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Education Stats: compare key data on Turkey & United States

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Definitions

  • Average years of schooling of adults: Average years of schooling of adults is the years of formal schooling received, on average, by adults over age 15. (Data Source: Barro-Lee Data Set www.worldbank.org/html/prdmg/grthweb/ddbarle2.htm)
  • Children out of school, primary: Children out of school, primary. Out-of-school children of primary school age. Total is the total number of primary-school-age children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools.
  • Children out of school, primary per 1000: Children out of school, primary. Out-of-school children of primary school age. Total is the total number of primary-school-age children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Children out of school, primary, female: Children out of school, primary, female. Out-of-school children of primary school age. Female is the total number of female primary-school-age children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools.
  • College and university > Gender parity index: Country's gender parity index for college and university enrollment. For countries with a rating of over 1, more females are enrolled while countries with a rating under 1 have more males enrolled.
  • College and university > Share of total education spending: Percentage of government education funding that goes to post-secondary education.
  • Compulsary education duration: Number of years students are required to be enrolled in school for all levels of education. For instance, compulsary education lasts for 12 years in the United States.
  • Government spending on education > Proportion of GDP: Percentage of public funding for education out of country's total GDP.
  • Homeschooling legal status: Legal status of homeschooling.
  • Literacy > Total population: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
  • Primary education, duration > Years: Primary education, duration (years). Duration of primary is the number of grades (years) in primary education.
  • Primary education, teachers per 1000: Primary education, teachers. Teaching staff in primary. Public and private. Full and part-time. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private primary education institutions. Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Pupil-teacher ratio, primary: Pupil-teacher ratio, primary. Pupil-teacher ratio. Primary is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers.
  • Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary: Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary. Pupil-teacher ratio. Secondary is the number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers.
  • Secondary education, duration > Years: Secondary education, duration (years). Duration of secondary education is the number of grades (years) in secondary education (ISCED 2 & 3).
  • Literacy > Female: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
  • Children out of school, primary, female per 1000: Children out of school, primary, female. Out-of-school children of primary school age. Female is the total number of female primary-school-age children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • College and university > Gender ratio: Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment is the percentage of men to women enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools.
  • Child care (preschool) > Duration: Number of years students study at the pre-primary (preschool) level. It should be noted that not all countries require pre-primary education.
  • Secondary education > Teachers > Per capita: Secondary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Duration of compulsory education: Duration of compulsory education is the number of grades (or years) that a child must legally be enrolled in school.
  • Secondary education, pupils: Secondary education, pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled at public and private secondary education institutions.
  • College and university > Private school share: Percentage of post-secondary students who attend a private school, college, or university.
  • School life expectancy > Total: School life expectancy and transition from primary to secondary for school years 1998/99 and 1999/00, published in http://www.uis.unesco.org accessed on Sept. 2002 and Women's Indicators and Statistics Database (Wistat), Version 4, CD-ROM (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.XVII.4) based on data provided by UNESCO in 1999.
  • Primary education, teachers: Primary education, teachers. Teaching staff in primary. Public and private. Full and part-time. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private primary education institutions. Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions.
  • Primary education, pupils: Primary education, pupils. Enrolment in primary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in public and private primary education institutions.
  • Tertiary enrollment: Gross enrolment ratio, tertiary level is the sum of all tertiary level students enrolled at the start of the school year, expressed as a percentage of the mid-year population in the 5 year age group after the official secondary school leaving age.
  • Spending per student > College and university: Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
  • High school > Gender ratio: Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
  • Compulsary education starting age: Age at which children must be enrolled in school.
  • Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary per million: Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary. Pupil-teacher ratio. Secondary is the number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Literacy > Definition: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
  • High school > Upper secondary school duration: Number of years students study at the upper secondary (high school) level.
  • Literacy > Male: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
  • Spending > USD: Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment."
  • Spending > Proportion: Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment. Expressed as a proportion of GNI."
  • Pupil-teacher ratio > Primary: Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).
  • Child care (preschool) > Starting age: Average age at which students begin pre-primary (preschool) education.
  • Preschool enrollment rate: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music."
  • Tertiary > Students studying abroad: Total number of post-secondary students who were studying abroad during given year.
  • Teachers as percentage of labor force: The percentage share of the total labor force who are classroom, academic staff, and other teachers. Data for 1999.
  • Literacy > Reading performance > Overall: Overall.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Elementary (primary school) > Duration: Number of years students study at the primary level.
  • Children out of school > Primary: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
  • Secondary education, teachers: Secondary education, teachers. Teaching staff in total secondary. Public and private. Full and part-time. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private secondary education institutions (ISCED 2 and 3). Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions.
  • Secondary education, teachers per 1000: Secondary education, teachers. Teaching staff in total secondary. Public and private. Full and part-time. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private secondary education institutions (ISCED 2 and 3). Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Child care (preschool) > Students per teacher: Number of students per teacher for pre-primary (preschool) education.
  • High school > Lower secondary school duration: Number of years students study at the lower secondary (middle school) level.
  • Children out of school, primary, male per 1000: Children out of school, primary, male. Out-of-school children of primary school age. Male is the total number of male primary-school-age children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Spending per student > High school: Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
  • Secondary education, general pupils: Secondary education, general pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. General programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in general programmes at public and private secondary education institutions.
  • High school > Gender parity index: Country's gender parity index for secondary level enrollment. For countries with a rating of over 1, more females are enrolled while countries with a rating under 1 have more males enrolled.
  • Literacy > Reading performance > Overall reading skills: Overall.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Scientific and technical journal articles: Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences.
  • Literacy > Reading performance > Access and retrieve: Access and retrieve.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • College and university > Teachers > Proportion of teachers female: Percentage of country's college and university professors that are female.
  • Tertiary > Students studying abroad proportion: The number of students from a given country studying abroad in a given year, expressed as a percentage of total tertiary enrollment in that country. Ratios greater than 100 % are possible, because those currently studying abroad do not count towards total enrollment.
  • Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Scouting > Genders admitted: Admits boys/girls.
  • Elementary (primary school) > Starting age: Average age at which students begin primary education.
  • International Baccalaureate schools: Number of schools of any level teaching the curriculum of the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO).
  • Children out of school, primary, male: Children out of school, primary, male. Out-of-school children of primary school age. Male is the total number of male primary-school-age children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools.
  • High school > Students per teacher: Number of students per teacher for all levels of secondary education.
  • Secondary education > General pupils: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training.
  • Spending per student > Elementary school: Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
  • Secondary school starting age > Years: Secondary school starting age (years). Entrance age of 2A lower secondary is the age at which students would enter lower secondary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade.
  • High school starting age > Years: Secondary school starting age is the age at which students would enter secondary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade."
  • Primary education > Teachers > Per capita: Primary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • High school > Population with at least high school education > Women: Population with at least high school education > Women.
  • Elementary school graduate rate: Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
  • Schools connected to the Internet: Schools connected to the Internet are the share of primary and secondary schools in the country that have access to the Internet.
  • Public spending per student > Primary level: Public expenditure per student, primary level is the total reported current spending by the government on primary education, divided by the total number of pupils in primary education, expressed as a percentage of per capita GDP.
  • Secondary education, pupils per 1000: Secondary education, pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled at public and private secondary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Primary education, pupils per 1000: Primary education, pupils. Enrolment in primary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in public and private primary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Tertiary > Students studying abroad per thousand people: Total number of post-secondary students who were studying abroad during given year. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Outcomes > Secondary education > Duration > Years: Secondary education, duration (years) is the number of grades (years) in secondary school."
  • Teacher student ratio > High school: Secondary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).
  • Children out of school > Primary per 1000: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Inequality adjusted index: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index.
  • Teacher student ratio > Elementary school: Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).
  • Elementary school > Enrolled students: Primary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
  • Primary education > Duration > Years: Primary duration refers to the number of years of full-time equivalent duration in primary education in the school system according to ISCED.
  • Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Services, etc., value added (constant 2000 US$). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • School enrolment rate > 1st grade: Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age."
  • Secondary education, general pupils per 1000: Secondary education, general pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. General programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in general programmes at public and private secondary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Literacy > Reading performance > Integrate and interpret: Integrate and interpret.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Elementary (primary) school) > Private school share: Percentage of primary students who attend a private school.
  • High school > Lower secondary starting age: Average age at which students begin lower secondary (middle school) education.
  • Elementary school > Gender ratio: Ratio of female to male primary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
  • Duration of education > Secondary level: Duration of secondary education is the number of grades (or years) in general secondary education.
  • Public spending per student > Tertiary level: Public expenditure per student, tertiary level is the total reported current spending by the government on tertiary education, divided by the total number of pupils in tertiary education, expressed as a percentage of per capita GDP.
  • Primary education > Pupils: Primary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
  • High school > Population with at least high school education > Men: Gender Inequality Index.
  • Education enrolment by level > Secondary level > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Secondary education, vocational pupils: Secondary education, vocational pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. Technical/vocational programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in technical/vocational programmes at public and private secondary education institutions.
  • Elementary (primary) school > Students per teacher: Number of students per teacher for primary education.
  • Spending on education > Proportion spent on all staff salaries: Percentage of public funding for education that goes to school staff salaries.
  • Secondary education > Teachers: Secondary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers.
  • School enrolment rate > 5th grade: Persistence to grade 5 (percentage of cohort reaching grade 5) is the share of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
  • Scientific and technical journal articles per million: Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Literacy > Reading performance > Continuous texts: Continuous texts.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Literacy > Reading performance > Non-continuous texts: Non-continuous texts.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Duration of education > Primary level: Duration of primary education is the number of grades (or years) in primary education.
  • Expected duration of education for all students: Expected years of schooling for a 5-year-old under current conditions, excluding education for children under 5. Data for 2000.
  • Participation > Children out of school > Elementary: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
  • Participation > Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education: Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary and secondary levels in public and private schools.
  • Public spending per student > Secondary level: Public expenditure per student, secondary level is the total reported current spending by the government on secondary education, divided by the total number of pupils in secondary education, expressed as a percentage of per capita GDP.
  • Children out of school > Primary > Per capita: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Literacy > Reading performance > Reflect and evaluate: Reflect and evaluate.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • High school > Upper secondary starting age: Average age at which students begin upper secondary (high school) education.
  • Elementary school starting age > Years: Primary school starting age is the age at which students would enter primary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade."
  • Elementary school repeaters > All: Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school."
  • School life expectancy > Male: School life expectancy and transition from primary to secondary for school years 1998/99 and 1999/00, published in http://www.uis.unesco.org accessed on Sept. 2002 and Women's Indicators and Statistics Database (Wistat), Version 4, CD-ROM (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.XVII.4) based on data provided by UNESCO in 1999.
  • Secondary education > General pupils > Per capita: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Education enrolment by level > Primary level per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Education enrolment by level > Primary level > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Primary teacher salary > Starting: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary education, in equivalent US dollars converted using PPPs. Data for 1999.
  • Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD: Research and development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. R&D is a term covering three activities: basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.

