. 89% more than Bangladesh
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 56,152.77
Ranked 57th.
161,395.67
Ranked 32nd. 3 times more than Bangladesh

CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita 0.253 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 164th.
0.769 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 139th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

Endangered species > Fish species > Number 12
Ranked 127th.
22
Ranked 52nd. 83% more than Bangladesh
Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 303,022.4
Ranked 11th. 97% more than Pakistan
153,680.3
Ranked 19th.
Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction 85.42
Ranked 1st. 12% more than Pakistan
76.02
Ranked 5th.
Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity 62%
Ranked 47th. 2 times more than Pakistan
25%
Ranked 126th.
Water > Percent of water resources used 2.92%
Ranked 15th.
74.35%
Ranked 1st. 25 times more than Bangladesh

Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number 12
Ranked 84th. 6 times more than Pakistan
2
Ranked 134th.

Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption 136.42
Ranked 29th.
276.05
Ranked 22nd. 2 times more than Bangladesh

NOx emissions per populated area 0.67 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 28th. 3 times more than Pakistan
0.25 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 68th.
Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration 6.13 mls/litre
Ranked 112th.
7.11 mls/litre
Ranked 87th. 16% more than Bangladesh
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 0.372
Ranked 162nd.
0.932
Ranked 138th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

Forest area > Sq. km 8,710 km²
Ranked 121st.
19,020 km²
Ranked 109th. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.69
Ranked 58th.
$1.25
Ranked 31st. 81% more than Bangladesh

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural 54.73
Ranked 140th. 15% more than Pakistan
47.45
Ranked 148th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt 43,715.18
Ranked 59th.
156,265.94
Ranked 28th. 4 times more than Bangladesh

CPIA business regulatory environment rating > 1=low to 6=high per million 0.0226
Ranked 77th. 35% more than Pakistan
0.0167
Ranked 79th.

Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities 13.46
Ranked 9th.
34.18
Ranked 50th. 3 times more than Bangladesh
Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people 0.892
Ranked 115th.
1.57
Ranked 91st. 76% more than Bangladesh

Water > Availability 0.6 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 117th. 3 times more than Pakistan
0.23 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 127th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural 82.41
Ranked 124th.
88.98
Ranked 107th. 8% more than Bangladesh

Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened 17
Ranked 89th. 4 times more than Pakistan
4
Ranked 140th.
Threatened species 61
Ranked 32nd. 36% more than Pakistan
45
Ranked 41st.
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $719.56
Ranked 127th.
$1,108.35
Ranked 112th. 54% more than Bangladesh

Biodiversity > Number 1.45
Ranked 102nd.
4.88
Ranked 53th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $109.99 billion
Ranked 52nd.
$195.25 billion
Ranked 40th. 78% more than Bangladesh

Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness 33%
Ranked 115th.
34%
Ranked 114th. 3% more than Bangladesh
Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution 17.86
Ranked 9th.
34.09
Ranked 48th. 91% more than Bangladesh
CFC > Consumption per 1000 0.0452
Ranked 74th.
0.083
Ranked 65th. 84% more than Bangladesh
Protected area 0.8%
Ranked 127th.
4.8%
Ranked 81st. 6 times more than Bangladesh
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum 1.45
Ranked 107th.
4.88
Ranked 54th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities 86.54
Ranked 1st. 31% more than Pakistan
65.82
Ranked 10th.
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.63
Ranked 88th.
$1.48
Ranked 33th. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution 28.85
Ranked 8th.
37.5
Ranked 48th. 30% more than Bangladesh
Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters 105
Ranked 55th. 91% more than Pakistan
55
Ranked 71st.

Acidification 0.0
Ranked 129th.
0.0
Ranked 90th.
Freshwater > Withdrawal 79.4
Ranked 8th.
169.39
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than Bangladesh
Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent 92,530
Ranked 13th.
110,300
Ranked 10th. 19% more than Bangladesh

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters 656.25
Ranked 137th. 98% more than Pakistan
331.1
Ranked 149th.

Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 114.97
Ranked 2nd. 26% more than Pakistan
91.13
Ranked 10th.

Wetlands of intl importance > Area 606 thousand hectares
Ranked 26th. 2 times more than Pakistan
284 thousand hectares
Ranked 42nd.
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number 20
Ranked 129th.
151
Ranked 57th. 8 times more than Bangladesh
CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP 0.15 kg/PPP$
Ranked 136th.
0.39 kg/PPP$
Ranked 63th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

Proportion of land and marine area under protection 4.24%
Ranked 156th.
10.56%
Ranked 109th. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Endangered species protection 70.6%
Ranked 68th.
78.3%
Ranked 55th. 11% more than Bangladesh
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 1.71
Ranked 47th. 7 times more than Pakistan
0.24
Ranked 94th.

Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution 82.14
Ranked 1st. 25% more than Pakistan
65.91
Ranked 12th.
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million 0.00979
Ranked 191st.
0.0292
Ranked 177th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 54.5%
Ranked 123th. 62% more than Pakistan
33.61%
Ranked 141st.

Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban 85.27
Ranked 179th.
95.75
Ranked 133th. 12% more than Bangladesh

Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction 14.58
Ranked 9th.
23.98
Ranked 55th. 64% more than Bangladesh
CPIA policy and institutions for environmental sustainability rating 3
Ranked 55th.
3.5
Ranked 12th. 17% more than Bangladesh
Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat 32%
Ranked 103th. 33% more than Pakistan
24%
Ranked 113th.
Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 37,100
Ranked 24th.
80,040
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Wildness 0.06%
Ranked 105th.
2.51%
Ranked 76th. 42 times more than Bangladesh
Forest area > Sq. km per 1000 0.0609 km²
Ranked 182nd.
0.12 km²
Ranked 177th. 98% more than Bangladesh

Threatened species > Mammal 18
Ranked 41st. 38% more than Pakistan
13
Ranked 58th.
Known mammal species 125
Ranked 70th.
188
Ranked 48th. 50% more than Bangladesh
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 6.86
Ranked 42nd.
17.47
Ranked 26th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.144
Ranked 59th.
0.165
Ranked 34th. 15% more than Bangladesh
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters 79.4
Ranked 9th.
169.39
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 6,945
Ranked 67th.
26,984
Ranked 34th. 4 times more than Bangladesh
Breeding birds threatened 7.8%
Ranked 16th. 72% more than Pakistan
4.53%
Ranked 39th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 0.0108
Ranked 101st.
0.101
Ranked 76th. 9 times more than Bangladesh

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 0.0943
Ranked 179th.
0.36
Ranked 154th. 4 times more than Bangladesh

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 0.25
Ranked 81st.
0.385
Ranked 77th. 54% more than Bangladesh

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt 37,777.43
Ranked 38th.
66,695.4
Ranked 27th. 77% more than Bangladesh

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt 1,628.15
Ranked 69th.
17,440.25
Ranked 38th. 11 times more than Bangladesh

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million 0.0
Ranked 134th.
5.98
Ranked 90th.

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number 7
Ranked 82nd. 40% more than Pakistan
5
Ranked 92nd.
Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban 55.3
Ranked 157th.
71.84
Ranked 140th. 30% more than Bangladesh

Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 0.0
Ranked 124th.
620
Ranked 48th.

Urban SO2 concentration 48.3 micrograms/m3
Ranked 69th.
91.95 micrograms/m3
Ranked 32nd. 90% more than Bangladesh
CPIA policy and institutions for environmental sustainability rating > 1=low to 6=high per million 0.0162
Ranked 78th. 16% more than Pakistan
0.014
Ranked 79th.

CPIA business regulatory environment rating > 1=low to 6=high 3.5
Ranked 36th. 17% more than Pakistan
3
Ranked 42nd.

CPIA policy and institutions for environmental sustainability rating > 1=low to 6=high 2.5
Ranked 76th. The same as Pakistan
2.5
Ranked 66th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$ $5.89 billion
Ranked 59th.
$13.83 billion
Ranked 48th. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Marine areas under protection 3
Ranked 67th. 50% more than Pakistan
2
Ranked 77th.
Water > Proportion of marine area under protection 2.54%
Ranked 94th.
5.85%
Ranked 69th. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$ $20.53 billion
Ranked 29th. Twice as much as Pakistan
$10.31 billion
Ranked 37th.

Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000 0.0534
Ranked 154th.
0.192
Ranked 133th. 4 times more than Bangladesh
Freshwater > Withdrawal per million 0.6
Ranked 46th.
1.18
Ranked 16th. 96% more than Bangladesh
Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 135.43
Ranked 4th. 13% more than Pakistan
120.26
Ranked 7th.

Known mammal species per million 0.912
Ranked 140th.
1.26
Ranked 138th. 38% more than Bangladesh
Wetlands of intl importance > Area per million 4.42 thousand hectares
Ranked 74th. 2 times more than Pakistan
1.9 thousand hectares
Ranked 86th.
Areas under protection per million 0.0718
Ranked 142nd.
0.545
Ranked 126th. 8 times more than Bangladesh
Water > Salinisation 231.6
Ranked 120th.
410.13
Ranked 94th. 77% more than Bangladesh
Marine areas under protection per million 0.0216
Ranked 92nd. 64% more than Pakistan
0.0131
Ranked 95th.
Areas under protection 10
Ranked 114th.
83
Ranked 49th. 8 times more than Bangladesh
Fertiliser > Consumption 1,465.22 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 38th. 28% more than Pakistan
1,148.77 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 46th.
Urban NO2 concentration 31.4 micrograms/m3
Ranked 117th.
63.59 micrograms/m3
Ranked 35th. 2 times more than Bangladesh
Non-wildness 16.34%
Ranked 21st. 4 times more than Pakistan
4.23%
Ranked 56th.
Total natural resources rents > % of GDP 3.42%
Ranked 84th.
3.8%
Ranked 81st. 11% more than Bangladesh

Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.14 kg per day per worker
Ranked 82nd.
0.18 kg per day per worker
Ranked 44th. 29% more than Bangladesh

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Agricultural 96%
Ranked 13th. The same as Pakistan
96%
Ranked 11th.
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI 4.04%
Ranked 43th.
4.94%
Ranked 40th. 22% more than Bangladesh

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Industrial 1%
Ranked 112th.
2%
Ranked 91st. Twice as much as Bangladesh
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million 0.0449
Ranked 109th.
0.0992
Ranked 92nd. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 3.16%
Ranked 56th. 18 times more than Pakistan
0.176%
Ranked 112th.

Oil rents > % of GDP 0.136%
Ranked 72nd.
0.957%
Ranked 52nd. 7 times more than Bangladesh

Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.13%
Ranked 64th.
0.16%
Ranked 59th. 23% more than Bangladesh

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$ $20.86 billion
Ranked 29th. 79% more than Pakistan
$11.63 billion
Ranked 37th.

Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total 69.16%
Ranked 20th. 4% more than Pakistan
66.34%
Ranked 28th.

Natural gas rents > % of GDP 2.81%
Ranked 16th. 42% more than Pakistan
1.98%
Ranked 21st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI 33.94%
Ranked 23th. 76% more than Pakistan
19.32%
Ranked 74th.

Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.662%
Ranked 57th.
2.23%
Ranked 41st. 3 times more than Bangladesh
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources 75.62%
Ranked 21st.
307.98%
Ranked 9th. 4 times more than Bangladesh
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion 46.27%
Ranked 46th. 57% more than Pakistan
29.5%
Ranked 97th.

CPIA policies for social inclusion/equity cluster average > 1=low to 6=high per million 0.022
Ranked 77th. 27% more than Pakistan
0.0173
Ranked 79th.

Forest area > % of land area 6.69% of land area
Ranked 161st. 3 times more than Pakistan
2.47% of land area
Ranked 175th.

Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 1.59%
Ranked 62nd.
11.57%
Ranked 22nd. 7 times more than Bangladesh

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date June 9, 1992 June 13, 1992
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.58%
Ranked 26th.
0.69%
Ranked 24th. 19% more than Bangladesh

Known breeding bird species per million 1.21
Ranked 143th.
1.58
Ranked 142nd. 31% more than Bangladesh
Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.54%
Ranked 58th. 25% more than Pakistan
0.431%
Ranked 58th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 54.5
Ranked 123th. 62% more than Pakistan
33.61
Ranked 141st.

Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions 23.84%
Ranked 86th.
39.9%
Ranked 72nd. 67% more than Bangladesh

Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions 7.57%
Ranked 66th.
15.06%
Ranked 44th. Twice as much as Bangladesh
Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions 4.17%
Ranked 64th.
11.25%
Ranked 56th. 3 times more than Bangladesh
Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.27%
Ranked 62nd. 16% more than Pakistan
1.95%
Ranked 61st.
Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent 7.84
Ranked 12th. 20% more than Pakistan
6.53
Ranked 14th.
Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction 14.58
Ranked 9th.
49.49
Ranked 41st. 3 times more than Bangladesh
Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.67% of GNI
Ranked 24th. 52% more than Pakistan
0.44% of GNI
Ranked 32nd.

Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 64.18%
Ranked 2nd. 2 times more than Pakistan
30.33%
Ranked 10th.

Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.41% of GNI
Ranked 79th.
0.81% of GNI
Ranked 39th. 98% more than Bangladesh

Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters 0.0744%
Ranked 143th.
30.28%
Ranked 19th. 407 times more than Bangladesh

Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 6.21%
Ranked 78th.
6.97%
Ranked 83th. 12% more than Bangladesh

Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.53% of GNI
Ranked 61st.
1.46% of GNI
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

CPIA policies for social inclusion/equity cluster average > 1=low to 6=high 3.4
Ranked 42nd. 10% more than Pakistan
3.1
Ranked 52nd.

CPIA structural policies cluster average > 1=low to 6=high 3.33
Ranked 46th. The same as Pakistan
3.33
Ranked 38th.

