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Government Stats: compare key data on Turkey & United States

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Definitions

  • Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
  • Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
  • Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
  • Executive branch > Chief of state: The name and title of any person or role roughly equivalent to a U.S. Chief of State. This means the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government
  • Executive branch > Head of government: Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government.
  • Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
  • International organization participation: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
  • Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
  • Legal system: A brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
  • Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Political parties and leaders: Significant political organizations and their leaders.
  • Political pressure groups and leaders: Organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.
  • Suffrage: The age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted
  • Country name > Conventional long form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Executive branch > Elections: Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election
  • National symbol(s): A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.
  • Flag description: A written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.
  • Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Country name > Conventional short form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Constitutional form: Constitutional form of government.
  • Transnational Issues > Disputes > International: This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.
  • National anthem: A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.
  • Legislative branch > Elections: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Legislative branch > Election results: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Democracy and rights > Press freedom index: Compares countries by their degree of government censorship, according to the Press freedom index. This index, created by the non-governmental organization Reporters without borders (RWS), is ellaborated using data from an extensive annual survey sent to professional reporters throughout the world. The survey contains questions about the type and ownership of media present in the country, freedom of speech, violence exerted against reporters, election campaigns, access of political parties to the media, etc.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage: Percentage of seats held by women in country's national parliament or legislative houses.
  • Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. "
  • Executive branch > Election results: Election results includes the percent of vote for each candidate in the last election (if any)
  • Judicial branch > Subordinate courts: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Basis of executive legitimacy: Basis of executive legitimacy.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Transnational Issues > Illicit drugs: This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels.
    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
    Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.
    Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
    Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).
    Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.
    Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.
    Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
    Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
    Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
    Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
    Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
    Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in Southwest Asia and Africa.
    Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussin AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics ...
    Full definition
  • Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press: Compares countries by freedom of the press. The lower the score, the more free the press of that country is. The scores are taken from the Freedom of the Press Index, elaborated by Freedom House, self-defined as "an independent watchdog organization dedicated to the expansion of freedom around the world". The data used in the index come from an annual survey of media independence in 197 countries and territories, assessing the degree of print, broadcast, and internet freedom in each of them.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament: Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber occupied by women.
  • Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
  • Democracy > Civil and political liberties: Civil and political liberties
    Units: Index Ranging from 7 (High Levels of Liberties) to 1 (Low
    Units: This is the average of two indicators - civil liberties and political liberties.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • National holiday: The primary national day of celebration - often independence day.
  • Capital > Geographic coordinates: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Democracy > First female parliamentarian: Year first woman elected or appointed to parliament.
  • Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Leaders > President: Government > Leaders > President
  • Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Democracy and rights > Democracy Index: DI 2012.
  • Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient: Burden of customs procedure, WEF (1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient). Burden of Customs Procedure measures business executives' perceptions of their country's efficiency of customs procedures. The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher score indicating greater efficiency. Data are from the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The 2009 round included more than 13,000 respondents from 133 countries. Sampling follows a dual stratification based on company size and the sector of activity. Data are collected online or through in-person interviews. Responses are aggregated using sector-weighted averaging. The data for the latest year are combined with the data for the previous year to create a two-year moving average. Respondents evaluated the efficiency of customs procedures in their country. The lowest score (1) rates the customs procedure as extremely inefficient, and the highest score (7) as extremely efficient.
  • Red tape > Time required to register property > Days: Time required to register property (days). Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Politics: Country politics.
  • International law organization participation: This entry includes information on a country's acceptance of jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and of the International Criminal Court (ICCt); 55 countries have accepted ICJ jurisdiction with reservations and 11 have accepted ICJ jurisdiction without reservations; 114 countries have accepted ICCt jurisdiction. Appendix B: International Organizations and Groups explains the differing mandates of the ICJ and ICCt.
  • Parliament > Seats held by men: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses.
  • Red tape > Time to resolve insolvency > Years: Time to resolve insolvency (years). Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets.
  • Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses.
  • Leaders > President > Summary: Government > Leaders > President > Summary
  • Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel: Date on which Israel was officially recognized as a state. Note that some countries had a “de facto” recognition in place long before the legal recognition.
  • Democracy > Democratic institutions rating: Democratic institutions
    Units: Scale ranging from -10 (autocratic) to +10 (democratic)
  • UN membership date: Date of United Nations Membership
  • Democracy and rights > Democracy Index per million people: DI 2012. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number: Procedures to build a warehouse (number). Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers.
  • Capital city: The location of the seat of government.
  • Capital > Name: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Legal origin: Legal origin identifies the origin of the Company Law or Commercial Code in each country
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Spending > Expense > Current LCU: Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends."
  • Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days: Time required to get electricity (days). Time required to get electricity is the number of days to obtain a permanent electricity connection. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Registered voter turnout: The proportion of registered voters who actually voted.
  • Legislature (parliament) > People per member: Number of people each member of the legislature represents on average. The number of members of the legislature is the sum of the members of all chambers of parliament, if applicable.
  • Capital > Time difference: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • International relations: Country international relations.
  • Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days per million: Time required to get electricity (days). Time required to get electricity is the number of days to obtain a permanent electricity connection. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Democracy > Female ministers: Women in government at ministerial level in 2000 (as % of total). Data were provided by states based on their definition of national executive and may therefore include women serving as ministers and vice ministers and those holding other ministerial positions, including parliamentary secretaries.