    The main aggregate used for international comparisons is gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD). This consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad.
  • Pupils-teacher ratio > Primary level: Pupil-teacher ratio, primary level is the average number of pupils per teacher in primary education. Cross-country comparisons may be affected by such factors as the composition of teachers by part- and full-time employment.
  • Primary education > Teachers: Primary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers.
  • Private school enrolment > Primary level: Private sector enrolment share, primary level is the share of primary school pupils who attend a privately managed school, regardless of whether or not the school receives subsidies from the government.
  • Outcomes > Primary education > Duration > Years: Primary duration refers to the number of years of full-time equivalent duration in primary education in the school system according to ISCED.
  • Primary education > Teachers per 1000: Primary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Children out of school > Primary > Female > Per capita: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Female enrolment share > Primary level: Girls' enrolment share, primary level is the number of girls enrolled in primary school, expressed as a percentage of the total number of pupils in primary school.
  • Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$: Services, etc., value added (constant 2000 US$). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Proportion of primary education time spent learning technology: Intended instruction time spent studying technology, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
  • Primary school starting age > Years: Primary school starting age (years). Entrance age of primary is the age at which students would enter primary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade.
  • Scouting > Members: Members of boy or girl scout groups which are members of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM).
  • Elementary (primary) school) > Proportion spent on all staff salaries: Percentage of public funding for primary education that goes to school staff salaries.
  • Elementary (primary) school > Proportion of education spending on teachers' salaries: Percentage of public funding for primary education that goes to teachers' salaries.
  • Enrolment ratio > Secondary level: Net enrolment ratio, secondary level, is the ratio of the number of children of official secondary school age enrolled in school to the number of children of official secondary school age in the population.
  • Participation > Secondary education > General pupils: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training."
  • Secondary education > Teachers per 1000: Secondary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Secondary education > General pupils per 1000: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Ratio of female to male primary enrollment: Ratio of female to male primary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
  • Children out of school > Primary > Male: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
  • Elementary (primary) school > Gender parity index: Country's gender parity index in primary, or elementary, school. For countries with a rating of over 1, more females are enrolled while countries with a rating under 1 have more males enrolled. 
  • Female enrolment share > Secondary level: Girls' enrolment share, secondary level is the number of girls enrolled in secondary school, expressed as a percentage of the total number of pupils in secondary school.
  • Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary > Teachers > Women: Number of female teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education. Post-secondary non-tertiary education serves to broaden the knowledge of participants, who have already gained an upper secondary qualification.
  • Private school enrolment > Secondary level: Private sector enrolment share, secondary level is the share of students in general secondary education who attend a privately managed school, regardless of whether or not the school receives subsidies from the government.
  • Education enrolment by level > Secondary level per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Scouting > Members per thousand people: Membership (from 2012). Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Outcomes > Tertiary attainment > Tertiary attainment for age group 55-64: For each age group shown, those who have completed tertiary education are shown as a percentage of all persons in that age group. Tertiary education includes both tertiary-type "A programmes”, which are largely theoretically-based and designed to provide qualifications for entry to advanced research programmes and professions with high skill requirements, as well as tertiary-type "B programmes” which are classified at the same level of competencies as tertiary-type A programmes but are more occupationally-oriented and lead to direct labour market access. The tertiary attainment profiles are based on the percentage of the population aged 25 to 64 that has completed that level of education.
  • Proportion of primary education time spent learning science: Intended instruction time spent studying science, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
  • School life expectancy > Female: School life expectancy and transition from primary to secondary for school years 1998/99 and 1999/00, published in http://www.uis.unesco.org accessed on Sept. 2002 and Women's Indicators and Statistics Database (Wistat), Version 4, CD-ROM (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.XVII.4) based on data provided by UNESCO in 1999.
  • Elementary school repeaters > Male: Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school."
  • Elementary school repeaters > Female: Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school."
  • Children out of school > Primary > Male > Per capita: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Elementary school teachers: Primary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers.
  • High school teachers: Secondary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers.
  • Primary teacher salary > After 15 years: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary education, in equivalent US dollars converted using PPPs. Data for 1999.
  • Proportion of 15 year-olds in secondary education: Percentage share of 15 year-olds enrolled in secondary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • Proportion of 20 year olds in tertiary education: Percentage share of 20 year-olds enrolled in tertiary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • Participation > Secondary education > Pupils: Secondary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
  • Proportion of primary education time spent learning vocational skills: Intended instruction time spent studying vocational skills, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
  • Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment: Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
  • Primary education > Pupils per 1000: Primary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at primary level in public and private schools. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Pupils-teacher ratio > Secondary level: Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary level is the average number of pupils per teacher in secondary education. Cross-country comparisons may be affected by such factors as the composition of teachers by part- and full-time employment.
  • Share of university qualifications awarded to females: Percentage share of tertiary level A qualifications as first degree awarded to females. Data for 2000.
  • Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD per million: Research and development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. R&D is a term covering three activities: basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.

