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China

China Economy Stats

Edsel.G

Author: Edsel.G

China is the second largest economy after the United States based on GDP and PPP as of 2013 data from the World Bank and the IMF. In the last couple of years, China was the world’s fastest growing economy averaging 10% growth annually. Although its growth has slowed down recently, the economy of the socialist country is bent on maintaining its Asian market supremacy and is even on the path to overtaking the US as the world’s top economic power.

China is also the world’s biggest exporter and the second largest importer of goods, after the United States. Although the US is still ahead in some aspects, China has surpassed the former in manufacturing output. With a couple of free trade pacts with some nations, particularly Switzerland and Pakistan, the Chinese consumer market continues to grow at a rapid state. However, the global financial crisis which continues to pummel much of the world has had its damaging effects on the gargantuan Chinese economy as well. As a matter of fact, it was previously predicted by major banks, including the IMF and the Standard Chartered, that the Chinese surpassing of the US superiority would come in less than a decade. Lately, with the current market trends suggest that this might not be possible anytime soon, unless the Chinese policy makers are able to come up with solutions to the current crisis.

Still, the government is targeting a 7.5% economic growth this year, the biggest in the developed world, suggesting that the fears are merely superficial.

Overview:

China's economy since the late 1970s has changed from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major role in the global economy - in 2010 China became the world's largest exporter. Reforms began with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, creation of a diversified banking system, development of stock markets, rapid growth of the private sector, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China generally has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors it considers important to "economic security," explicitly looking to foster globally competitive national champions. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, in July 2005 China revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid 2005 to late 2008 cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar was more than 20%, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual appreciation. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2010 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, having surpassed Japan in 2001. The dollar values of China's agricultural and industrial output each exceeded those of the US, although China was second to the US in the value of services it produced. Still, per capita income is below the world average. The Chinese government faces numerous economic development challenges, including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic demand; (b) sustaining adequate job growth for tens of millions of migrants and new entrants to the work force; (c) reducing corruption and other economic crimes; and (d) containing environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and approximately 200 million rural laborers and their dependents have relocated to urban areas to find work. One demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the north - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on nuclear and alternative energy development. In 2009, the global economic downturn reduced foreign demand for Chinese exports for the first time in many years, but China rebounded quickly, outperforming all other major economies in 2010 with GDP growth around 10%. The economy appears set to remain on a strong growth trajectory in 2011, lending credibility to the stimulus policies the regime rolled out during the global financial crisis. The government vows to continue reforming the economy and emphasizes the need to increase domestic consumption in order to make the economy less dependent on exports for GDP growth in the future, but China likely will make only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals in 2011. Two economic problems China currently faces are inflation - which, late in 2010, surpassed the government's target of 3% - and local government debt, which swelled as a result of stimulus policies, and is largely off-the-books and potentially low-quality.