  • Legislature (parliament) > Lower house members: Members of the lower house of the legislature or of the only chamber in a unicameral system.
  • Leaders > Head of state > Term limit for head of state: Head(s) of state.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days: Time required to enforce a contract (days). Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment.
  • Democracy > Female parliamentarians: Seats in parliament held by women (as % of total). Data are as of 8 March 2002. Where there are lower and upper houses, data refer to the weighted average of women's shares of seats in both houses.
  • Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number: Procedures to register property (number). Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Leaders > President > Profile: Government > Leaders > President > Profile
  • Role of head of state: Head of state.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
  • Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong: Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit."
  • Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient per million: Burden of customs procedure, WEF (1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient). Burden of Customs Procedure measures business executives' perceptions of their country's efficiency of customs procedures. The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher score indicating greater efficiency. Data are from the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The 2009 round included more than 13,000 respondents from 133 countries. Sampling follows a dual stratification based on company size and the sector of activity. Data are collected online or through in-person interviews. Responses are aggregated using sector-weighted averaging. The data for the latest year are combined with the data for the previous year to create a two-year moving average. Respondents evaluated the efficiency of customs procedures in their country. The lowest score (1) rates the customs procedure as extremely inefficient, and the highest score (7) as extremely efficient. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU: Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organisations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind."
  • Spending > Compensation of employees > Current LCU: Compensation of employees consists of all payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such as social security and pensions that provide benefits to employees."
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women per million people: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Democracy > Female suffrage: Year in which women received the right to vote. Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial recognition of the right to vote.
  • Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days: Time required to build a warehouse (days). Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Syrian National Council: Date on which the Syrian National Council was recognized, at least as a legitimate representative of the Syrian people. For more information, please see http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Government/Foreign-relations/International-recognition-of-the-Syrian-National-Council-notes
  • Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million: Procedures to enforce a contract (number). Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days per million: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to register property > Days per million: Time required to register property (days). Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days per million: Time required to build a warehouse (days). Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million: Procedures to build a warehouse (number). Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Capital > Daylight saving time: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Spending > Interest payments > Current LCU: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Democracy and rights > Amnesty international reports about country, top 10: Compares countries based on the number of reports that Amnesty International has written about them from 1986 to 2000. Shows only the top 10 countries of the list. The data was gathered by James Ron (McGill University); Howard Ramos (Dalhousie University); Kathleen Rodgers (McGill University), for an article (see source) that analyzes the methods followed by human rights' watchdog organizations
  • Time required to build a warehouse > Days: Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Failed States Index: FSI 2013.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age
  • Democracy > Female candidacy: Year in which women received the right to stand for election. Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial recognition of the right to stand for election.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents > Per capita: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents per 1000: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Total vote: The total number of votes cast in the relevant election. Total vote includes valid and invalid votes, as well as blank votes in cases where these are separated from invalid votes. More information on valid, invalid and blank votes can be found at aceproject.org
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voter registration: The number of registered voters. The figure represents the number of names on the voters' register at the time that the registration process closes, as reported by the electoral management body.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number > Per capita: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Time required to enforce a contract > Days: Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment.
  • Procedures to register property > Number: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers.
  • Democracy > Secret ballot > Date of introduction: Date voting by secret ballot was introduced in different countries around the world.
  • Foreign relations > Recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia: Statements on the status of Abkhazia and South Ossetia issued by countries who do not recognize their sovereignty.
  • Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Kosovo: Date on which Kosovo was officially recognized as a state.
  • Legislature (parliament) > Total members of parliament: Number of members of the legislature (sum of members of all chambers of parliament where applicable).
  • Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members: Members of the lower (or sole) house.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number: Procedures to enforce a contract (number). Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer.
  • Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number per million: Procedures to register property (number). Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours: Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU: Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded.
  • Republic establishment date: The date on which each country (or its precursor) changed its form of government to a republic. In a republic, the power resides in the country’s people, the government and legislature is elected and the country is ruled according to its laws.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Trademarks > Residents > Per capita: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Time to resolve insolvency > Years: Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets.
  • Spending > Interest payments > % of expense: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Spending > Other expense > Current LCU: Other expense is spending on dividends, rent, and other miscellaneous expenses, including provision for consumption of fixed capital."
  • Trademarks > Residents per million: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Procedures to register property > Number per million: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth: Annual percentage growth of general government final consumption expenditure based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. General government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.
  • Time required to register property > Days: Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > %: Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%). Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
  • Spending > Expense > % of GDP: Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends."
  • Spending > Compensation of employees > % of expense: Compensation of employees consists of all payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such as social security and pensions that provide benefits to employees."
  • Spending > Interest payments > % of revenue: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Democracy and rights > Last election: Last election.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Foreign relations > Date of establishment of relations with China: The date on which each country established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > % of expense: Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organisations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind."
  • Democracy and rights > Next election: Next election.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Parliament > Seats held by men per million people: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population per 1000: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Foreign relations > International recognition of the Syrian National Council notes:

