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Environment Stats: compare key data on China & India

Definitions

  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • CO2 Emissions per 1000: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Pollution perceptions > Air pollution: Air Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Air quality: Air quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean water: Water Quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution: Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Water pollution: Water Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Proportion of land area under protection: Terrestrial areas protected to total surface area, percentage.
  • Transport CO2 emission index: CO2 Emission Index is an estimation of CO2 consumption due to traffic time. Measurement unit is grams for the return trip. To calculate an average estimation of emission in grams for one way commute to work, divide this value with 2.
  • Water > Freshwater pollution: Industrial organic pollutants per available freshwater
    Units: Metric Tons of BOD Emissions per Cubic Km of Water
    Units: Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. The data from the World Bank, which represented BOD emissions (kilograms per day) were normalized by the combination of water availability per capita and water inflow availability per capita from the WaterGap2.1 model. In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.
  • Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Marine fish catch per 1000: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Water > Severe water stress: Percent of country's territory under severe water stress
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: This data is derived from the WaterGap 2.1 gridded hydrological model developed by the Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany. The modellers derived, for each country, grid cell by grid cell estimates of whether the water consumption exceeds 40 percent of the water available in that particular grid cell. These were then converted to land area equivalents in order to calculate the percentage of the territory under severe water stress.
  • CFC > Consumption: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.
  • Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution: Noise and Light Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Endangered species > Mammal species > Number: Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened: Mammal species, threatened. Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality: Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Pollution perceptions > Pollution index: Pollution Index is an estimation of the overall pollution in the city. The biggest weight is given to air pollution, than to water pollution/accessibility, two main pollution factors. Small weight is given to other pollution types.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, total.
  • National parks > Number of parks: Number of parks.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened: Bird species, threatened. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Endangered species > Bird species: Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Total renewable water resources per million: . Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • SO2 emissions per populated area: SO2 emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Waste > Hazardous waste created: Annual generation of hazardous waste (as defined by the Basel Convention).
  • Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened: Fish species, threatened. Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Endangered species > Fish species > Number: Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity: Percentage of population who responded yes when asked if they believed global warming was a result of human activities. In this survey, global warming refers to the current rise in earth's temperature and not climate change as a whole.
  • Water > Percent of water resources used: Proportion of total water resources used, percentage.
  • Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number: Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons.
  • NOx emissions per populated area: NOx emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Biodiversity richness: Caldecott, J.O., M.D. Jenkins, T. Johnson and B. Groombridge. 1994. Priorities for Conserving Global Species Richness and Endemism. In World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Biodiversity Series No. 3 (N. Mark Collins, ed.) pp. 17. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration: Dissolved oxygen concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, total.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities: Clean and Tidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, rural.
  • Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened: Plant species (higher), threatened. Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Threatened species: Number of Threatened Species (1990-99)
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Biodiversity > Number: GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential)."
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness: Percentage of each country's population who claimed knowing "something" or a "great deal" about climate change when asked: "How much do you know about global warming or climate change?"
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution: Comfortable to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CFC > Consumption per 1000: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Waste > Hazardous waste created per thousand people: Annual generation of hazardous waste (as defined by the Basel Convention). Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Carbon dioxide emissions per capita > Percent total: Data for 2006, 2007
  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities: Dirty and Untidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential).
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas.
  • Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution: Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.
  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.
  • Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent: Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates.
  • Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter). Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Wetlands of intl importance > Area: Wetlands of international importance 2002