Definitions

  • Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Big Mac Index: Price of a McDonald's Big Mac in US Dollars at current exchange rates. January 12th, 2006.
  • Budget > Expenditures: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Budget > Revenues: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Budget > Revenues > Per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Budget > Revenues per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Budget surplus > + or deficit > -: This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
  • Business > Companies > Corporate governance (overall rating): Overall rating of each country's adherence to the corporate governance guidelines set forth in three prominent economical essays. The ratings are out of 10, with 10 meaning full adherence.
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles.
  • Consumer price index: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a fixed basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
    2000 = 100
  • Consumer spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources."
  • Currency: The national medium of exchange and its basic sub-unit.
  • Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average: Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average). Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar). The ratio of the PPP conversion factor to the official exchange rate (also referred to as the national price level) makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States.
  • Current account balance: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Current account balance per capita: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU: Central government debt, total (current LCU). Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.
  • Debt > External: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.
  • Debt > External > Per capita: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP: Gross government debt as % of GDP (IMF).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP: Public debt as % of GDP (CIA).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU: Net foreign assets (current LCU). Net foreign assets are the sum of foreign assets held by monetary authorities and deposit money banks, less their foreign liabilities. Data are in current local currency.
  • Development > Human Development Index: Human Development Index trends, 1980-2012.
  • Distribution of family income > Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the ric
  • Economic freedom: Index of 'economic freedom', according to the American organisation 'The Heritage Foundation'. It is worth noting that such indices are based on highly culturally contingent factors. This data makes a number of assumptions about 'freedom' and the role of the government that are not accepted by much of the world's population. A broad discussion of The Heritage Foundation's definition and methodology can be found at http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/ChapterPDFs/chapter5.HTML.
  • Economic growth > Per capita: Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
  • Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Exports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Exports > Main exports: Country main exports.
  • Exports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Fiscal year: The beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the agricultural sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Industry: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the industrial sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Services: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Real growth rate: GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
  • GDP per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant U.S. dollars.
  • GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • GDP per person: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
  • GNI per capita: Country GNI per capita.
  • Gross National Income: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop).
  • Gross National Income > Per $ GDP: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop Per $ GDP figures expressed per $100 of Gross Domestic Product.
  • Gross National Income per capita: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Human Development Index: The human development index values in this table were calculated using a consistent methodology and consistent data series. They are not strictly comparable with those in earlier Human Development Reports.
  • Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Inbound tourism income > Current US$: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except when these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Industries: A rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
  • Inequality > GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality."
  • Inflation rate > Consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
  • International tourism > Number of arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
  • Population below poverty line > Per $ GDP: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 trillion $ gross domestic product.
  • Population below poverty line > Per capita: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Poverty > Population under $1 a day: Population below line - proportion receiving less than $1 per day in income (purchasing power parity). Data from most recent available between the period 1983 to 2000.
  • Poverty and inequality > Population below $1 (PPP) per day: Percentage of population that lives on less than the equivalent of 1 USD per day.
  • Poverty and inequality > Richest quintile to poorest quintile ratio: The ratio of average income of the richest 20% of the population to the average income of the poorest 20% of the population.
  • Public debt: This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate: Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals.
  • Tax > Tax rates: Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here."
  • Technology index: The technology index denotes the country's technological readiness. This index is created with such indicators as companies spending on R&D, the creativity of its scientific community, personal computer and internet penetration rates.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tourist arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival."
  • Tourist arrivals > Per capita: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Trade > Exports per capita: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > With US > US imports of bauxite and aluminum: US imports of bauxite and aluminum, USD Thousands, 2004
  • Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
STAT AMOUNT DATE RANK HISTORY
Agriculture > Products world leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish 2013
Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US $78.19 billion 2009 4th out of 176
Big Mac Index $1.30 2006 63th out of 64
Budget > Expenditures $1.99 trillion 2012 3rd out of 188
Budget > Revenues $1.86 trillion 2013 3rd out of 223
Budget > Revenues > Per capita $857.64 per capita 2010 46th out of 90
Budget > Revenues per capita $858.93 2010 87th out of 144
Budget surplus > + or deficit > - -1.7% of GDP 2012 63th out of 182
Business > Companies > Corporate governance (overall rating) 3.37 2014 34th out of 38
Central bank discount rate 2.25% 2012 33th out of 52
Companies > Listed domestic companies, total 2,494 2012 7th out of 110
Consumer price index 106.78% 2005 143th out of 157
Consumer spending 34.88 2009 123th out of 128
Currency Renminbi ; note - also referred to by the unit yuan 2008
Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average $6.31 2012 101st out of 167
Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio 0.25 2005 132nd out of 157
Current account balance $193.10 billion 2012 2nd out of 180
Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita 123.35 BoP $ 2005 30th out of 135
Current account balance per capita $203.71 2010 32nd out of 149
Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU 1.04 trillion 1999 14th out of 61
Debt > External $728.90 billion 2012 18th out of 172
Debt > External > Per capita $274.62 per capita 2007 106th out of 131
Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP 22.85 IMF 2014 142nd out of 174
Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP 31.7 CIA 2014 110th out of 153
Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU 25.82 trillion 2012 9th out of 166
Development > Human Development Index 0.699 2012 101st out of 184
Distribution of family income > Gini index 47.4 2012 4th out of 4
Economic freedom 51.9 2013 136th out of 176
Economic growth > Per capita 8.54 2009 3rd out of 163
Exports $1.97 trillion 2012 1st out of 189
Exports > Commodities electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, radio telephone handsets, textiles, integrated circuits 2013
Exports > Main exports Manufactured goods, including textiles, garments, electronics, arms 2013
Exports per capita $1,459.25 2012 92nd out of 189
Fiscal year calendar year 2013
Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita 52.02 BoP $ 2005 68th out of 135
GDP $8.36 trillion 2012 3rd out of 177
GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture 9.7% 2012 91st out of 218
GDP > Composition by sector > Industry 46.6% 2012 20th out of 217
GDP > Composition by sector > Services 43.7% 2012 145th out of 179
GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services -23.1% 2012 18th out of 183
GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services 44.6% 2012 145th out of 189
GDP > Official exchange rate per capita $4,294.67 2010 95th out of 181
GDP > Per capita $7,368.68 per capita 2010 51st out of 118
GDP > Per capita > PPP $9,100.00 2012 92nd out of 188
GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people $0.01 2012 183th out of 187
GDP > Purchasing power parity $12.26 trillion 2012 2nd out of 190
GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita $7,368.68 per capita 2010 51st out of 118
GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita $7,379.80 2010 94th out of 181
GDP > Real growth rate 7.7% 2012 22nd out of 191
GDP per capita $6,188.19 2012 82nd out of 177
GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$ 1,448.78 constant 2000 US$ 2005 92nd out of 167
GDP per capita > Constant LCU 6044.03 2005
GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ 6,757.27 PPP $ 2005 75th out of 158
GDP per capita in 1900 $652.00 1900 34th out of 39
GDP per capita in 1950 $614.00 1950 45th out of 52
GDP per capita in 1973 $1,186.00 1973 42nd out of 52
GDP per person 3,744.36 2009 92nd out of 168
GINI index 46.9 2004 6th out of 13
GNI per capita $4,940.00 2013 28th out of 85
Gross National Income $1.13 trillion 2001 6th out of 158
Gross National Income > Per $ GDP $15.56 per $100 2077 1st out of 1
Gross National Income per capita $888.47 2001 102nd out of 158
Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita 840.45$ 2005 52nd out of 140
Human Development Index 0.755 2006 84th out of 177
Imports $1.65 trillion 2012 2nd out of 189
Imports per capita $1,223.81 2012 119th out of 189
Inbound tourism income > Current US$ $44.13 billion 2008 8th out of 149
Industries world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites 2013
Inequality > GINI index 41.53 2005 20th out of 36
Inflation rate > Consumer prices 2.6% 2012 137th out of 199
International tourism > Number of arrivals 46.81 million 2005 4th out of 147
International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 14.25$ per $1,000 of GDP 2005 86th out of 106
Labor force 798 2013 9th out of 230
Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita 6.34 per 1,000 people 2000 4th out of 6
Population below poverty line 13.4% 2013 7th out of 8
Population below poverty line > Per $ GDP 3% per $1 trillion of GD 2006 28th out of 28
Population below poverty line > Per capita 0.002% per 1 million people 2007 27th out of 27
Poverty > Population under $1 a day 18.8% 2000 33th out of 59
Poverty and inequality > Population below $1 (PPP) per day $11.80% 2009 9th out of 38
Poverty and inequality > Richest quintile to poorest quintile ratio 12.2 2004 2nd out of 13
Public debt 31.7% of GDP 2012 111th out of 149
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita $1,163.99 2007 50th out of 139
Stock of direct foreign investment > At home $1.34 trillion 2012 3rd out of 100
Tax > GDP > Constant LCU 31.66 trillion 2012 11th out of 183
Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate 45% 2009 12th out of 87
Tax > Tax rates 17 2007 82nd out of 98
Technology index 3.72 2005 60th out of 101
Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita 0.0428 2011 135th out of 164
Tourist arrivals 53.05 million 2008 5th out of 145
Tourist arrivals > Per capita 39.88 per 1,000 people 2008 118th out of 144
Trade > Exports per capita $1,125.81 2010 83th out of 146
Trade > Imports per capita $977.05 2010 91st out of 146
Trade > With US > US imports of bauxite and aluminum 178,955 2004 6th out of 115
Unemployment rate 6.5% 2012 67th out of 112

