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Environment Stats: compare key data on Iran & Turkey

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Definitions

  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Pollution perceptions > Air pollution: Air Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Air quality: Air quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean water: Water Quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution: Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Water pollution: Water Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Proportion of land area under protection: Terrestrial areas protected to total surface area, percentage.
  • Transport CO2 emission index: CO2 Emission Index is an estimation of CO2 consumption due to traffic time. Measurement unit is grams for the return trip. To calculate an average estimation of emission in grams for one way commute to work, divide this value with 2.
  • Marine fish catch per 1000: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Water > Severe water stress: Percent of country's territory under severe water stress
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: This data is derived from the WaterGap 2.1 gridded hydrological model developed by the Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany. The modellers derived, for each country, grid cell by grid cell estimates of whether the water consumption exceeds 40 percent of the water available in that particular grid cell. These were then converted to land area equivalents in order to calculate the percentage of the territory under severe water stress.
  • CFC > Consumption: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.
  • Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution: Noise and Light Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened: Mammal species, threatened. Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality: Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Pollution perceptions > Pollution index: Pollution Index is an estimation of the overall pollution in the city. The biggest weight is given to air pollution, than to water pollution/accessibility, two main pollution factors. Small weight is given to other pollution types.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, total.
  • National parks > Number of parks: Number of parks.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened: Bird species, threatened. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Total renewable water resources per million: . Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • SO2 emissions per populated area: SO2 emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened: Fish species, threatened. Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity: Percentage of population who responded yes when asked if they believed global warming was a result of human activities. In this survey, global warming refers to the current rise in earth's temperature and not climate change as a whole.
  • Water > Percent of water resources used: Proportion of total water resources used, percentage.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons.
  • Biodiversity richness: Caldecott, J.O., M.D. Jenkins, T. Johnson and B. Groombridge. 1994. Priorities for Conserving Global Species Richness and Endemism. In World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Biodiversity Series No. 3 (N. Mark Collins, ed.) pp. 17. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • NOx emissions per populated area: NOx emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration: Dissolved oxygen concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, total.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities: Clean and Tidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, rural.
  • Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened: Plant species (higher), threatened. Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Threatened species: Number of Threatened Species (1990-99)
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness: Percentage of each country's population who claimed knowing "something" or a "great deal" about climate change when asked: "How much do you know about global warming or climate change?"
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution: Comfortable to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CFC > Consumption per 1000: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities: Dirty and Untidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential).
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas.
  • Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution: Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.
  • Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter). Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Proportion of land and marine area under protection: Terrestrial and marine areas protected to total territorial area, percentage.
  • Endangered species protection: Percent of CITES reporting requirements met
    Units: Percent of Requirements Met
    Units: Countries that have not ratified the CITES convention are recorded as having zero percent of their requirements met.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution: Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, urban.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction: Garbage Disposal Satisfaction. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 per million: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat: Percentage of country's population that perceives climate change as a threat. Results are from a 2008 Gallop Poll.
  • Wildness: Percent of land area having very low anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Forest area > Sq. km per 1000: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Threatened species > Mammal: Number of threatened mammal species (1997)
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day per worker). Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2).
  • Breeding birds threatened: Percentage of breeding birds threatened
    Units: Percent of Breeding Birds
    Units: The number of bird species threatened divided by known bird species in the country, expressed as a percentage.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, urban.
  • Urban SO2 concentration: Urban SO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Water > Proportion of marine area under protection: Marine areas protected to territorial waters, percentage.
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2). Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Freshwater > Withdrawal per million: . Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water > Salinisation: Electrical conductivity
    Units: Micro-Siemens/Centimeter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of water bodies; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 > Per $ GDP: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas. Per $ GDP figures expressed per $100 million of Gross Domestic Product.
  • Fertiliser > Consumption: Fertilizer consumption per hectare of arable land
    Units: Hundreds Grams/Hectare of Arable Land
  • Urban NO2 concentration: Urban NO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Non-wildness: Percent of land area having very high anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons.
  • Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction: Quality of Green and Parks. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Total natural resources rents > % of GDP: Total natural resources rents (% of GDP). Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
  • Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • International agreements > Signed but not ratified: The various international environmental agreements which a country has signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, chemical industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters: Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters). Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, metal industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Adjusted net national income > Annual % growth: Adjusted net national income (annual % growth). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, textile industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water > Suspended solids: Suspended solids
    Units: Natural Log of Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. Data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of majorwatersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries. The data in this table was transformed using the natural logarithm.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, clay and glass industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Oil rents > % of GDP: Oil rents (% of GDP). Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Forest area > % of land area: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Natural gas rents > % of GDP: Natural gas rents (% of GDP). Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, food industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, other industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, paper and pulp industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water > Phosphorus concentration: Phosphorus concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Water pollution, wood industry (% of total BOD emissions). Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a countryÂ’s technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
STAT Iran Turkey HISTORY
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $136.71 billion
Ranked 16th.
$512.62 billion
Ranked 9th. 4 times more than Iran