    Degree to which the Syrian National Council is recognized as a legitimate representative of the Syrian people.

  • Democracy and rights > Active Labor party: Party.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current local currency.
  • Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days per million: Time required to enforce a contract (days). Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Trademarks > Residents: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment.
  • Procedures to register property > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Capital city > Time difference: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Spending > Goods and services expense > % of expense: Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Other expense > % of expense: Other expense is spending on dividends, rent, and other miscellaneous expenses, including provision for consumption of fixed capital."
  • Ruling party: In power now.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
STAT Turkey United States HISTORY
Administrative divisions 81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Capital city > Geographic coordinates 39 56 N, 32 52 E 38 53 N, 77 02 W
Capital city > Name Ankara Washington, DC
Constitution 7 November 1982; amended several times previous 1781 (Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union); latest drafted July - September 1787, submitted to the Congress of the Confederation 20 September 1787, submitted for states' ratification 28 September 1787, ratification completed by nine sta
Executive branch > Cabinet Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister Cabinet appointed by the president with Senate approval
Executive branch > Chief of state President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007) President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)
Executive branch > Head of government Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003) President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)
Government type republican parliamentary democracy Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition
International organization participation ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), ANZUS, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CICA (observer), CP, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-20, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Judicial branch Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court Supreme Court (nine justices; nominated by the president and confirmed with the advice and consent of the Senate; appointed to serve for life); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts
Legal system civil law system based on various European legal systems notably the Swiss civil code(ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights common law system based on English common law at the federal level; state legal systems based on common law except Louisiana, which is based on Napoleonic civil code; judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi bicameral Congress consists of the Senate
Political parties and leaders Democratic Left Party or DSP [Masum TURKER]<br />Democratic Party or DP [Namik Kemal ZEYBEK]<br />Equality and Democracy Party or EDP [Ziva HALIS]<br />Felicity Party or SP [Mustafa KAMALAK] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party)<br />Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP [Alper TAS]<br />Grand Unity Party or BBP [Yalcin TOPCU]<br />Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]<br />Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]<br />Peace and Democracy Party or BDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS]<br />Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]<br />Turkey Party or TP [Abdullatif SENER]<br /> Democratic Party [Debbie Wasserman SCHULTZ]<br />Green Party<br />Libertarian Party [Mark HINKLE]<br />Republican Party [Reince PRIEBUS]
Political pressure groups and leaders Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey or TUSKON [Rizanur MERAL]<br />Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN]<br />Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Tayfun GORGUN]<br />Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer Cihad VARDAN]<br />Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN]<br />Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugrul KUDATGOBILIK]<br />Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Mustafa KUMLU]<br />Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]<br />Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Umit BOYNER]<br />Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU] environmentalists; business groups; labor unions; churches; ethnic groups; political action committees or PACs; health groups; education groups; civic groups; youth groups; transportation groups; agricultural groups; veterans groups; women's groups; reform lobbies
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal 18 years of age; universal
Country name > Conventional long form Republic of Turkey United States of America
Executive branch > Elections president elected directly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament president and vice president elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state; president and vice president serve four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2012 (next to be held on 8 November 2016)
National symbol(s) star and crescent bald eagle
Flag description red with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for the Turks, as well as being traditional symbols of Islam; according to legend, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors 13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; the blue stands for loyalty, devotion, truth, justice, and friendship; red symbolizes courage, zeal, and fervency, while white denotes purity and rectitude of conduct; commonly referred to by its nickname of Old Glory
Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days 6
Ranked 165th. 20% more than United States
5
Ranked 170th.