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments database, supplemented by data from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and official national sources.; The Economist.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; Wikipedia: List of countries by corporate governance; Global Stock Markets Factbook; World Development Indicators database; World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics. World Bank World Development Indicators.; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files. World Bank World Development Indicators.; Wikipedia: List of countries by public debt (List); Wikipedia: List of countries by public debt (List) (Public debt , The World Factbook , United States Central Intelligence Agency , accessed on March 21, 2013.); International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files. World Bank World Development Indicators.; United Nations Development Programme. Source tables; The Heritage Foundation; British Broadcasting Corporation 2014; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; CIA World Factbook 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; CIA World Factbook 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Angus Maddison; Angus Maddison; . Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Human Development Report 2006, United Nations Development Programme; World Tourism Organisation, Yearbook of Tourism Statistics, Compendium of Tourism Statistics and data files.; World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Bank 2002b via backone.pdf; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/14/hdr2013_en_complete.pdf, United Nations Development Programme, 2013. Table 3, p. 152 ff.; World Bank national accounts data; KPMG's Individual Income Tax and Social Security Rate Survey 2009 (www.kpmg.com), and PricewaterhouseCoopers's Worldwide Tax Summaries Online (www.pwc.com).; International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.; World economic forum - Global Competitiveness Report 2004-2005; World Tourism Organization, Yearbook of Tourism Statistics, Compendium of Tourism Statistics and data files. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; FTDWebMaster, Foreign Trade Division, U.S. Census Bureau