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons 165.21
Ranked 16th. 36% more than Turkey
121.23
Ranked 21st.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million 2.19
Ranked 53th. 32% more than Turkey
1.66
Ranked 63th.

Current issues air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste; urbanization water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Ecological footprint 2.47
Ranked 63th.
2.6
Ranked 16th. 5% more than Iran

Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita 1.62 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 123th. 15% more than Turkey
1.41 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 131st.

Marine fish catch 233,495 tons
Ranked 39th.
533,593 tons
Ranked 25th. 2 times more than Iran
Pollution perceptions > Air pollution 89.51
Ranked 1st. 25% more than Turkey
71.55
Ranked 14th.
Pollution perceptions > Air quality 10.49
Ranked 59th.
28.45
Ranked 46th. 3 times more than Iran
Pollution perceptions > Clean water 41.15
Ranked 33th. 16% more than Turkey
35.59
Ranked 42nd.
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution 52.66
Ranked 18th.
59.23
Ranked 11th. 12% more than Iran
Pollution perceptions > Water pollution 58.85
Ranked 27th.
64.41
Ranked 18th. 9% more than Iran
Proportion of land area under protection 7.16%
Ranked 148th. 3 times more than Turkey
2.05%
Ranked 196th.

Total renewable water resources 137.5 cu km
Ranked 4th.
234 cu km
Ranked 4th. 70% more than Iran
Transport CO2 emission index 8,544.4
Ranked 1st. 52% more than Turkey
5,633.43
Ranked 13th.
Marine fish catch per 1000 3.6 tons
Ranked 68th.
8.57 tons
Ranked 50th. 2 times more than Iran
Water > Severe water stress 87.5
Ranked 15th. 42% more than Turkey
61.7
Ranked 29th.
CFC > Consumption 480,229
Ranked 6th. 2 times more than Turkey
236,218
Ranked 10th.
Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution 61.5
Ranked 16th.
63.52
Ranked 11th. 3% more than Iran
Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened 17
Ranked 47th. The same as Turkey
17
Ranked 51st.
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality 47.34
Ranked 42nd. 16% more than Turkey
40.77
Ranked 49th.
CO2 emissions > Kt 381,362.3 kt
Ranked 12th. 73% more than Turkey
219,988.8 kt
Ranked 23th.

Pollution perceptions > Pollution index 86.49
Ranked 3rd. 13% more than Turkey
76.75
Ranked 11th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural 95.28
Ranked 99th.
99.74
Ranked 42nd. 5% more than Iran

National parks > Number of parks 28
Ranked 11th.
41
Ranked 1st. 46% more than Iran
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 7.68
Ranked 41st. 86% more than Turkey
4.13
Ranked 83th.

Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened 22
Ranked 46th. 38% more than Turkey
16
Ranked 62nd.
Carbon efficiency 2.36 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 28th. 80% more than Turkey
1.31 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 60th.
CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 5.56 kt
Ranked 61st. 67% more than Turkey
3.34 kt
Ranked 82nd.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $1,903.83
Ranked 59th.
$7,016.62
Ranked 10th. 4 times more than Iran

Total renewable water resources per million 2.2 cu km
Ranked 18th.
3.55 cu km
Ranked 9th. 61% more than Iran
SO2 emissions per populated area 490 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 78th.
650 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 65th. 33% more than Iran
Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened 31
Ranked 65th.
70
Ranked 20th. 2 times more than Iran
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 571,611.96
Ranked 8th. 92% more than Turkey
298,002.42
Ranked 22nd.

CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita 5.74 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 62nd. 85% more than Turkey
3.11 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 90th.

Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 160,776.1
Ranked 19th.
346,373.9
Ranked 13th. 2 times more than Iran

Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction 58.67
Ranked 25th. 1% more than Turkey
57.94
Ranked 26th.
Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity 62%
Ranked 46th.
70%
Ranked 27th. 13% more than Iran
Water > Percent of water resources used 67.85%
Ranked 13th. 4 times more than Turkey
18.48%
Ranked 32nd.

Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption 377.58
Ranked 19th.
427.23
Ranked 16th. 13% more than Iran

Biodiversity richness 2
Ranked 23th. The same as Turkey
2
Ranked 20th.
NOx emissions per populated area 0.12 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 116th.
0.33 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 50th. 3 times more than Iran
Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration 10.57 mls/litre
Ranked 12th. 36% more than Turkey
7.77 mls/litre
Ranked 70th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 7.68
Ranked 41st. 86% more than Turkey
4.13
Ranked 83th.

Forest area > Sq. km 110,750 km²
Ranked 48th. 9% more than Turkey
101,750 km²
Ranked 53th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $2.53
Ranked 7th. 5 times more than Turkey
$0.53
Ranked 77th.

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural 99.59
Ranked 41st. 9% more than Turkey
91
Ranked 95th.

Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities 36.54
Ranked 45th.
40.77
Ranked 41st. 12% more than Iran
Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people 5.01
Ranked 49th.
5.85
Ranked 42nd. 17% more than Iran

Water > Availability 0.63 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 116th.
2.59 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 74th. 4 times more than Iran
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural 90.29
Ranked 101st.
99.08
Ranked 47th. 10% more than Iran

Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened 2
Ranked 157th.
10
Ranked 103th. 5 times more than Iran
Threatened species 54
Ranked 37th.
70
Ranked 25th. 30% more than Iran
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $3,088.59
Ranked 85th.
$9,176.55
Ranked 43th. 3 times more than Iran

Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $227.14 billion
Ranked 31st.
$670.43 billion
Ranked 19th. 3 times more than Iran

Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness 55%
Ranked 79th.
74%
Ranked 47th. 35% more than Iran
Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution 19.03
Ranked 59th.
39.53
Ranked 43th. 2 times more than Iran
CFC > Consumption per 1000 7.68
Ranked 13th. 96% more than Turkey
3.91
Ranked 19th.
Protected area 5.1%
Ranked 77th. 13 times more than Turkey
0.4%
Ranked 132nd.
Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities 63.46
Ranked 15th. 7% more than Turkey
59.23
Ranked 19th.
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum 7.31
Ranked 39th. 17% more than Turkey
6.23
Ranked 43th.

Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 81
Ranked 19th. 47% more than Turkey
55
Ranked 24th.
Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution 38.5
Ranked 44th. 6% more than Turkey
36.48
Ranked 49th.
Acidification 0.0
Ranked 66th.
0.02%
Ranked 46th.
Freshwater > Withdrawal 72.88
Ranked 11th. 83% more than Turkey
39.78
Ranked 1st.
Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 55.62
Ranked 33th. 59% more than Turkey
35.09
Ranked 65th.

CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP 0.87 kg/PPP$
Ranked 21st. 85% more than Turkey
0.47 kg/PPP$
Ranked 51st.

Proportion of land and marine area under protection 6.96%
Ranked 130th. 3 times more than Turkey
2.11%
Ranked 178th.

Endangered species protection 69.6%
Ranked 71st. 4% more than Turkey
66.7%
Ranked 76th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 11.69
Ranked 11th.
15.48
Ranked 9th. 32% more than Iran

Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution 80.97
Ranked 1st. 34% more than Turkey
60.47
Ranked 17th.
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million 0.101
Ranked 133th. 14% more than Turkey
0.0886
Ranked 138th.

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 98.66%
Ranked 39th. 31% more than Turkey
75.49%
Ranked 103th.

Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban 97.51
Ranked 109th.
100
Ranked 41st. 3% more than Iran

Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction 41.33
Ranked 35th.
42.06
Ranked 34th. 2% more than Iran
Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 per million 1.23
Ranked 17th. 41% more than Turkey
0.871
Ranked 19th.
Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat 43%
Ranked 71st.
66%
Ranked 25th. 53% more than Iran
Wildness 2.53%
Ranked 75th. 4 times more than Turkey
0.64%
Ranked 92nd.
Forest area > Sq. km per 1000 1.58 km²
Ranked 123th. 5% more than Turkey
1.5 km²
Ranked 127th.

Threatened species > Mammal 20
Ranked 34th. 33% more than Turkey
15
Ranked 50th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 122.64
Ranked 7th. 2 times more than Turkey
49.4
Ranked 14th.

Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.153
Ranked 46th. 5% more than Turkey
0.146
Ranked 48th.

Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 82,269
Ranked 16th. 52% more than Turkey
54,174
Ranked 24th.
Breeding birds threatened 4.02%
Ranked 47th. 10% more than Turkey
3.64%
Ranked 54th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 3.95
Ranked 18th. 4 times more than Turkey
0.997
Ranked 56th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 3.32
Ranked 49th. 3 times more than Turkey
0.976
Ranked 114th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt 294,262.08
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than Turkey
71,906.2
Ranked 24th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 0.0725
Ranked 84th.
1.72
Ranked 34th. 24 times more than Iran

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt 5,401.49
Ranked 55th.
124,377.31
Ranked 15th. 23 times more than Iran

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million 41.59
Ranked 64th.
100.03
Ranked 48th. 2 times more than Iran

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban 100
Ranked 9th. 3% more than Turkey
97.18
Ranked 66th.

Urban SO2 concentration 209 micrograms/m3
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Turkey
87.02 micrograms/m3
Ranked 35th.
Water > Proportion of marine area under protection 2.2%
Ranked 102nd.
2.7%
Ranked 91st. 23% more than Iran

Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000 1.27
Ranked 67th. 46% more than Turkey
0.87
Ranked 81st.
Freshwater > Withdrawal per million 1.11
Ranked 18th. 78% more than Turkey
0.621
Ranked 2nd.
Water > Salinisation 419.64
Ranked 92nd.
1,105.28
Ranked 36th. 3 times more than Iran
Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 > Per $ GDP 0.0157 per $100 million
Ranked 7th. 45% more than Turkey
0.0108 per $100 million
Ranked 13th.
Fertiliser > Consumption 743.9 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 67th.
892.34 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 62nd. 20% more than Iran
Urban NO2 concentration 33.3 micrograms/m3
Ranked 113th. 4 times more than Turkey
9.45 micrograms/m3
Ranked 138th.
Non-wildness 1.1%
Ranked 97th.
2.87%
Ranked 72nd. 3 times more than Iran
Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent 31.58
Ranked 4th.
-82.528
Ranked 38th.

Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 8.08%
Ranked 8th. 61% more than Turkey
5.03%
Ranked 34th.

Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction 41
Ranked 49th. 11% more than Turkey
36.9
Ranked 51st.
Total natural resources rents > % of GDP 31.18%
Ranked 19th. 37 times more than Turkey
0.844%
Ranked 125th.

Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.79% of GNI
Ranked 40th.
1.34% of GNI
Ranked 13th. 70% more than Iran

International agreements > Signed but not ratified Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation Environmental Modification
Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million 0.529
Ranked 11th.
-1.158
Ranked 25th.

Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 8.04%
Ranked 27th. 67% more than Turkey
4.82%
Ranked 61st.

Pollution > Water pollution, chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 12.82%
Ranked 17th. 49% more than Turkey
8.6%
Ranked 45th.

Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters 1.22e-05%
Ranked 153th.
2.43%
Ranked 74th. 198801 times more than Iran

Pollution > Water pollution, metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 7.06%
Ranked 9th. 88% more than Turkey
3.76%
Ranked 25th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion 31.71%
Ranked 92nd.
42.43%
Ranked 55th. 34% more than Iran

Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 1.44% of GNI
Ranked 18th. 3 times more than Turkey
0.48% of GNI
Ranked 69th.

Adjusted net national income > Annual % growth 22.08%
Ranked 9th. 4 times more than Turkey
6.28%
Ranked 23th.

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 3,097
Ranked 26th.
7,216
Ranked 18th. 2 times more than Iran

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total 0.945%
Ranked 103th.
41.74%
Ranked 24th. 44 times more than Iran

Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 9.48%
Ranked 20th.
26.36%
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than Iran

Pollution > Water pollution, textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 11.15%
Ranked 37th.
32.21%
Ranked 12th. 3 times more than Iran

Water > Suspended solids 5.92 mls/litre
Ranked 40th. 3 times more than Turkey
2.3 mls/litre
Ranked 136th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million 1.63
Ranked 10th. 2 times more than Turkey
0.676
Ranked 28th.

Pollution > Water pollution, clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 13.81%
Ranked 6th. 2 times more than Turkey
6.62%
Ranked 20th.

Oil rents > % of GDP 23.46%
Ranked 14th. 124 times more than Turkey
0.189%
Ranked 64th.