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Proportion of land and marine area under protection: Terrestrial and marine areas protected to total territorial area, percentage.
  • Endangered species protection: Percent of CITES reporting requirements met
    Units: Percent of Requirements Met
    Units: Countries that have not ratified the CITES convention are recorded as having zero percent of their requirements met.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution: Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, urban.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction: Garbage Disposal Satisfaction. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 per million: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat: Percentage of country's population that perceives climate change as a threat. Results are from a 2008 Gallop Poll.
  • Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management."
  • Wildness: Percent of land area having very low anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Biosphere > Reserves area: Biosphere reserves area 2002.
  • Forest area > Sq. km per 1000: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Threatened species > Mammal: Number of threatened mammal species (1997)
  • World Heritage Sites (environmental): Natural sites.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Known mammal species: Known mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Breeding birds threatened: Percentage of breeding birds threatened
    Units: Percent of Breeding Birds
    Units: The number of bird species threatened divided by known bird species in the country, expressed as a percentage.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, urban.
  • Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride."
  • Urban SO2 concentration: Urban SO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Marine areas under protection: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Water > Proportion of marine area under protection: Marine areas protected to territorial waters, percentage.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Environmental agreement compliance: Compliance with environmental agreements (WEF survey)
    Units: Survey Responses Ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7
    Units: Response to the statement: "Compliance with international environmental agreements is a high priority.
  • Freshwater > Withdrawal per million: . Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations."
  • Wetlands of intl importance > Area per million: Wetlands of international importance 2002. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Known mammal species per million: Known mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Areas under protection per million: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Water > Salinisation: Electrical conductivity
    Units: Micro-Siemens/Centimeter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of water bodies; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system.
  • Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 > Per $ GDP: Includes carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and the flaring of natural gas. Per $ GDP figures expressed per $100 million of Gross Domestic Product.
  • Areas under protection: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Marine areas under protection per million: Protected marine areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Biosphere > Reserves area per million: Biosphere reserves area 2002. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Fertiliser > Consumption: Fertilizer consumption per hectare of arable land
    Units: Hundreds Grams/Hectare of Arable Land
  • Urban NO2 concentration: Urban NO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.
  • Non-wildness: Percent of land area having very high anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
  • Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use: Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a countryÂ’s technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons.
  • Natural gas rents > % of GDP: Natural gas rents (% of GDP). Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction: Quality of Green and Parks. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Known breeding bird species: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Total natural resources rents > % of GDP: Total natural resources rents (% of GDP). Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters: Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters). Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Adjusted net national income > Annual % growth: Adjusted net national income (annual % growth). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Water > Suspended solids: Suspended solids
    Units: Natural Log of Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. Data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of majorwatersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries. The data in this table was transformed using the natural logarithm.
  • CO2 Emissions: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date: Signature.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Oil rents > % of GDP: Oil rents (% of GDP). Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Forest area > % of land area: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total: Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Water > Phosphorus concentration: Phosphorus concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker: Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • International agreements > Signed but not ratified: The various international environmental agreements which a country has signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total: Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels."
  • Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million: GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF (Mt of CO2 equivalent). GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available. Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total: Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Known breeding bird species per million: Known breeding bird mammal species (1992-2002). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
STAT China India HISTORY
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $3.25 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than India
$1.15 trillion
Ranked 3rd.