    The main aggregate used for international comparisons is gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD). This consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Proportion of primary education time spent learning foreign languages: Intended instruction time spent studying modern foreign languages, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
  • Primary teacher salary > Starting per 1000: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary education, in equivalent US dollars converted using PPPs. Data for 1999. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Share of university qualifications awarded to females > First degree: Percentage share of tertiary level A qualifications as first degree awarded to females. Data for 2000.
  • Proportion of 16 year-olds in secondary education: Percentage share of 16 year-olds enrolled in secondary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • Expected duration of education for males: Expected years of schooling for a male 5-year-old under current conditions, excluding education for children under 5. Data for 2000.
  • Proportion of 19 year olds in tertiary education: Percentage share of 19 year-olds enrolled in tertiary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • School enrollment > Primary > Private > % of total primary: Private enrollment refers to pupils or students enrolled in institutions that are not operated by a public authority but controlled and managed, whether for profit or not, by a private body such as a nongovernmental organization, religious body, special interest group, foundation or business enterprise.
  • School enrollment, preprimary > % gross: School enrollment, preprimary (% gross). Gross enrolment ratio. Pre-primary. Total is the total enrollment in pre-primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official pre-primary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition.
  • School enrollment, primary > % net: School enrollment, primary (% net). Net enrolment rate. Primary. Total is the ratio of children of the official primary school age who are enrolled in primary school to the total population of the official primary school age.
  • School enrollment, secondary > % gross: School enrollment, secondary (% gross). Gross enrolment ratio. Secondary. All programmes. Total is the total enrollment in secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition.
  • School enrollment, tertiary, female > % gross: School enrollment, tertiary, female (% gross). Gross enrolment ratio. Tertiary (ISCED 5 and 6). Female is the total female enrollment in tertiary education (ISCED 5 and 6), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total female population of the five-year age group following on from secondary school leaving.
  • Expenditure per student, tertiary > % of GDP per capita: Expenditure per student, tertiary (% of GDP per capita). Public expenditure per pupil as a % of GDP per capita. Tertiary is the total public expenditure per student in tertiary education as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).
  • Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education: Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary and secondary levels in public and private schools.
  • Net intake rate in grade 1 > Female > % of official school-age population: Net intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education who are of official primary school entrance age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the corresponding age.
  • School enrollment > Primary > Male > % gross: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.
  • School enrollment > Preprimary > Female > % gross: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment.
  • School enrollment > Preprimary > Male > % gross: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment.
  • Secondary education > Teachers > % female: Female teachers as a percentage of total secondary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers.
  • Labor force with tertiary education, female > % of female labor force: Labor force with tertiary education, female (% of female labor force). Labor force with tertiary education is the proportion of labor force that has a tertiary education, as a percentage of the total labor force.
  • Labor force with primary education > % of total: Labor force with primary education (% of total). Labor force with primary education is the proportion of the labor force that has a primary education, as a percentage of the total labor force.
  • Labor force with secondary education, male > % of male labor force: Labor force with secondary education, male (% of male labor force). Labor force with secondary education is the proportion of the labor force that has a secondary education, as a percentage of the total labor force.
  • Labor force with secondary education > % of total: Labor force with secondary education (% of total). Labor force with secondary education is the proportion of the labor force that has a secondary education, as a percentage of the total labor force.
  • Unemployment with tertiary education > % of total unemployment: Unemployment with tertiary education (% of total unemployment). Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO).
  • Primary education > Pupils > % female: Female pupils as a percentage of total pupils at primary level include enrollments in public and private schools.
  • School enrollment, tertiary > % gross: School enrollment, tertiary (% gross). Gross enrolment ratio. Tertiary (ISCED 5 and 6). Total is the total enrollment in tertiary education (ISCED 5 and 6), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of the five-year age group following on from secondary school leaving.
  • Primary education > Pupils > Per capita: Primary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at primary level in public and private schools. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Net intake rate in grade 1 > Male > % of official school-age population: Net intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education who are of official primary school entrance age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the corresponding age.
  • Researchers in R&D > Per million people: Researchers in R&D (per million people). Researchers in R&D are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D are included.
  • Primary teacher salary > Starting, % of GDP: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary education, in equivalent US dollars converted using PPPs. Data for 1999. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • School enrollment, secondary, female > % net: School enrollment, secondary, female (% net). Net enrolment rate. Secondary. All programmes. Female is the ratio of female children of the official secondary school age who are enrolled in secondary school to the female population of the official secondary school age.
  • School enrollment, secondary, male > % gross: School enrollment, secondary, male (% gross). Gross enrolment ratio. Secondary. All programmes. Male is the total male enrollment in secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the male population of official secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition.
  • Repeaters, primary, female > % of female enrollment: Repeaters, primary, female (% of female enrollment). Percentage of repeaters in primary. All grades. Female is the number of female students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all female students enrolled in primary school. It is calculated by dividing the sum of female repeaters in all grades of primary education by the total female enrolment of primary education and multiplying the result by 100.
  • Elementary school graduate rate > Male: Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
  • Gross intake rate in grade 1 > Total > % of relevant age group: Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age.
  • Elementary school > Enrolled students > % female: Female pupils as a percentage of total pupils at primary level include enrollments in public and private schools.
  • Elementary school teachers > % female: Female teachers as a percentage of total primary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers.
  • Participation > Secondary education > Vocational pupils > % female: Secondary vocational pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in technical and vocational education programs, including teacher training."
  • High school > Upper Secondary > Students per teacher: Number of students per teacher for upper secondary (high school) education.
  • Participation > Total enrollment > Primary > Male > % net: Total enrollment is the number of pupils of the school-age group for primary education, enrolled either in primary or secondary education, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group."
  • Preschool enrollment rate > Female: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment."
  • Preschool enrollment rate > Male: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment."
  • School enrolment rate > 1st grade > Female: Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age."
  • School enrolment rate > 1st grade > Male: Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age."
  • School enrolment rate > 5th grade > Female: Persistence to grade 5 (percentage of cohort reaching grade 5) is the share of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
  • School enrolment rate > 5th grade > Male: Persistence to grade 5 (percentage of cohort reaching grade 5) is the share of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
  • School enrollment, tertiary, male > % gross: School enrollment, tertiary, male (% gross). Gross enrolment ratio. Tertiary (ISCED 5 and 6). Male is the total male enrollment in tertiary education (ISCED 5 and 6), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total male population of the five-year age group following on from secondary school leaving.
  • Literacy and Attainment > Educational attainment: completed tertiary > Tertiary > Population 25+ years > % > Over 24 year olds: Percentage of population older than 24 years that has completed tertiary education.
  • Unemployment with secondary education, male > % of male unemployment: Unemployment with secondary education, male (% of male unemployment). Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO).
  • Public spending on education, total > % of GDP: Public spending on education, total (% of GDP). Public expenditure on education as % of GDP is the total public expenditure (current and capital) on education expressed as a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in a given year. Public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration, and transfers/subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities).
STAT Turkey United States HISTORY
Average years of schooling of adults 5.3
Ranked 63th.
12
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Turkey
Children out of school, primary 243,731
Ranked 22nd.
1.76 million
Ranked 3rd. 7 times more than Turkey