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China Economy Profiles (Subcategories)

Adjusted savings 3 International tourism 14
Aid 5 Labor force 3
Balance of payments 34 Long-term debt 4
Bank and trade-related lending 4 Market capitalization of listed companies 4
Budget 10 Merchandise 4
Business 11 Merchandise imports 4
Changes in net 4 Micro 4
Commercial service 4 National accounts 104
Commercial service imports 4 Natural gas 8
Companies 38 Net capital account 4
Currency 12 Net current transfers 4
Current account balance 5 Net current transfers from abroad 6
Current transfers 4 Net errors and omissions 4
Debt 72 Net financial flows 24
Economic aid 3 Net income 4
Electricity 8 Net income from abroad 6
Entrepreneurship 12 Net incurrence of liabilities 3
Exports 3 Net trade in goods 4
External balance on goods and services 7 Net trade in goods and services 4
External debt 215 Official development assistance and official aid 4
Final 20 Oil 10
Financial sector 35 Portfolio investment 12
Foreign aid 43 Poverty 21
Foreign direct investment 10 Poverty and inequality 16
GDP 40 Private investment 3
GDP growth 3 Private nonguaranteed debt 4
GDP per capita 4 Public and publicly guaranteed debt service 6
GNI 12 Public and publicly guaranteed (PPG) debt 3
Gold 4 Purchasing power parity 11
Goods 4 Reserves 6
Goods imports 4 Royalty and license fees 8
Government 13 Savings 44
Government debt 8 Service 4
Gross capital formation 10 Service imports 4
Gross domestic savings 6 Services 10
Gross fixed capital formation 10 Spending 73
Gross national expenditure 9 Steel 4
Gross savings 6 Stock of direct foreign investment 6
Gross value added at factor cost 9 Stocks traded 5
High-technology 4 Tax 67
Household final 23 Total 9
IBRD loans and IDA credits 4 Total debt service 6
Income 24 Tourism 21
Income distribution 4 Tourism expenditures 5
Income payments 4 Tourism receipts 5
Income receipts 4 Tourist arrivals by region of origin 8
Inequality 8 Trade 1665
Inflation 7 Trademark applications 4
Innovation 26 Transnational corporations 4
Intellectual property 6 Use of IMF credit 4
Interest payments 3

5

China is the second largest economy after the United States based on GDP and PPP as of 2013 data from the World Bank and the IMF. In the last couple of years, China was the world’s fastest growing economy averaging 10% growth annually. Although its growth has slowed down recently, the economy of the socialist country is bent on maintaining its Asian market supremacy and is even on the path to overtaking the US as the world’s top economic power.

China is also the world’s biggest exporter and the second largest importer of goods, after the United States. Although the US is still ahead in some aspects, China has surpassed the former in manufacturing output. With a couple of free trade pacts with some nations, particularly Switzerland and Pakistan, the Chinese consumer market continues to grow at a rapid state. However, the global financial crisis which continues to pummel much of the world has had its damaging effects on the gargantuan Chinese economy as well. As a matter of fact, it was previously predicted by major banks, including the IMF and the Standard Chartered, that the Chinese surpassing of the US superiority would come in less than a decade. Lately, with the current market trends suggest that this might not be possible anytime soon, unless the Chinese policy makers are able to come up with solutions to the current crisis.

Still, the government is targeting a 7.5% economic growth this year, the biggest in the developed world, suggesting that the fears are merely superficial.

Posted on 06 Apr 2014

Edsel.G

Edsel.G

247 Stat enthusiast

4

Xinjiang's prosperity is mostly due to its primary sector and geographical position achived in 2013 $135bn GDP and real GDP growth of 11% in comparation with China’s national GDP growth level of 7.6%. Xinjiang’s $5425.97 GDP per capita is still below China’s national of $6,188.19 GDP per capita. Provincial trade share in national total 2013 acounts export value of 1% and import value of 0.2%. Besides the importance of the region’s capital Urumqi, historically also important is former „Silk Road“ city port of Kashgar which is today still relevant.

Xinjiang region contains reasonable amount of petroleum and natural gas which make 60% of region’s economy, together with reasonable mineral deposits including coal, iron, nickel, uranium, zinc, gold and other. Kazakhstan also contains large mineral deposits and is big exporter of petroleum and natural gas. Kazakhstan is China’s important trading partner, but when commodities’ prices go down, it faces problems and tends to solve them through diversification.

Posted on 21 May 2014

chris.lockyer781

chris.lockyer781

396 Stat enthusiast