CO2 Emissions per 1000 2.7
Ranked 78th. 3 times more than India
0.922
Ranked 112th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons 4,266.04
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than India
963.48
Ranked 5th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million 3.17
Ranked 37th. 4 times more than India
0.789
Ranked 82nd.

Current issues air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Ecological footprint 1.84
Ranked 77th. 2 times more than India
0.9
Ranked 47th.

Marine fish catch 11.5 million tons
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than India
2.24 million tons
Ranked 10th.
Pollution perceptions > Air pollution 85.9
Ranked 2nd. 27% more than India
67.89
Ranked 15th.
Pollution perceptions > Air quality 14.1
Ranked 58th.
32.11
Ranked 45th. 2 times more than China
Pollution perceptions > Clean water 27.34
Ranked 50th.
34.11
Ranked 43th. 25% more than China
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution 67.91
Ranked 3rd. 23% more than India
55.1
Ranked 15th.
Pollution perceptions > Water pollution 72.66
Ranked 10th. 10% more than India
65.89
Ranked 17th.
Proportion of land area under protection 16.71%
Ranked 90th. 3 times more than India
5.21%
Ranked 164th.

Total renewable water resources 2,829.6 cu km
Ranked 2nd. 48% more than India
1,907.8 cu km
Ranked 3rd.
Transport CO2 emission index 4,265
Ranked 20th.
6,391.57
Ranked 10th. 50% more than China
Water > Freshwater pollution 3.78 tons/cubic km
Ranked 14th. 4 times more than India
0.97 tons/cubic km
Ranked 32nd.
Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita 1.51 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 128th. 2 times more than India
0.619 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 161st.

Marine fish catch per 1000 9.18 tons
Ranked 48th. 4 times more than India
2.19 tons
Ranked 81st.
Water > Severe water stress 44.7
Ranked 36th.
80.2
Ranked 23th. 79% more than China
CFC > Consumption 2.1 million
Ranked 1st. 45 times more than India
46,502.3
Ranked 23th.
Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution 60.76
Ranked 17th. 11% more than India
54.8
Ranked 27th.
Endangered species > Mammal species > Number 74
Ranked 5th.
96
Ranked 3rd. 30% more than China
Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened 75
Ranked 5th.
95
Ranked 3rd. 27% more than China
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality 32.09
Ranked 57th.
44.9
Ranked 45th. 40% more than China
CO2 emissions > Kt 4.14 million kt
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than India
1.27 million kt
Ranked 4th.

Pollution perceptions > Pollution index 85.92
Ranked 6th. 15% more than India
74.54
Ranked 14th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural 91.69
Ranked 122nd. The same as India
91.63
Ranked 123th.

National parks > Number of parks 208
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than India
102
Ranked 3rd.
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 4.96
Ranked 71st. 3 times more than India
1.43
Ranked 115th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 6.19
Ranked 59th. 4 times more than India
1.67
Ranked 118th.

Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened 87
Ranked 6th. 9% more than India
80
Ranked 8th.
Carbon efficiency 2.03 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 35th. 46% more than India
1.39 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 57th.
CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 3.22 kt
Ranked 86th. 3 times more than India
1.16 kt
Ranked 116th.

Endangered species > Bird species 85
Ranked 5th. 12% more than India
76
Ranked 6th.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $2,420.87
Ranked 37th. 3 times more than India
$940.20
Ranked 54th.

Total renewable water resources per million 2.26 cu km
Ranked 15th. 21% more than India
1.86 cu km
Ranked 16th.
SO2 emissions per populated area 2,680 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 22nd. 2 times more than India
1,150 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 47th.
Waste > Hazardous waste created 14.3 million tonnes
Ranked 2nd. 76% more than India
8.14 million tonnes
Ranked 7th.

Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened 121
Ranked 6th.
213
Ranked 2nd. 76% more than China
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 8.29 million
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than India
2.01 million
Ranked 4th.

CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita 3.22 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 88th. 3 times more than India
1.2 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 119th.

Endangered species > Fish species > Number 70
Ranked 9th. 75% more than India
40
Ranked 23th.
Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction 51.43
Ranked 29th.
68.43
Ranked 11th. 33% more than China
Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity 58%
Ranked 57th. 9% more than India
53%
Ranked 70th.
Water > Percent of water resources used 19.51%
Ranked 29th.
33.88%
Ranked 2nd. 74% more than China

Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number 446
Ranked 3rd. 81% more than India
246
Ranked 11th.

Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption 21,299.43
Ranked 1st. 14 times more than India
1,484.57
Ranked 6th.

NOx emissions per populated area 0.75 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 27th. 44% more than India
0.52 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 33th.
Biodiversity richness 1
Ranked 52nd. The same as India
1
Ranked 36th.
Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration 7.99 mls/litre
Ranked 65th. 25% more than India
6.38 mls/litre
Ranked 104th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 6.19
Ranked 59th. 4 times more than India
1.67
Ranked 118th.

Forest area > Sq. km 1.97 million km²
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than India
677,010 km²
Ranked 10th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $2.16
Ranked 9th. 34% more than India
$1.61
Ranked 19th.

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural 65.07
Ranked 129th. 85% more than India
35.09
Ranked 156th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt 6.53 million
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than India
1.61 million
Ranked 4th.

Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities 43.62
Ranked 34th. 24% more than India
35.06
Ranked 47th.
Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people 15.85
Ranked 19th. 13 times more than India
1.22
Ranked 103th.

Water > Availability 1.72 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 89th. 10% more than India
1.56 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 93th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural 84.87
Ranked 121st.
89.5
Ranked 104th. 5% more than China

Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened 475
Ranked 4th. 46% more than India
326
Ranked 9th.
Threatened species 213
Ranked 6th. 10% more than India
193
Ranked 7th.
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $4,503.47
Ranked 66th. 3 times more than India
$1,304.33
Ranked 106th.

Biodiversity > Number 66.61
Ranked 6th. 67% more than India
39.93
Ranked 8th.

Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $6.05 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 4 times more than India
$1.59 trillion
Ranked 10th.

Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness 62%
Ranked 64th. 77% more than India
35%
Ranked 113th.
Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution 26.33
Ranked 55th.
37.7
Ranked 45th. 43% more than China
CFC > Consumption per 1000 1.7
Ranked 28th. 36 times more than India
0.047
Ranked 73th.
Waste > Hazardous waste created per thousand people 10.74 tonnes
Ranked 11th. 51% more than India
7.12 tonnes
Ranked 48th.

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita > Percent total 4.6
Ranked 16th. 4 times more than India
1.2
Ranked 20th.
Protected area 6.4%
Ranked 67th. 33% more than India
4.8%
Ranked 80th.
Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities 56.38
Ranked 26th.
64.94
Ranked 13th. 15% more than China
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum 66.61
Ranked 6th. 67% more than India
39.93
Ranked 8th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $2.66
Ranked 14th. 28% more than India
$2.08
Ranked 19th.

Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 775
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than India
253
Ranked 5th.
Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution 39.24
Ranked 43th.
45.2
Ranked 33th. 15% more than China
Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters 2,813
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than India
1,260
Ranked 10th.

Acidification 15.66%
Ranked 23th.
0.0
Ranked 84th.
Freshwater > Withdrawal 549.76
Ranked 2nd.
645.84
Ranked 1st. 17% more than China
Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent 995,760
Ranked 1st. 40% more than India
712,330
Ranked 3rd.

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters 2,123.57
Ranked 97th. 92% more than India
1,105.3
Ranked 124th.

Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 58.86
Ranked 28th. 13% more than India
51.98
Ranked 38th.

Wetlands of intl importance > Area 2,548 thousand hectares
Ranked 9th. 13 times more than India
195 thousand hectares
Ranked 48th.
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number 1,981
Ranked 14th. 4 times more than India
556
Ranked 31st.
CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP 0.65 kg/PPP$
Ranked 31st. 48% more than India
0.44 kg/PPP$
Ranked 53th.

Proportion of land and marine area under protection 16.12%
Ranked 76th. 3 times more than India
5%
Ranked 146th.

Endangered species protection 100%
Ranked 9th. The same as India
100%
Ranked 12th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 123.69
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than India
41.79
Ranked 4th.

Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution 73.67
Ranked 5th. 18% more than India
62.3
Ranked 15th.
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million 0.0503
Ranked 158th. 48% more than India
0.034
Ranked 170th.

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 55.85%
Ranked 119th. 2 times more than India
23.88%
Ranked 155th.

Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban 98.35
Ranked 97th. 2% more than India
96.31
Ranked 125th.

Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction 48.57
Ranked 31st. 54% more than India
31.57
Ranked 49th.
Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 per million 0.614
Ranked 21st. 3 times more than India
0.243
Ranked 24th.
Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat 21%
Ranked 120th.
29%
Ranked 110th. 38% more than China
Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 566,680
Ranked 1st. 88% more than India
300,680
Ranked 4th.

Wildness 31.49%
Ranked 36th. 16 times more than India
1.94%
Ranked 82nd.
Biosphere > Reserves area 3,316 thousand hectares
Ranked 15th. 2 times more than India
1,515 thousand hectares
Ranked 28th.
Forest area > Sq. km per 1000 1.51 km²
Ranked 126th. 3 times more than India
0.601 km²
Ranked 158th.