Children out of school, primary per 1000 3.34
Ranked 65th.
5.64
Ranked 47th. 69% more than Turkey

Children out of school, primary, female 139,953
Ranked 17th.
780,465
Ranked 3rd. 6 times more than Turkey

College and university > Gender parity index 0.82
Ranked 93th.
1.41
Ranked 33th. 72% more than Turkey

College and university > Share of total education spending 31.9%
Ranked 7th. 24% more than United States
25.65%
Ranked 26th.

Compulsary education duration 8
Ranked 157th.
12
Ranked 14th. 50% more than Turkey

Government spending on education > Proportion of GDP 2.86%
Ranked 93th.
5.62%
Ranked 39th. 96% more than Turkey

Homeschooling legal status Illegal, public education is mandatory without known exceptions. Legal under regulating conditions, varies by state.
Literacy > Total population 87.4%
Ranked 13th.
99%
Ranked 20th. 13% more than Turkey

Primary education, duration > Years 5
Ranked 174th.
6
Ranked 53th. 20% more than Turkey

Primary education, teachers per 1000 3.98
Ranked 72nd.
5.49
Ranked 49th. 38% more than Turkey

Pupil-teacher ratio, primary 27.75
Ranked 49th. 94% more than United States
14.29
Ranked 98th.

Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary 21.76
Ranked 9th. 50% more than United States
14.49
Ranked 56th.

Secondary education, duration > Years 7
Ranked 77th. 17% more than United States
6
Ranked 102nd.

Literacy > Female 79.6%
Ranked 13th.
99%
Ranked 17th. 24% more than Turkey

Children out of school, primary, female per 1000 1.92
Ranked 58th.
2.5
Ranked 48th. 31% more than Turkey

College and university > Gender ratio 78
Ranked 73th.
140.06
Ranked 29th. 80% more than Turkey

Child care (preschool) > Duration 3
Ranked 117th. The same as United States
3
Ranked 47th.