Forest area > % of land area 6.77% of land area
Ranked 160th.
13.22% of land area
Ranked 136th. 95% more than Iran

Natural gas rents > % of GDP 6.79%
Ranked 10th. 588 times more than Turkey
0.0115%
Ranked 72nd.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt 247,012.79
Ranked 11th. 4 times more than Turkey
70,428.4
Ranked 26th.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP 47.79%
Ranked 103th.
66.16%
Ranked 21st. 38% more than Iran

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 23.54%
Ranked 9th. 36% more than Turkey
17.29%
Ranked 16th.

Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP 62.63%
Ranked 150th.
86.53%
Ranked 46th. 38% more than Iran

Pollution > Water pollution, food industry > % of total BOD emissions 16.12%
Ranked 37th. 30% more than Turkey
12.37%
Ranked 49th.

Pollution > Water pollution, other industry > % of total BOD emissions 35.53%
Ranked 32nd. 15% more than Turkey
30.94%
Ranked 34th.

Pollution > Water pollution, paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 2.81%
Ranked 61st.
3.76%
Ranked 51st. 34% more than Iran

Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction 59
Ranked 11th.
63.1
Ranked 9th. 7% more than Iran
Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.87%
Ranked 29th. 2 times more than Turkey
0.42%
Ranked 62nd.

Water > Phosphorus concentration 0.35 mls/litre
Ranked 65th. The same as Turkey
0.35 mls/litre
Ranked 69th.
Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 10.66%
Ranked 10th. 34% more than Turkey
7.98%
Ranked 38th.

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Industrial 2%
Ranked 87th.
11%
Ranked 5th. 6 times more than Iran
Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.15 kg per day per worker
Ranked 25th.
0.16 kg per day per worker
Ranked 45th. 7% more than Iran

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Agricultural 91%
Ranked 28th. 23% more than Turkey
74%
Ranked 1st.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total 51.48%
Ranked 15th. 2 times more than Turkey
24.13%
Ranked 57th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total 43.21%
Ranked 144th. 83% more than Turkey
23.63%
Ranked 174th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 2.24%
Ranked 66th.
5.42%
Ranked 28th. 2 times more than Iran

Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.66%
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Turkey
0.29%
Ranked 21st.

Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 15.55%
Ranked 3rd. 36% more than Turkey
11.44%
Ranked 13th.

Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 98.66
Ranked 39th. 31% more than Turkey
75.49
Ranked 103th.

Pollution > Water pollution, wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.697%
Ranked 59th.
1.73%
Ranked 51st. 2 times more than Iran

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Domestic 7%
Ranked 88th.
15%
Ranked 2nd. 2 times more than Iran
Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions 46.67%
Ranked 18th. 7% more than Turkey
43.66%
Ranked 42nd.

PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 57.8 mcg/m³
Ranked 54th. 21% more than Turkey
47.66 mcg/m³
Ranked 66th.

SOURCES: The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium; International Energy Agency; International Energy Agency. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Living Planet Report 2000, Gland, Switzerland: 2000, and Redefining Progress.; World Development Indicators database; FAOSTAT on-line database; pollution; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; traffic; FAOSTAT on-line database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGap 2.1, 2000 via ciesin.org; UNEP, Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances, 1986-1998, October 1999. via ciesin.org; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wikipedia: List of national parks (Africa); Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Data Version 1.1, B1Illustrative Marker Scenario with model IMAGE; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase database, www.fishbase.org.; Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited; Wikipedia: Climate change opinion by country; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environmental Monitoring System/Water Quality Monitoring System, with data for an additional 29 countries from Prescott-Allen,R. The Well being of Nations, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGAP 2.1B, 2001 via ciesin.org; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; UNEP, Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances, 1986-1998, October 1999. via ciesin.org. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Jacaranda Atlas; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).; U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual, 2002, and International Energy Outlook, 2001; Stockholm Environment Institute at York, Acidification in Developing Countries: Ecosystem Sensitivity and the Critical Loads Approach at the Global scale, 2000 via ciesin.org; World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Report on National Reports Required Under Article VIII, Paragraph 7(a), of the Convention, Eleventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Gigiri, Kenya, April 2000; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. 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Original sources: World Conservation Monitoring Center, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other sources.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Resources Institute, World Resources 1998-99; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2000; WHO,Air Management Information System-AMIS 2.0, 1998; and Global Urban Observatory, Citibase, 1999. via ciesin.org; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2001. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001. via ciesin.org; Wild Areas Project (WAP), joint Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and CIESIN project to map the last wild places on the earth's surface. Accessed via ciesin.org; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. 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