Threatened species > Mammal 75
Ranked 2nd. The same as India
75
Ranked 3rd.
World Heritage Sites (environmental) 10
Ranked 4th. 67% more than India
6
Ranked 7th.
Known mammal species 394
Ranked 7th. 1% more than India
390
Ranked 8th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 454
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than India
98.29
Ranked 8th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters 630.29
Ranked 2nd.
645.84
Ranked 1st. 2% more than China

Breeding birds threatened 6.62%
Ranked 22nd.
7.56%
Ranked 17th. 14% more than China
Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt 196,855.56
Ranked 6th. Twice as much as India
98,458.95
Ranked 15th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 4.49
Ranked 12th. 4 times more than India
1.11
Ranked 41st.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 0.147
Ranked 88th. 80% more than India
0.0817
Ranked 96th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt 6.01 million
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than India
1.34 million
Ranked 3rd.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 0.856
Ranked 122nd. 2 times more than India
0.386
Ranked 149th.

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million 186.41
Ranked 40th. 11 times more than India
17.37
Ranked 83th.

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number 36
Ranked 23th.
117
Ranked 11th. 3 times more than China
Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban 74.08
Ranked 135th. 24% more than India
59.73
Ranked 151st.

Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 119,720
Ranked 2nd. 13 times more than India
9,510
Ranked 12th.

Urban SO2 concentration 97.07 micrograms/m3
Ranked 28th. 4 times more than India
27.55 micrograms/m3
Ranked 93th.
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$ $439.17 billion
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than India
$97.90 billion
Ranked 15th.

Marine areas under protection 30
Ranked 14th.
60
Ranked 9th. Twice as much as China
Water > Proportion of marine area under protection 1.65%
Ranked 112th. 2% more than India
1.61%
Ranked 115th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$ $1.53 trillion
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than India
$278.72 billion
Ranked 4th.

Environmental agreement compliance 4.98
Ranked 21st. 34% more than India
3.71
Ranked 51st.
Freshwater > Withdrawal per million 0.435
Ranked 58th.
0.62
Ranked 45th. 42% more than China
Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 73.01
Ranked 26th. 12% more than India
64.92
Ranked 36th.

Wetlands of intl importance > Area per million 1.99 thousand hectares
Ranked 85th. 11 times more than India
0.181 thousand hectares
Ranked 108th.
Known mammal species per million 0.308
Ranked 144th.
0.362
Ranked 143th. 18% more than China
Areas under protection per million 0.628
Ranked 121st. 38% more than India
0.454
Ranked 133th.
Water > Salinisation 522.78
Ranked 79th.
4,520.19
Ranked 1st. 9 times more than China
Pollution > Carbon Dioxide from fossil fuels 2000 > Per $ GDP 0.0107 per $100 million
Ranked 14th. 40% more than India
0.00762 per $100 million
Ranked 22nd.
Areas under protection 809
Ranked 14th. 63% more than India
497
Ranked 20th.
Marine areas under protection per million 0.0233
Ranked 91st.
0.0549
Ranked 89th. 2 times more than China
Biosphere > Reserves area per million 2.59 thousand hectares
Ranked 74th. 84% more than India
1.41 thousand hectares
Ranked 78th.
Fertiliser > Consumption 2,825.56 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 21st. 3 times more than India
1,040.09 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 52nd.
Urban NO2 concentration 71.72 micrograms/m3
Ranked 15th. 2 times more than India
29.68 micrograms/m3
Ranked 122nd.
Non-wildness 3.76%
Ranked 62nd.
10.24%
Ranked 41st. 3 times more than China
Water pollution > Food industry > % of total BOD emissions 28.09%
Ranked 60th.
53.7%
Ranked 16th. 91% more than China

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$ $1.91 trillion
Ranked 1st. 6 times more than India
$342.33 billion
Ranked 3rd.

Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use 3.34
Ranked 9th. 23% more than India
2.71
Ranked 30th.

PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 72.18 mcg/m³
Ranked 36th. 1% more than India
71.59 mcg/m³
Ranked 37th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.81%
Ranked 16th. 72% more than India
0.47%
Ranked 37th.

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent -407.479
Ranked 91st.
14.29
Ranked 9th.
Natural gas rents > % of GDP 0.133%
Ranked 50th.
0.32%
Ranked 41st. 2 times more than China

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$ $74.23 billion
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than India
$16.41 billion
Ranked 5th.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP 44.49%
Ranked 64th.
61.3%
Ranked 27th. 38% more than China

Water pollution > Other industry > % of total BOD emissions 8.85%
Ranked 17th. 2 times more than India
3.9%
Ranked 29th.

Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction 52.48
Ranked 34th. 7% more than India
49.17
Ranked 42nd.
Known breeding bird species 618
Ranked 5th. 35% more than India
458
Ranked 10th.
Total natural resources rents > % of GDP 9.09%
Ranked 53th. 23% more than India
7.36%
Ranked 58th.

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Agricultural 68%
Ranked 71st.
86%
Ranked 41st. 26% more than China
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI 10.08%
Ranked 98th. 19% more than India
8.49%
Ranked 123th.

Background Amid such major industrial and agricultural activities, the Chinese environment is not in its healthiest state. In 2000, China had the 2nd highest rate of <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/env_pol_car_dio_fro_fos_fue_200-carbon-dioxide-fossil-fuels-2000">pollution due to carbon dioxide </a>from fossil fuels in the world, though it was half of the number one nation, the US. In fact, 2003 figures show that some 3.4 tonnes of <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/env_co2_emi-environment-co2-emissions">CO2 was emitted</a>&nbsp;by China, still the 2nd highest amount. The food industry, meanwhile, has been fingered out as the chief culprit with <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/env_wat_pol_foo_ind_of_tot_bod_emi-food-industry-total-bod-emissions">freshwater pollution</a>, accounting for more than 28% emissions. With such a dependence on fossil fuels, there can be little surprise that India has its share of pollution problems. In 2003, the country&#39;s <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/env_co2_emi-environment-co2-emissions">carbon dioxide emissions</a>&nbsp;were the 5th highest in the world, with just over 1 billion metric tonnes. This was still some way short of the US (5.7 billion), China (3.4 billion), and was just behind Russia (1.5 billion) and Japan (1.2 billion). And while its <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/env_car_eff-environment-carbon-efficiency">carbon efficiency</a>&nbsp;rating is 57th in the world, its <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/env_wat_fre_pol-environment-water-freshwater-pollution">fresh water pollution</a>&nbsp;rate is just 32nd, with 0.97 tonnes of organic pollutants per cubic metre.
Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 1.36% of GNI
Ranked 10th. 84% more than India
0.74% of GNI
Ranked 44th.

Water pollution > Paper and pulp industry > % of total BOD emissions 10.92%
Ranked 43th. 44% more than India
7.58%
Ranked 46th.

Water pollution > Textile industry > % of total BOD emissions 15.47%
Ranked 16th. 21% more than India
12.75%
Ranked 19th.

Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters 1.28%
Ranked 90th.
5.81%
Ranked 62nd. 5 times more than China

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion 53.63%
Ranked 29th.
55.21%
Ranked 25th. 3% more than China

Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP 82.76%
Ranked 85th.
85.05%
Ranked 66th. 3% more than China

Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 55.85
Ranked 119th. 2 times more than India
23.88
Ranked 155th.

Adjusted net national income > Annual % growth 7.15%
Ranked 16th. 10% more than India
6.49%
Ranked 22nd.

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 249,362
Ranked 2nd. 12 times more than India
20,937
Ranked 8th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total 72.49%
Ranked 7th. 9% more than India
66.63%
Ranked 12th.

Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 1.37% of GNI
Ranked 20th. 5% more than India
1.3% of GNI
Ranked 22nd.

Water > Suspended solids 7.97 mls/litre
Ranked 6th. 21% more than India
6.56 mls/litre
Ranked 24th.
CO2 Emissions 3.47 million
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than India
1.01 million
Ranked 5th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million 0.338
Ranked 48th. 4 times more than India
0.0805
Ranked 97th.