Secondary education > Teachers > Per capita 2.78 per 1,000 people
Ranked 88th.
5.5 per 1,000 people
Ranked 65th. 98% more than Turkey

Duration of compulsory education 9 years
Ranked 96th.
12 years
Ranked 10th. 33% more than Turkey
Secondary education, pupils 7.97 million
Ranked 9th.
24.21 million
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than Turkey

College and university > Private school share 5.16%
Ranked 95th.
27.95%
Ranked 46th. 5 times more than Turkey

Girls to boys ratio > Primary level enrolment 0.95
Ranked 110th.
0.99
Ranked 49th. 4% more than Turkey

School life expectancy > Total 9.5 years
Ranked 82nd.
15.2 years
Ranked 14th. 60% more than Turkey
Primary education, teachers 233,073
Ranked 13th.
1.71 million
Ranked 5th. 7 times more than Turkey

Primary education, pupils 6.58 million
Ranked 15th.
24.43 million
Ranked 5th. 4 times more than Turkey

Tertiary enrollment 15%
Ranked 16th.
72.6%
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than Turkey
Spending per student > College and university 28.09
Ranked 41st. 27% more than United States
22.04
Ranked 37th.

High school > Gender ratio 88.57
Ranked 94th.
99.5
Ranked 59th. 12% more than Turkey

Compulsary education starting age 6
Ranked 140th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 66th.

Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary per million 0.36
Ranked 42nd. 8 times more than United States
0.0465
Ranked 96th.

Literacy > Definition age 15 and over can read and write age 15 and over can read and write
High school > Upper secondary school duration 4
Ranked 47th. 33% more than United States
3
Ranked 73th.

Literacy > Male 95.3%
Ranked 6th.
99%
Ranked 28th. 4% more than Turkey

Spending > USD 27.01 billion
Ranked 21st.
684.04 billion
Ranked 1st. 25 times more than Turkey

Spending > Proportion 3.68
Ranked 99th.
4.79
Ranked 54th. 30% more than Turkey

Pupil-teacher ratio > Primary 30.38
Ranked 53th. 2 times more than United States
14.21
Ranked 120th.

Child care (preschool) > Starting age 3
Ranked 193th. The same as United States
3
Ranked 103th.

Preschool enrollment rate 99.3
Ranked 91st. 1% more than United States
98.77
Ranked 94th.

Tertiary > Students studying abroad 50,908.41
Ranked 10th.
56,943.33
Ranked 6th. 12% more than Turkey

Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level 1.92 million
Ranked 19th.
16.61 million
Ranked 1st. 9 times more than Turkey

Teachers as percentage of labor force 3.4%
Ranked 28th.
4.2%
Ranked 17th. 24% more than Turkey
Literacy > Reading performance > Overall 464
Ranked 39th.
500
Ranked 15th. 8% more than Turkey
Elementary (primary school) > Duration 5
Ranked 184th.
6
Ranked 59th. 20% more than Turkey

Children out of school > Primary 899,833
Ranked 10th.
1.62 million
Ranked 2nd. 80% more than Turkey

Secondary education, teachers 218,829
Ranked 10th.
1.67 million
Ranked 4th. 8 times more than Turkey

Secondary education, teachers per 1000 3.62
Ranked 39th.
5.36
Ranked 56th. 48% more than Turkey

Child care (preschool) > Students per teacher 23.09
Ranked 30th. 54% more than United States
14.96
Ranked 64th.

High school > Lower secondary school duration 3
Ranked 178th. The same as United States
3
Ranked 105th.

Children out of school, primary, male per 1000 1.42
Ranked 67th.
3.14
Ranked 43th. 2 times more than Turkey

Spending per student > High school 10.95
Ranked 76th.
24.56
Ranked 18th. 2 times more than Turkey

Secondary education, general pupils 6.67 million
Ranked 9th.
24.21 million
Ranked 3rd. 4 times more than Turkey

High school > Gender parity index 0.919
Ranked 114th.
1.01
Ranked 68th. 10% more than Turkey

Literacy > Reading performance > Overall reading skills 464
Ranked 39th.
500
Ranked 15th. 8% more than Turkey
Scientific and technical journal articles 6,224
Ranked 21st.
211,233
Ranked 1st. 34 times more than Turkey

Literacy > Reading performance > Access and retrieve 467
Ranked 39th.
492
Ranked 25th. 5% more than Turkey
College and university > Teachers > Proportion of teachers female 41%
Ranked 16th.
47%
Ranked 7th. 15% more than Turkey
Tertiary > Students studying abroad proportion 1.33%
Ranked 104th. 5 times more than United States
0.271%
Ranked 124th.

Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level per 1000 29.51
Ranked 51st.
57.75
Ranked 4th. 96% more than Turkey

Scouting > Genders admitted both both for Venturing, boys only for non-Venturing
Elementary (primary school) > Starting age 6
Ranked 167th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 77th.

International Baccalaureate schools 44
Ranked 14th.
1,489
Ranked 1st. 34 times more than Turkey
Children out of school, primary, male 103,778
Ranked 20th.
976,866
Ranked 3rd. 9 times more than Turkey

Education expenditure of government > As percentage of GNI 3.8%
Ranked 81st.
5.9%
Ranked 23th. 55% more than Turkey

High school > Students per teacher 21.76
Ranked 9th. 50% more than United States
14.49
Ranked 57th.

Secondary education > General pupils 4.01 million
Ranked 20th.
24.19 million
Ranked 3rd. 6 times more than Turkey

Spending per student > Elementary school 12.77
Ranked 59th.
22.35
Ranked 18th. 75% more than Turkey

Secondary school starting age > Years 11
Ranked 179th.
12
Ranked 59th. 9% more than Turkey

High school starting age > Years 12
Ranked 115th. The same as United States
12
Ranked 55th.

Primary education > Teachers > Per capita 3.94 per 1,000 people
Ranked 87th.
5.88 per 1,000 people
Ranked 44th. 49% more than Turkey

Education enrolment by level > Primary level 7.9 million
Ranked 12th.
24.85 million
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than Turkey

High school > Population with at least high school education > Women 26.7%
Ranked 115th.
94.7%
Ranked 14th. 4 times more than Turkey

Elementary school graduate rate 94.23
Ranked 38th.
95.34
Ranked 40th. 1% more than Turkey

Schools connected to the Internet 40%
Ranked 27th.
100%
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Turkey

Public spending per student > Primary level 17.6
Ranked 24th.
17.9
Ranked 21st. 2% more than Turkey
Secondary education, pupils per 1000 109.03
Ranked 19th. 40% more than United States
77.71
Ranked 76th.

Primary education, pupils per 1000 90.08
Ranked 87th. 15% more than United States
78.41
Ranked 97th.