Country name > Conventional short form Turkey United States
Constitutional form Republic Republic
Transnational Issues > Disputes > International complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley; the US has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea still awaits Russian Duma ratification; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; The Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other states; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island; Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island among the islands listed in its 2006 draft constitution
National anthem <strong>name: </strong>"Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March)<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR <strong>name: </strong>"The Star-Spangled Banner"<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> Francis Scott KEY/John Stafford SMITH
Legislative branch > Elections last held on 12 June 2011 (next to be held by June 2015) Senate - last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held on 4 November 2014); House of Representatives - last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held on 4 November 2014)
Legislative branch > Election results percent of vote by party - AKP 49.8%, CHP 25.9%, MHP 13%, independents 6.6%, other 4.7%; seats by party - AKP 326, CHP 135, MHP 53, independents 36 Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 54, Republican Party 45, independent 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 201, Republican Party 234
Democracy and rights > Press freedom index 46.56
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than United States
18.22
Ranked 13th.
Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage 14.18%
Ranked 112th.
17.78%
Ranked 91st. 25% more than Turkey

Independence 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire) 4 July 1776 (declared); 3 September 1783 (recognized by Great Britain)
Executive branch > Election results on 28 August 2007 the National Assembly elected Abdullah GUL president on the third ballot; National Assembly vote - 339 Barack H. OBAMA reelected president; percent of popular vote - Barack H. OBAMA 50.6%, Mitt ROMNEY 47.9%, other 1.5%;
Judicial branch > Subordinate courts Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court Courts of Appeal (includes the US Court of Appeal for the Federal District and 12 regional appeals courts); 94 federal district courts in 50 states and territories
Basis of executive legitimacy Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence Presidency is independent of legislature
Transnational Issues > Illicit drugs key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls world's largest consumer of cocaine (shipped from Colombia through Mexico and the Caribbean), Colombian heroin, and Mexican heroin and marijuana; major consumer of ecstasy and Mexican methamphetamine; minor consumer of high-quality Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamine; money-laundering center
Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press 55
Ranked 78th. 3 times more than United States
18
Ranked 171st.
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 4.4%
Ranked 157th.
15.2%
Ranked 79th. 3 times more than Turkey

Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number 6
Ranked 120th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 103th.

Democracy > Civil and political liberties 2.5
Ranked 92nd.
6
Ranked 6th. 2 times more than Turkey
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ 47.36 billion$
Ranked 21st.
1.84 trillion$
Ranked 1st. 39 times more than Turkey

National holiday Republic Day, 29 October Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Capital > Geographic coordinates 39 56 N, 32 52 E 38 53 N, 77 02 W
Democracy > First female parliamentarian 1935 (appointed) 1917 (elected)
Time required to start a business > Days 9 days
Ranked 159th. 80% more than United States
5 days
Ranked 167th.

Leaders > President Abdullah Gul Barack Obama
Democracy > Gender Parity Index in primary level enrolment 0.946
Ranked 109th.
0.991
Ranked 52nd. 5% more than Turkey

Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president from among candidates submitted by plenary assemblies of other courts, the Higher Education Council, senior government administrators, and lawyers; judges appointed for 12-year, non-renewable terms and with mandatory retirement at age 65; Supreme Court of Appeals judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors; judge tenure NA president nominates, and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints Supreme Court justices; justices appointed for life
Democracy and rights > Democracy Index 5.76
Ranked 34th.
8.11
Ranked 18th. 41% more than Turkey
Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient 3.6
Ranked 100th.
4.5
Ranked 43th. 25% more than Turkey

Red tape > Time required to register property > Days 6
Ranked 171st.
12
Ranked 158th. Twice as much as Turkey

Politics Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan of the Islamist AKP began his third term in 2011. He has dealt ruthlessly with alleged challenges from the powerful, secularist military. He also adopted a tough line when faced with anti-government protests in the summer of 2013 Barack Obama, America&#039;s first black president, was re-elected in November 2012
International law organization participation has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt withdrew acceptance of compulsory ICJ jurisdiction in 2005; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2002
Parliament > Seats held by men 472
Ranked 6th. 33% more than United States
356
Ranked 21st.

Red tape > Time to resolve insolvency > Years 3.3
Ranked 45th. 2 times more than United States
1.5
Ranked 144th.

Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million 0.0811
Ranked 173th. 4 times more than United States
0.0191
Ranked 185th.

Parliament > Seats held by women 78
Ranked 26th. 1% more than United States
77
Ranked 27th.

Leaders > President > Summary Abdullah Gul is seen as a moderate figure Barack Obama, the country&#039;s first black president
Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel None
None
Democracy > Democratic institutions rating 7
Ranked 59th.
10
Ranked 9th. 43% more than Turkey
UN membership date 24 Oct. 1945 24 Oct. 1945
Democracy and rights > Democracy Index per million people 0.0778
Ranked 31st. 3 times more than United States
0.0258
Ranked 34th.
Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number 20
Ranked 31st. 25% more than United States
16
Ranked 60th.