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date June 11, 1992 June 10, 1992
Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area 0.27%
Ranked 102nd.
1.46%
Ranked 65th. 5 times more than China
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area 15.14%
Ranked 76th. 3 times more than India
4.77%
Ranked 139th.
Oil rents > % of GDP 1.64%
Ranked 47th. 25% more than India
1.32%
Ranked 49th.

Forest area > % of land area 21.15% of land area
Ranked 121st.
22.77% of land area
Ranked 114th. 8% more than China

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI 43.82%
Ranked 7th. 48% more than India
29.68%
Ranked 19th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP $0.89
Ranked 11th. 78% more than India
$0.50
Ranked 34th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI 35.11%
Ranked 4th. 45% more than India
24.17%
Ranked 8th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP $0.95
Ranked 10th. 79% more than India
$0.53
Ranked 35th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt 1.15 million
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than India
465,294.63
Ranked 5th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 5.71%
Ranked 86th. 1% more than India
5.63%
Ranked 87th.

Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total 92.7%
Ranked 40th.
92.97%
Ranked 39th. About the same as China

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$ $293.81 billion
Ranked 2nd. 5 times more than India
$56.08 billion
Ranked 13th.

Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction 47.52
Ranked 26th.
50.83
Ranked 18th. 7% more than China
Water pollution > Wood industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.91%
Ranked 56th. 3 times more than India
0.33%
Ranked 50th.

Water > Phosphorus concentration 0.28 mls/litre
Ranked 87th. 87% more than India
0.15 mls/litre
Ranked 108th.
Freshwater > Withdrawal > Industrial 26%
Ranked 13th. 5 times more than India
5%
Ranked 66th.
Freshwater > Withdrawal > Domestic 7%
Ranked 89th.
8%
Ranked 85th. 14% more than China
Water pollution > Chemical industry > % of total BOD emissions 14.84%
Ranked 8th. 61% more than India
9.24%
Ranked 27th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total 2.38%
Ranked 102nd.
4.9%
Ranked 97th. 2 times more than China

Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day per worker 0.14 kg per day per worker
Ranked 61st.
0.2 kg per day per worker
Ranked 14th. 43% more than China

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total 13.82%
Ranked 190th.
23.16%
Ranked 175th. 68% more than China

International agreements > Signed but not ratified none of the selected agreements none of the selected agreements
Water pollution > Metal industry > % of total BOD emissions 20.45%
Ranked 5th. 67% more than India
12.21%
Ranked 7th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI 6.74%
Ranked 32nd. 39% more than India
4.86%
Ranked 41st.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal 25.7%
Ranked 30th. 5 times more than India
5.45%
Ranked 83th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 1.26%
Ranked 7th. 9% more than India
1.16%
Ranked 10th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal 6.58%
Ranked 107th.
8.09%
Ranked 103th. 23% more than China

Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total 34.21%
Ranked 45th. 2 times more than India
14.7%
Ranked 73th.

Water pollution > Clay and glass industry > % of total BOD emissions 0.47%
Ranked 8th. 62% more than India
0.29%
Ranked 21st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$ $1.57 trillion
Ranked 1st. 6 times more than India
$284.13 billion
Ranked 3rd.

Climate change > GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF > Mt of CO2 equivalent per million -0.342
Ranked 41st.
0.0152
Ranked 25th.
Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total 50%
Ranked 53th.
64.82%
Ranked 30th. 30% more than China

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$ $35.21 billion
Ranked 1st. 7 times more than India
$5.41 billion
Ranked 4th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 1.55%
Ranked 83th.
2.39%
Ranked 62nd. 54% more than China

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI 1.7%
Ranked 21st. 20% more than India
1.42%
Ranked 23th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI 53.89%
Ranked 8th. 41% more than India
38.17%
Ranked 20th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal 67.72%
Ranked 71st.
86.46%
Ranked 35th. 28% more than China

Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.01% of GNI
Ranked 53th.
0.57% of GNI
Ranked 27th. 57 times more than China

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 90th.
0.78%
Ranked 22nd.