Girls to boys ratio > Tertiary level enrolment 0.74
Ranked 72nd.
1.4
Ranked 22nd. 89% more than Turkey

Girls to boys ratio > Secondary level enrolment 0.82
Ranked 116th.
1.02
Ranked 54th. 24% more than Turkey

Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level > Per capita 27.55 per 1,000 people
Ranked 56th.
57.61 per 1,000 people
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than Turkey

Tertiary > Students studying abroad per thousand people 0.697
Ranked 131st. 4 times more than United States
0.183
Ranked 178th.

Outcomes > Secondary education > Duration > Years 5
Ranked 174th.
6
Ranked 86th. 20% more than Turkey

Teacher student ratio > High school 23.32
Ranked 29th. 62% more than United States
14.38
Ranked 51st.

Children out of school > Primary per 1000 13.46
Ranked 30th. 2 times more than United States
5.54
Ranked 58th.

Inequality adjusted index 0.442
Ranked 82nd.
0.941
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Turkey
Teacher student ratio > Elementary school 27.75
Ranked 53th. 2 times more than United States
13.69
Ranked 102nd.

Elementary school > Enrolled students 6.76 million
Ranked 16th.
24.68 million
Ranked 3rd. 4 times more than Turkey

Primary education > Duration > Years 6 years
Ranked 135th. The same as United States
6 years
Ranked 54th.

Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $4,496.78
Ranked 20th.
$33,005.49
Ranked 3rd. 7 times more than Turkey

School enrolment rate > 1st grade 99.38
Ranked 75th.
105.99
Ranked 46th. 7% more than Turkey

Secondary education, general pupils per 1000 91.31
Ranked 25th. 18% more than United States
77.71
Ranked 47th.

Literacy > Reading performance > Integrate and interpret 459
Ranked 40th.
495
Ranked 20th. 8% more than Turkey
Elementary (primary) school) > Private school share 0.751%
Ranked 88th.
8.72%
Ranked 80th. 12 times more than Turkey

High school > Lower secondary starting age 11
Ranked 186th.
12
Ranked 61st. 9% more than Turkey

Elementary school > Gender ratio 97.38
Ranked 83th.
100.68
Ranked 17th. 3% more than Turkey

Education enrolment ratio > Net > Primary level 89%
Ranked 95th.
94%
Ranked 71st. 6% more than Turkey

Duration of education > Secondary level 6
Ranked 133th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 81st.
Public spending per student > Tertiary level 72.1
Ranked 22nd. 3 times more than United States
23.9
Ranked 8th.
Primary education > Pupils 7.87 million
Ranked 12th.
24.56 million
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than Turkey

High school > Population with at least high school education > Men 42.4%
Ranked 108th.
94.3%
Ranked 22nd. 2 times more than Turkey

Education enrolment by level > Percentage girls > Tertiary level 42.25%
Ranked 100th.
56.64%
Ranked 34th. 34% more than Turkey

Education enrolment by level > Secondary level > Per capita 82.47 per 1,000 people
Ranked 89th.
82.72 per 1,000 people
Ranked 88th. About the same as Turkey

Secondary education, vocational pupils 1.84 million
Ranked 5th.
0.0
Ranked 96th.

Elementary (primary) school > Students per teacher 27.75
Ranked 47th. 94% more than United States
14.29
Ranked 100th.

Spending on education > Proportion spent on all staff salaries 83.36%
Ranked 13th. 8% more than United States
77.19%
Ranked 38th.

Secondary education > Teachers 159,401
Ranked 20th.
1.62 million
Ranked 3rd. 10 times more than Turkey

School life expectancy > Primary to tertiary 11 years
Ranked 76th.
16 years
Ranked 15th. 45% more than Turkey
School enrolment rate > 5th grade 94.23
Ranked 32nd.
94.45
Ranked 30th. About the same as Turkey

Education enrolment by level > Secondary level 5.74 million
Ranked 18th.
23.85 million
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than Turkey

Scientific and technical journal articles per million 94.39
Ranked 37th.
728.12
Ranked 13th. 8 times more than Turkey

Literacy > Reading performance > Continuous texts 466
Ranked 39th.
500
Ranked 13th. 7% more than Turkey
Literacy > Reading performance > Non-continuous texts 461
Ranked 39th.
503
Ranked 14th. 9% more than Turkey
Duration of education > Primary level 6
Ranked 126th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 51st.
Expected duration of education for all students 10.1 years
Ranked 30th.
16.7 years
Ranked 14th. 65% more than Turkey
Participation > Children out of school > Elementary 361,419
Ranked 18th.
1.71 million
Ranked 4th. 5 times more than Turkey

Participation > Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education 92.87%
Ranked 95th.
100.09%
Ranked 51st. 8% more than Turkey

Public spending per student > Secondary level 11.8
Ranked 59th.
22.4
Ranked 28th. 90% more than Turkey
Education enrolment by level > Percentage girls > Primary level 47.46%
Ranked 134th.
48.86%
Ranked 40th. 3% more than Turkey

Children out of school > Primary > Per capita 12.65 per 1,000 people
Ranked 32nd. 2 times more than United States
5.52 per 1,000 people
Ranked 57th.

Literacy > Reading performance > Reflect and evaluate 473
Ranked 32nd.
512
Ranked 8th. 8% more than Turkey
Education enrolment ratio > Net > Primary level > Women 87%
Ranked 98th.
94%
Ranked 66th. 8% more than Turkey

High school > Upper secondary starting age 14
Ranked 199th.
15
Ranked 90th. 7% more than Turkey

Elementary school starting age > Years 6
Ranked 146th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 73th.

Elementary school repeaters > All 2.13
Ranked 72nd.
0.0
Ranked 116th.

School life expectancy > Male 10.4 years
Ranked 69th.
14.8 years
Ranked 17th. 42% more than Turkey
Secondary education > General pupils > Per capita 56.37 per 1,000 people
Ranked 115th.
82.36 per 1,000 people
Ranked 51st. 46% more than Turkey

Education enrolment by level > Primary level per 1000 121.56
Ranked 78th. 41% more than United States
86.39
Ranked 118th.

Education enrolment by level > Primary level > Per capita 0.114 per capita
Ranked 85th. 33% more than United States
0.086 per capita
Ranked 119th.