Capital city Ankara Washington, DC
Capital > Name Ankara Washington, DC
Legal origin <a href=/country/fr>French</a> <a href=/encyclopedia/England>English</a>
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita 657.2$ per capita
Ranked 51st.
6,281.51$ per capita
Ranked 14th. 10 times more than Turkey

Spending > Expense > Current LCU 216.87 billion
Ranked 44th.
3.7 trillion
Ranked 1st. 17 times more than Turkey

Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days 70
Ranked 120th. 17% more than United States
60
Ranked 144th.

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Registered voter turnout 76.9%
Ranked 50th. 21% more than United States
63.8%
Ranked 101st.
Legislature (parliament) > People per member 130,031
Ranked 19th.
575,019
Ranked 3rd. 4 times more than Turkey
Capital > Time difference UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC-5 (during Standard Time)
International relations EU accession negotiations have been tortuous, bedevilled by disputes with Greece over Cyprus. Former close ties with Israel have deteriorated, while liberal reformers throughout the Arab region have looked to Turkey&#039;s system of government as a potential model The US has a leading role on the world stage, militarily and diplomatically. Its combat troops are set to leave Afghanistan by late 2014
Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days per million 0.946
Ranked 174th. 5 times more than United States
0.191
Ranked 186th.

Democracy > Female ministers 28.6%
Ranked 22nd. 4 times more than United States
7.1%
Ranked 92nd.
Legislature (parliament) > Lower house members 550
Ranked 12th. 26% more than United States
435
Ranked 25th.
Leaders > Head of state > Term limit for head of state 5
Ranked 110th. 25% more than United States
4
Ranked 129th.
Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days 420
Ranked 144th. 14% more than United States
370
Ranked 164th.

Democracy > Female parliamentarians 4.2%
Ranked 136th.
13.8%
Ranked 60th. 3 times more than Turkey
Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number 6
Ranked 98th. 50% more than United States
4
Ranked 145th.

Leaders > President > Profile <p>Abdullah Gul was chosen as president by parliament in August 2007, after months of controversy over his nomination. He is Turkey&#039;s first head of state with a background in political Islam in a country with strong secularist principles.</p> <p>The months leading to his eventual election saw street demonstrations, an opposition boycott of parliament, early parliamentary elections and warnings from the army, which has ousted four governments since 1960.</p> <p>Turkish secularists, including army generals, opposed Mr Gul&#039;s nomination, fearing he would try to undermine Turkey&#039;s strict separation of state and religion. Secularists also did not want Turkey&#039;s First Lady to wear the Muslim headscarf.</p> <p>The army top brass and the main opposition Republican People&#039;s Party, stayed away from Mr Gul&#039;s swearing-in ceremony.</p> <p>Mr Gul started in politics in an Islamist party that was banned by the courts, but later renounced the idea that Islam should be a driving force in politics. In 2001, along with other moderate members of the Islamist movement, he founded the Justice and Development Party (AKP) and distanced himself from his past political leanings.</p> <p>The party won elections in 2002 and Mr Gul served as stand-in prime minister before stepping aside for Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Mr Gul served as foreign minister under Mr Erdogan and cultivated an image as a moderate politician, acting as an impassioned voice for reforms to promote Turkey&#039;s EU bid.</p> <p>The government holds most power but the president can veto laws, appoint officials, and name judges. Voters in a referendum in October 2007 backed plans to have future presidents elected by the people instead of by parliament.</p> <p>Barack Obama, a Democrat and America&#039;s first black president, was re-elected for a second term in November 2012 after a bitterly-fought campaign against Republican challenger Mitt Romney.</p> <p>The Democrats kept control of the Senate and the Republicans remained in control of the House of Representatives, leading to political gridlock in Congress on the budget in late 2013.</p> <p>The campaign focused on the ailing US economy. In his inaugural speech in January 2013, Mr Obama called on Democrats and Republicans to work together to sustain the country&#039;s fragile economic recovery. He also pledged an end to &quot;ten years of war&quot;, signalling the departure of US troops from Afghanistan in 2014.</p> <p>First term challenges</p> <p>The worst economic crisis in the US since the Great Depression of the 1930s dominated much of Mr Obama&#039;s first term. The president pursued an aggressive policy of economic stimulus, including bail-outs of major car makers.</p> <p>He made reform of the healthcare system to extend coverage and reduce ballooning costs one of his top domestic priorities.</p> <p>Despite a tortuous drafting process and vociferous Republican opposition, Mr Obama and Democrats in Congress finally succeeded in passing a health care bill in March 2010.</p> <p>However, the health reform, along with the $787bn stimulus package passed in February 2010 to shore up an ailing economy, galvanised opposition among opponents to Mr Obama&#039;s agenda.</p> <p>The American Right in particular worried about what it saw as moves to extend the role of the state in the economy, and the threat of excessive public debt.</p> <p>Tea Party boost for Republicans</span> <p>The rise of the conservative Tea Party movement in 2009 re-energised the Republicans and helped them to capitalise on popular discontent at the slow pace of America&#039;s economic recovery.</p> <p>The Republicans made sweeping gains in mid-term elections in November 2010, regaining control of the House of Representatives.</p> <p>In autumn 2011 anti-capitalist protestors took to the streets of major cities, marching under the slogan &quot;Occupy Wall Street&quot;, against &quot;corporate greed&quot; and increasing government debt. The protests inspired marches in other cities worldwide in October 2011.</p> <p>Bin Laden operation</span> <p>In May 2011, Mr Obama was widely applauded domestically - including by the Right - for his decision to order the operation that killed Al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden. </p> <p>Barack Obama was born in 1961 in Hawaii, the son of a black Kenyan father and a white American mother. After attending an elite Hawaiian academy and Columbia University in New York, he went on to Harvard Law School, where he graduated in 1991.</p> <p>Mr Obama practiced law and did community work in Chicago, where he also became active in the Democratic Party. He won a seat in the Illinois state senate in 1996, and followed this up by winning a US Senate seat in 2004.</p> <p>He emphatic victory over his opponent John McCain in the 2008 presidential election ended eight years of Republican rule in the White House.</p> <p>Mr Obama ran for president on a ticket promising change, and came to office riding a wave of high expectations from his supporters, both at home and abroad.</p> <p>He is widely acknowledged to be a charismatic figure and is noted for his stirring oratory. </p>
Role of head of state Ceremonial Executive
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 699.13$
Ranked 48th.
6,299.75$
Ranked 14th. 9 times more than Turkey