Known breeding bird species 166
Ranked 104th.
237
Ranked 48th. 43% more than Bangladesh
Freshwater > Withdrawal > Domestic 3%
Ranked 111th. 50% more than Pakistan
2%
Ranked 117th.
Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP 98.29%
Ranked 2nd. 6% more than Pakistan
92.65%
Ranked 10th.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP 92.08%
Ranked 7th. 47% more than Pakistan
62.81%
Ranked 45th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$ 0.0
Ranked 176th.
$635,823.46
Ranked 81st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 146th.
0.0
Ranked 115th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.38%
Ranked 45th.
0.79%
Ranked 17th. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$ $325.90 million
Ranked 34th.
$1.32 billion
Ranked 14th. 4 times more than Bangladesh

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$ $23.51 billion
Ranked 32nd. 26% more than Pakistan
$18.61 billion
Ranked 37th.

Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total 91.86%
Ranked 43th.
96.35%
Ranked 21st. 5% more than Bangladesh

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP $0.24
Ranked 109th.
$0.41
Ranked 49th. 71% more than Bangladesh

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP $0.22
Ranked 110th.
$0.39
Ranked 47th. 77% more than Bangladesh

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI 27.14%
Ranked 21st. 2 times more than Pakistan
11.08%
Ranked 62nd.

Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total 11.55%
Ranked 83th.
14.13%
Ranked 75th. 22% more than Bangladesh

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal 3.19%
Ranked 121st. 65% more than Pakistan
1.93%
Ranked 131st.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal 0.65%
Ranked 127th.
2.05%
Ranked 111th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.56%
Ranked 59th.
4.34%
Ranked 40th. 70% more than Bangladesh
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal 96.16%
Ranked 10th. About the same as Pakistan
96.02%
Ranked 11th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total 25.38%
Ranked 169th.
38.6%
Ranked 153th. 52% more than Bangladesh

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total 67.28%
Ranked 9th. 63% more than Pakistan
41.32%
Ranked 26th.

Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 79.27%
Ranked 1st. 42% more than Pakistan
55.63%
Ranked 5th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total 2.9%
Ranked 93th.
10.81%
Ranked 73th. 4 times more than Bangladesh

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 0.0
Ranked 134th.
1,036
Ranked 51st.

Water > Suspended solids 4.08 mls/litre
Ranked 101st.
6.76 mls/litre
Ranked 22nd. 66% more than Bangladesh
Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area 0.53%
Ranked 88th.
1.07%
Ranked 75th. 2 times more than Bangladesh
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area 2.18%
Ranked 158th.
8.96%
Ranked 105th. 4 times more than Bangladesh
CO2 Emissions 29,874.1
Ranked 65th.
105,983
Ranked 32nd. 4 times more than Bangladesh
Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI 23.71%
Ranked 9th. 4 times more than Pakistan
6.14%
Ranked 73th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt 14,253.63
Ranked 68th.
62,298.66
Ranked 31st. 4 times more than Bangladesh

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 12.68%
Ranked 36th.
12.82%
Ranked 34th. 1% more than Bangladesh

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$ $503.40 million
Ranked 6th.
$1.16 billion
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI 24.09%
Ranked 9th. 3 times more than Pakistan
6.93%
Ranked 72nd.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$ $3.50 billion
Ranked 51st.
$8.29 billion
Ranked 42nd. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use 1.7
Ranked 93th.
1.88
Ranked 84th. 11% more than Bangladesh

PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 139.99 mcg/m³
Ranked 4th. 9% more than Pakistan
128 mcg/m³
Ranked 9th.

Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction 85.42
Ranked 1st. 69% more than Pakistan
50.51
Ranked 19th.
Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.44%
Ranked 82nd. 38% more than Pakistan
0.32%
Ranked 92nd.

Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.96%
Ranked 72nd.
2.31%
Ranked 65th. 2 times more than Bangladesh

Water > Phosphorus concentration 0.51 mls/litre
Ranked 28th. 3 times more than Pakistan
0.2 mls/litre
Ranked 99th.
Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.65%
Ranked 79th.
8.43%
Ranked 43th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

International agreements > Signed but not ratified none of the selected agreements Marine Life Conservation
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.4%
Ranked 60th.
0.66%
Ranked 29th. 65% more than Bangladesh

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI 6.8%
Ranked 151st.
8.24%
Ranked 129th. 21% more than Bangladesh

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million 0.0668
Ranked 22nd. 26% more than Pakistan
0.0529
Ranked 23th.
CPIA structural policies cluster average > 1=low to 6=high per million 0.0215
Ranked 77th. 16% more than Pakistan
0.0186
Ranked 79th.

Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.96%
Ranked 64th.
9.12%
Ranked 38th. 3 times more than Bangladesh

SOURCES: The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency; International Energy Agency. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. 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