Primary teacher salary > Starting $9,116.00
Ranked 20th.
$25,707.00
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than Turkey
Education enrolment ratio > Net > Primary level > Men 92%
Ranked 76th.
93%
Ranked 66th. 1% more than Turkey

Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD 0.59%
Ranked 26th.
2.68%
Ranked 7th. 5 times more than Turkey
Pupils-teacher ratio > Primary level 27.7
Ranked 1st. 80% more than United States
15.4
Ranked 115th.
Primary education > Teachers 225,852
Ranked 19th.
1.73 million
Ranked 3rd. 8 times more than Turkey

Education enrolment by level > Percentage girls > Secondary level 42.04%
Ranked 142nd.
48.72%
Ranked 92nd. 16% more than Turkey

Private school enrolment > Primary level 1.8
Ranked 73th.
11.6
Ranked 33th. 6 times more than Turkey
Outcomes > Primary education > Duration > Years 6
Ranked 125th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 49th.

Primary education > Teachers per 1000 4.11
Ranked 84th.
5.9
Ranked 45th. 43% more than Turkey

Children out of school > Primary > Female > Per capita 7.68 per 1,000 people
Ranked 28th. 2 times more than United States
3.5 per 1,000 people
Ranked 47th.

Female enrolment share > Primary level 47%
Ranked 119th.
48.7%
Ranked 42nd. 4% more than Turkey
Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$ $332.75 billion
Ranked 8th.
$10.28 trillion
Ranked 1st. 31 times more than Turkey

Proportion of primary education time spent learning technology 8 3
Primary school starting age > Years 6
Ranked 165th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 77th.

Scouting > Members 40,579
Ranked 36th.
2.99 million
Ranked 3rd. 74 times more than Turkey
Elementary (primary) school) > Proportion spent on all staff salaries 89.79%
Ranked 23th. 10% more than United States
81.55%
Ranked 48th.

Elementary (primary) school > Proportion of education spending on teachers' salaries 89.79%
Ranked 4th. 64% more than United States
54.76%
Ranked 41st.

Enrolment ratio > Secondary level 51.3%
Ranked 4th.
88.1%
Ranked 17th. 72% more than Turkey
Participation > Secondary education > General pupils 5.53 million
Ranked 12th.
24.69 million
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than Turkey

Secondary education > Teachers per 1000 2.9
Ranked 86th.
5.52
Ranked 66th. 90% more than Turkey

Secondary education > General pupils per 1000 59.99
Ranked 103th.
82.6
Ranked 48th. 38% more than Turkey

Ratio of female to male primary enrollment 94.07
Ranked 129th.
97.22
Ranked 93th. 3% more than Turkey

Children out of school > Primary > Male 353,712
Ranked 14th.
593,372
Ranked 5th. 68% more than Turkey

Elementary (primary) school > Gender parity index 0.988
Ranked 80th.
0.991
Ranked 69th. About the same as Turkey

Female enrolment share > Secondary level 37.5%
Ranked 121st.
49%
Ranked 73th. 31% more than Turkey
Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary > Teachers > Women 0.0
Ranked 43th.
25,000
Ranked 1st.

Private school enrolment > Secondary level 4.6
Ranked 67th.
9.6
Ranked 12th. 2 times more than Turkey
Education enrolment by level > Secondary level per 1000 88.31
Ranked 79th. 6% more than United States
82.94
Ranked 90th.

Scouting > Members per thousand people 0.548
Ranked 116th.
9.52
Ranked 14th. 17 times more than Turkey
Outcomes > Tertiary attainment > Tertiary attainment for age group 55-64 7.68%
Ranked 29th.
37.67%
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than Turkey
Proportion of primary education time spent learning science 8%
Ranked 32nd.
14%
Ranked 9th. 75% more than Turkey
School life expectancy > Female 8.5 years
Ranked 76th.
15.7 years
Ranked 11th. 85% more than Turkey
Elementary school repeaters > Male 2.07
Ranked 74th.
0.0
Ranked 113th.

Elementary school repeaters > Female 2.19
Ranked 69th.
0.0
Ranked 112th.

Children out of school > Primary > Male > Per capita 4.97 per 1,000 people
Ranked 44th. 2 times more than United States
2.02 per 1,000 people
Ranked 67th.

Elementary school teachers 233,073
Ranked 14th.
1.8 million
Ranked 2nd. 8 times more than Turkey

High school teachers 218,829
Ranked 9th.
1.72 million
Ranked 2nd. 8 times more than Turkey

Primary teacher salary > After 15 years $10,327.00
Ranked 20th.
$34,705.00
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than Turkey
Proportion of 15 year-olds in secondary education 42%
Ranked 33th.
91%
Ranked 23th. 2 times more than Turkey
Proportion of 20 year olds in tertiary education 13%
Ranked 26th.
38%
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than Turkey
Participation > Secondary education > Pupils 5.08 million
Ranked 15th.
24.43 million
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than Turkey

Proportion of primary education time spent learning vocational skills 5 5
Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment 74.73
Ranked 136th.
101.63
Ranked 58th. 36% more than Turkey

Primary education > Pupils per 1000 117.77
Ranked 80th. 40% more than United States
83.88
Ranked 115th.

Pupils-teacher ratio > Secondary level 22.6
Ranked 37th. 52% more than United States
14.9
Ranked 79th.
Share of university qualifications awarded to females 41%
Ranked 29th.
57%
Ranked 12th. 39% more than Turkey
Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD per million 0.00828%
Ranked 29th.
0.00874%
Ranked 28th. 5% more than Turkey
Proportion of primary education time spent learning foreign languages 11 7
Primary teacher salary > Starting per 1000 $0.15
Ranked 20th. 59% more than United States
$0.09
Ranked 22nd.
Share of university qualifications awarded to females > First degree 41%
Ranked 29th.
57%
Ranked 12th. 39% more than Turkey
Proportion of 16 year-olds in secondary education 39%
Ranked 33th.
87%
Ranked 22nd. 2 times more than Turkey
Expected duration of education for males 11.6 years
Ranked 27th.
16.2 years
Ranked 18th. 40% more than Turkey
Proportion of 19 year olds in tertiary education 13%
Ranked 21st.
41%
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Turkey
School enrollment > Primary > Private > % of total primary 1.58%
Ranked 107th.
10.29%
Ranked 59th. 7 times more than Turkey

School enrollment, preprimary > % gross 29.2%
Ranked 99th.
73.32%
Ranked 63th. 3 times more than Turkey

School enrollment, primary > % net 96.22%
Ranked 42nd. 5% more than United States
91.88%
Ranked 70th.