Start-up procedures to register a business > Number 8
Ranked 120th. 60% more than United States
5
Ranked 154th.

Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong 4
Ranked 116th.
8
Ranked 27th. Twice as much as Turkey

Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient per million 0.0487
Ranked 127th. 3 times more than United States
0.0143
Ranked 141st.

Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU 89.14 billion
Ranked 43th.
2.56 trillion
Ranked 1st. 29 times more than Turkey

Spending > Compensation of employees > Current LCU 55.22 billion
Ranked 39th.
399.42 billion
Ranked 14th. 7 times more than Turkey

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.131$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 87th.
0.158$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 76th. 21% more than Turkey

Parliament > Seats held by women per million people 0.967
Ranked 152nd. 4 times more than United States
0.243
Ranked 175th.

Foreign relations > Nepal > Date of Establishment November 15, 1962 April 25, 1947
Democracy > Female suffrage 1930 "1920 ,1960"
Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days 164
Ranked 76th. 80% more than United States
91
Ranked 157th.

Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Syrian National Council Rejection of Assad government Formal relations from 14 December Verbal Support Recognised on 5 December 2011 (as legitimate representative)
Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million 0.487
Ranked 170th. 5 times more than United States
0.102
Ranked 185th.

Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days per million 0.0811
Ranked 183th. 5 times more than United States
0.0159
Ranked 188th.

Red tape > Time required to register property > Days per million 0.0811
Ranked 179th. 2 times more than United States
0.0382
Ranked 181st.

Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days per million 2.47
Ranked 162nd. 9 times more than United States
0.29
Ranked 183th.

Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million 0.27
Ranked 160th. 5 times more than United States
0.051
Ranked 182nd.

Capital > Daylight saving time +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
Spending > Interest payments > Current LCU 52.08 billion
Ranked 22nd.
270.49 billion
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than Turkey

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita 376.98 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 47th.
5,464.23 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 8th. 14 times more than Turkey

Democracy and rights > Amnesty international reports about country, top 10 394
Ranked 1st. 13% more than United States
349
Ranked 3rd.
Time required to build a warehouse > Days 232 days
Ranked 52nd. 3 times more than United States
69 days
Ranked 164th.

Failed States Index 75.9
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than United States
33.5
Ranked 14th.
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population 40.63 million
Ranked 18th.
213.95 million
Ranked 2nd. 5 times more than Turkey
Democracy > Female candidacy 1,934
Ranked 113th. 8% more than United States
1,788
Ranked 161st.
Trademarks > Nonresidents > Per capita 0.03 per 1,000 people
Ranked 52nd.
0.092 per 1,000 people
Ranked 35th. 3 times more than Turkey

Trademarks > Nonresidents per 1000 0.0319
Ranked 50th.
0.0922
Ranked 35th. 3 times more than Turkey

Foreign relations > Croatia > Date of Establishment August 26, 1992 August 11, 1992
National anthem > Name "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March) "The Star-Spangled Banner"
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Total vote 31.89 million
Ranked 10th.
99.74 million
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Turkey
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voter registration 41.45 million
Ranked 15th.
156.42 million
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than Turkey
Start-up procedures to register a business > Number > Per capita 0.11 per 1 million people
Ranked 153th. 6 times more than United States
0.017 per 1 million people
Ranked 168th.