Known breeding bird species per million 0.483
Ranked 144th. 13% more than India
0.425
Ranked 145th.
Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources 22.41%
Ranked 48th.
51.24%
Ranked 29th. 2 times more than China
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$ 0.0
Ranked 98th.
$8.96 billion
Ranked 1st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI 35.92%
Ranked 4th. 46% more than India
24.64%
Ranked 8th.

SOURCES: The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency; International Energy Agency. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Living Planet Report 2000, Gland, Switzerland: 2000, and Redefining Progress.; FAOSTAT on-line database; pollution; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; traffic; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2001, Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001 (for BOD emissions)and Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGap 2.1, 2000 (for data on waterquantity). via ciesin.org; World Development Indicators database; FAOSTAT on-line database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGap 2.1, 2000 via ciesin.org; UNEP, Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances, 1986-1998, October 1999. via ciesin.org; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wikipedia: List of national parks (Africa); Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Data Version 1.1, B1Illustrative Marker Scenario with model IMAGE; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase database, www.fishbase.org.; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. version (07/2008). Accessed: 28 September 2008.; Wikipedia: Climate change opinion by country; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environmental Monitoring System/Water Quality Monitoring System, with data for an additional 29 countries from Prescott-Allen,R. The Well being of Nations, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGAP 2.1B, 2001 via ciesin.org; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, ""Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility"" (2006).; UNEP, Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances, 1986-1998, October 1999. via ciesin.org. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: C90 List of countries producing 90% of carbon; Jacaranda Atlas; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).; U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual, 2002, and International Energy Outlook, 2001; Food and Agriculture Organisation, AQUASTAT data.; Stockholm Environment Institute at York, Acidification in Developing Countries: Ecosystem Sensitivity and the Critical Loads Approach at the Global scale, 2000 via ciesin.org; World Resources Institute.; World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department; World Resources Institute; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Report on National Reports Required Under Article VIII, Paragraph 7(a), of the Convention, Eleventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Gigiri, Kenya, April 2000; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual, 2002, and International Energy Outlook, 2001. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency (IEA Statistics \xA9 OECD/IEA, http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp).; Wild Areas Project (WAP), joint Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and CIESIN project to map the lastwild places on the earth's surface. via ciesin.org; Wikipedia: Table of World Heritage Sites by country (Table of World Heritage Sites); 2000 IUCN Red List, and World Resources Institute,World Resources 2000-2001, Washington, DC: WRI, 2000. Original sources: World Conservation Monitoring Center, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other sources.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Resources Institute, World Resources 1998-99; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2000; WHO,Air Management Information System-AMIS 2.0, 1998; and Global Urban Observatory, Citibase, 1999. via ciesin.org; World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Statistics Division's National Accounts Statistics.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank staff estimates. The conceptual underpinnings of the savings measure appear in Hamilton and Clemens' ""Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries"" (1999).; Michael E. Porter et al, The Global Competitveness Report 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. via ciesin.org; Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. ""Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS),"" World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).; World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2001. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001. via ciesin.org; Wild Areas Project (WAP), joint Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and CIESIN project to map the last wild places on the earth's surface. Accessed via ciesin.org; World Bank staff estimates.; Kiran D. Pandey and others' ""The Human Costs of Air Pollution: New Estimates for Developing Countries"" (2006).; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.; World Bank staff estimates based on sources and methods in Arundhati Kunte and others' ""Estimating National Wealth: Methodology and Results"" (1998).; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; United Nations Statistics Division Original html; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environmental Monitoring System/Water Quality Monitoring System, with data for an additional 29 countries from Prescott-Allen, R. The Well being of Nations, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute; Wikipedia: List of parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (List of parties) (Parties & Observers , UNFCCC, 1 June 2011); World Bank staff estimates based on Samuel Fankhauser's ""Valuing Climate Change: The Economics of the Greenhouse"" (1995).; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data files.

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