School enrollment, secondary > % gross 88.85%
Ranked 73th.
93.55%
Ranked 60th. 5% more than Turkey

School enrollment, tertiary, female > % gross 55.38%
Ranked 43th.
111.32%
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Turkey

Expenditure per student, tertiary > % of GDP per capita 26.74%
Ranked 43th. 23% more than United States
21.66%
Ranked 66th.

Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education 83.84%
Ranked 127th.
108.83%
Ranked 20th. 30% more than Turkey

Net intake rate in grade 1 > Female > % of official school-age population 70.6%
Ranked 35th.
71.58%
Ranked 32nd. 1% more than Turkey
School enrollment > Primary > Male > % gross 96.11% gross
Ranked 136th.
100.34% gross
Ranked 110th. 4% more than Turkey

School enrollment > Preprimary > Female > % gross 8.04% gross
Ranked 121st.
60.55% gross
Ranked 61st. 8 times more than Turkey

School enrollment > Preprimary > Male > % gross 8.44% gross
Ranked 120th.
63.25% gross
Ranked 58th. 7 times more than Turkey

Secondary education > Teachers > % female 38.7% female
Ranked 82nd.
62.59% female
Ranked 37th. 62% more than Turkey

Labor force with tertiary education, female > % of female labor force 23.1%
Ranked 37th.
36.5%
Ranked 5th. 58% more than Turkey

Labor force with primary education > % of total 61.4%
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than United States
13.4%
Ranked 51st.

Labor force with secondary education, male > % of male labor force 22%
Ranked 42nd.
50.2%
Ranked 23th. 2 times more than Turkey

Labor force with secondary education > % of total 20.3%
Ranked 47th.
50.8%
Ranked 22nd. 3 times more than Turkey

Unemployment with tertiary education > % of total unemployment 13.9%
Ranked 61st.
46.5%
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Turkey

Primary education > Pupils > % female 47.58% female
Ranked 125th.
48.08% female
Ranked 104th. 1% more than Turkey

School enrollment, tertiary > % gross 60.68%
Ranked 31st.
95.33%
Ranked 3rd. 57% more than Turkey

Primary education > Pupils > Per capita 0.111 per capita
Ranked 85th. 32% more than United States
0.084 per capita
Ranked 115th.

Net intake rate in grade 1 > Male > % of official school-age population 73.77%
Ranked 31st. 8% more than United States
68.07%
Ranked 43th.
Researchers in R&D > Per million people 884.38
Ranked 30th.
4,673.21
Ranked 8th. 5 times more than Turkey

Primary teacher salary > Starting, % of GDP 3.65e-06%
Ranked 17th. 13 times more than United States
2.76e-07%
Ranked 22nd.
School enrollment, secondary, female > % net 81.95%
Ranked 48th.
88.17%
Ranked 31st. 8% more than Turkey

School enrollment, secondary, male > % gross 92.58%
Ranked 61st.
93.35%
Ranked 56th. 1% more than Turkey

Repeaters, primary, female > % of female enrollment 2.54%
Ranked 66th.
0.0
Ranked 135th.

Elementary school graduate rate > Male 94
Ranked 30th.
100
Ranked 3rd. 6% more than Turkey

Gross intake rate in grade 1 > Total > % of relevant age group 90.77%
Ranked 129th.
99.44%
Ranked 92nd. 10% more than Turkey

Elementary school > Enrolled students > % female 48.39%
Ranked 80th.
48.92%
Ranked 37th. 1% more than Turkey

Elementary school teachers > % female 43.57%
Ranked 69th.
85.64%
Ranked 32nd. 97% more than Turkey

Participation > Secondary education > Vocational pupils > % female 40.69%
Ranked 64th.
0.0
Ranked 111th.

High school > Upper Secondary > Students per teacher 17.83
Ranked 26th. 23% more than United States
14.46
Ranked 37th.

Participation > Total enrollment > Primary > Male > % net 95.75%
Ranked 44th. 3% more than United States
92.62%
Ranked 60th.

Preschool enrollment rate > Female 17.29
Ranked 92nd.
57.63
Ranked 64th. 3 times more than Turkey

Preschool enrollment rate > Male 18.15
Ranked 92nd.
57.98
Ranked 63th. 3 times more than Turkey

School enrolment rate > 1st grade > Female 97.81
Ranked 86th.
108.63
Ranked 38th. 11% more than Turkey

School enrolment rate > 1st grade > Male 100.89
Ranked 69th.
103.49
Ranked 59th. 3% more than Turkey

School enrolment rate > 5th grade > Female 94.47
Ranked 29th.
98.08
Ranked 22nd. 4% more than Turkey

School enrolment rate > 5th grade > Male 94
Ranked 26th.
95.67
Ranked 24th. 2% more than Turkey

School enrollment, tertiary, male > % gross 65.87%
Ranked 13th.
80.1%
Ranked 3rd. 22% more than Turkey

Literacy and Attainment > Educational attainment: completed tertiary > Tertiary > Population 25+ years > % > Over 24 year olds 12.92%
Ranked 36th.
40.66%
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Turkey
Unemployment with secondary education, male > % of male unemployment 22.5%
Ranked 73th.
37.6%
Ranked 57th. 67% more than Turkey

Public spending on education, total > % of GDP 2.86%
Ranked 95th.
5.62%
Ranked 41st. 96% more than Turkey

SOURCES: UNESCO; UNESCO Institute for Statistics; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeschooling_international_status_and_statistics; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; World Development Indicators database; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; Source: UNESCO UIS Data | UNESCO Institute for Statistics; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Statistics Division's Statistical Yearbook, and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics online database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute of Statistics; Wikipedia: List of countries by student performance (Reading); UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; Source: UNESCO UIS Data | UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members (Table of World Organization of the Scout Movement members); UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; http://www.ibo.org/facts/schoolstats/progsbycountry.cfm; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; United Nations Development Programme. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Development Programme. Source tables; World Bank national accounts data. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; OECD Country statistical profiles 2009; World Bank national accounts data; "WOSM MEMBERSHIP as at 31st December 2012". World Organization of the Scout Movement. August 2013.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; Wikipedia: List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members (Table of World Organization of the Scout Movement members) ("WOSM MEMBERSHIP as at 31st December 2012" . World Organization of the Scout Movement . Retrieved 2014-03-03 .). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; OECD Country statistical profiles 2009. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.; UNESCO Institute of Statistics. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=UNESCO&f=series%3aEA_56_Ag25t99, Educational attainment: completed tertiary

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