Time required to enforce a contract > Days 420 days
Ranked 101st. 40% more than United States
300 days
Ranked 136th.

Procedures to register property > Number 8
Ranked 43th. Twice as much as United States
4
Ranked 131st.

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number 32
Ranked 4th. 78% more than United States
18
Ranked 67th.

Democracy > Secret ballot > Date of introduction 1950 1891
Foreign relations > Recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia A Foreign Ministry statement on 26 August 2008 declared that "Turkey attaches importance to the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Georgia and is highly concerned about the recent developments. Turkey is of the opinion that this conflict should be resolved through peaceful means". President George W. Bush condemned the actions taken by Russia and called on them to "reconsider this irresponsible decision." Bush then stated that in "accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolutions that remain in force, Abkhazia and South Ossetia are within the internationally recognised borders of Georgia, and they must remain so." Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice also said the decision made by Russia was "regrettable" and further stated that since "the United States is a permanent member of the Security Council this simply will be dead on arrival in the Security Council." United States President George W. Bush acknowledged the ceasefire accord brokered by the French President and President of the European Council , Nicolas Sarkozy . The accord was signed by Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on 12 August 2008 Cite error: There are &lt;ref&gt; tags on this page, but the references will not show without a &#123;&#123;reflist&#125;&#125; template (see the help page ).
Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Kosovo None
None
Legislature (parliament) > Total members of parliament 550
Ranked 24th. 3% more than United States
535
Ranked 25th.
Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members 4
Ranked 171st. Twice as much as United States
2
Ranked 183th.
Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number 36
Ranked 125th. 13% more than United States
32
Ranked 154th.

Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number per million 0.0811
Ranked 169th. 6 times more than United States
0.0127
Ranked 181st.

Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours 254 hours
Ranked 83th.
325 hours
Ranked 54th. 28% more than Turkey

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ 27.17 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 23th.
1.6 trillion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 1st. 59 times more than Turkey

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number > Per capita 0.439 per 1 million people
Ranked 139th. 7 times more than United States
0.06 per 1 million people
Ranked 165th.

Spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU 17.9 billion
Ranked 46th.
518.29 billion
Ranked 9th. 29 times more than Turkey

Republic establishment date October 29, 1923 September 3, 1783
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant LCU 9984640000000 1604600000000
Trademarks > Residents > Per capita 0.426 per 1,000 people
Ranked 28th.
0.727 per 1,000 people
Ranked 18th. 71% more than Turkey

Time to resolve insolvency > Years 5.9 years
Ranked 8th. 4 times more than United States
1.5 years
Ranked 127th.

Spending > Interest payments > % of expense 24.01%
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than United States
7.31%
Ranked 3rd.

Spending > Other expense > Current LCU 8.22 billion
Ranked 47th.
995.12 billion
Ranked 1st. 121 times more than Turkey

Trademarks > Residents per million 457.03
Ranked 25th.
729.14
Ranked 18th. 60% more than Turkey

Procedures to register property > Number per million 0.117
Ranked 146th. 9 times more than United States
0.0134
Ranked 163th.

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth 2.43%
Ranked 66th.
2.5%
Ranked 70th. 3% more than Turkey

Time required to register property > Days 9 days
Ranked 152nd.
12 days
Ranked 145th. 33% more than Turkey

Trademarks > Nonresidents 2,101
Ranked 21st.
26,988
Ranked 2nd. 13 times more than Turkey

Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > % 14.4%
Ranked 119th.
17.9%
Ranked 97th. 24% more than Turkey

Spending > Expense > % of GDP 22.82%
Ranked 57th.
25.94%
Ranked 2nd. 14% more than Turkey

Spending > Compensation of employees > % of expense 25.46%
Ranked 39th. 2 times more than United States
12.08%
Ranked 75th.

Spending > Interest payments > % of revenue 24.16%
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than United States
11.93%
Ranked 1st.

Democracy and rights > Last election June 2011 November 2012
Foreign relations > Date of establishment of relations with China August 4, 1971 January 1, 1979
National anthem > Note lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932 adopted 1931; during the War of 1812, after witnessing the successful American defense of Fort McHenry in Baltimore following British naval bombardment, Francis Scott KEY wrote the lyrics to what would become the national anthem; the lyrics were set to the tune of "The Anacreontic Song;" only the first verse is sung
Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million 0.117
Ranked 151st. 7 times more than United States
0.0168
Ranked 167th.

Procedures to enforce a contract > Number 34
Ranked 83th. Twice as much as United States
17
Ranked 164th.

Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million 0.495
Ranked 149th. 9 times more than United States
0.057
Ranked 166th.

Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > % of expense 41.1%
Ranked 48th.
69.14%
Ranked 1st. 68% more than Turkey

Democracy and rights > Next election June 2015 November 2016
Parliament > Seats held by men per million people 5.85
Ranked 151st. 5 times more than United States
1.12
Ranked 185th.

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population per 1000 616.14
Ranked 62nd.
737.5
Ranked 40th. 20% more than Turkey
Foreign relations > International recognition of the Syrian National Council notes On 15 November 2011, Recep Tayyip Erdogan , the Prime Minister of Turkey , has expressed his support for the Syrian National Council, saying that "Turkey had lost confidence in the leadership of Bashar al-Assad " and that "the Syrian leader will pay the price sooner or later". On 14 December 2011, SNC opened its first office in Istanbul . Recep Tayyip Erdo\u011fan has been trying to "cultivate a favorable relationship with whatever government would take the place of Assad." The US Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton , deemed the Syrian National Council as a \u201cleading and legitimate representative of Syrians seeking a peaceful democratic transition,\u201d and that the United States was \u201ccommitted to helping... make this transition.\u201d
Democracy and rights > Active Labor party Labour Party Socialist Labor Party of America Labor Party (United States, 1996) Minnesota Democratic\u2013Farmer\u2013Labor Party
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU 6.365326e+016 1844600000000
Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days per million 5.68
Ranked 174th. 5 times more than United States
1.18
Ranked 185th.

Trademarks > Residents 30,136
Ranked 10th.
213,495
Ranked 2nd. 7 times more than Turkey

Procedures to register property > Number > Per capita 0.11 per 1 million people
Ranked 148th. 8 times more than United States
0.013 per 1 million people
Ranked 164th.

Procedures to enforce a contract > Number > Per capita 0.466 per 1 million people
Ranked 150th. 8 times more than United States
0.057 per 1 million people
Ranked 167th.

Capital city > Time difference UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC-5 (during Standard Time)
Spending > Goods and services expense > % of expense 8.25%
Ranked 72nd.
15.67%
Ranked 32nd. 90% more than Turkey

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita 401.03 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 47th.
5,480.09 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 8th. 14 times more than Turkey

Spending > Other expense > % of expense 3.79%
Ranked 58th.
26.91%
Ranked 1st. 7 times more than Turkey

Ruling party AKP Democratic
Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million 0.466
Ranked 137th. 8 times more than United States
0.0603
Ranked 164th.

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).; Wikipedia: List of countries by system of government (Alphabetical list of countries); All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia: Censorship by country (Censorship by country) ("Press Freedom Index 2013" , Reporters Without Borders, 30 January 2013); United Nations Statistics Division; "2012 Freedom of the Press Data" , Freedom House, 1 May 2012; World Development Indicators database; Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2000-2001, New York: Freedom House, 2001; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva.; British Broadcasting Corporation 2014; Source: Millennium Development Goals Database | United Nations Statistics Division; Wikipedia: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Indicators) ("Democracy Index 2012" (PDF). The Economist. March 2013 . Retrieved 2013-03-21 .); World Economic Forum, Global Competiveness Report and data files.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wikipedia: International recognition of Israel (UN member states); Polity IV Project, University of Maryland, at Polity IV Project; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; Wikipedia: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Indicators) ("Democracy Index 2012" (PDF). The Economist. March 2013 . Retrieved 2013-03-21 .). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbook, 28 July 2005; International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files.; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003; Wikipedia: List of legislatures by number of members; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on women in government at the ministerial level. March. Geneva; Wikipedia: Term of office (Terms of office by country); calculated on the basis of data on parliamentary seats from IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2002. Parline Database. March 2002; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Economic Forum, Global Competiveness Report and data files. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Nepal; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva; Wikipedia: International recognition of the Syrian National Council (UN member states); http://www.mcgill.ca/files/rgchr/ISQsubmission.pdf James Ronand, Howard Ramos, Kathleen Rodgers (2005), "Transnational Information Politics: NGO Human Rights Reporting, 1986–2000", International Studies Quarterly (2005) 49, 557–587; Wikipedia: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Indicators) ("The Failed States Index 2013" . The Fund for Peace . July 2013 . Retrieved 2013-07-20 .); Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Croatia; Various sources compiled into Wikipedia's Secret ballot; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_recognition_of_Abkhazia_and_South_Ossetia#States_that_do_not_recognise_Abkhazia_or_South_Ossetia_as_independent; Wikipedia: International recognition of Kosovo (United Nations member states); Wikipedia: List of countries by date of transition to republican system of government (List); Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) (www.ipu.org); International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.; Wikipedia: List of next general elections (Africa); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dates_of_establishment_of_diplomatic_relations_with_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: List of Labour Parties (Active Labor parties)

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