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Government Stats: compare key data on Bulgaria & Romania

Definitions

  • Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
  • Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
  • Executive branch > Chief of state: The name and title of any person or role roughly equivalent to a U.S. Chief of State. This means the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government
  • Executive branch > Head of government: Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government.
  • Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
  • Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
  • Legal system: A brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
  • Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Political parties and leaders: Significant political organizations and their leaders.
  • Political pressure groups and leaders: Organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.
  • Suffrage: The age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted
  • International organization participation: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
  • Country name > Conventional long form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Civil law system: Description.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Executive branch > Elections: Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election
  • Leaders > Prime minister: Government > Leaders > Prime minister
  • National symbol(s): A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.
  • Flag description: A written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.
  • Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Country name > Conventional short form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Constitutional form: Constitutional form of government.
  • Transnational Issues > Disputes > International: This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.
  • National anthem: A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.
  • Legislative branch > Election results: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Legislative branch > Elections: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Democracy and rights > Press freedom index: Compares countries by their degree of government censorship, according to the Press freedom index. This index, created by the non-governmental organization Reporters without borders (RWS), is ellaborated using data from an extensive annual survey sent to professional reporters throughout the world. The survey contains questions about the type and ownership of media present in the country, freedom of speech, violence exerted against reporters, election campaigns, access of political parties to the media, etc.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage: Percentage of seats held by women in country's national parliament or legislative houses.
  • Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. "
  • Executive branch > Election results: Election results includes the percent of vote for each candidate in the last election (if any)
  • Judicial branch > Subordinate courts: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Basis of executive legitimacy: Basis of executive legitimacy.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Transnational Issues > Illicit drugs: This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels.
    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
    Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.
    Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
    Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).
    Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.
    Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.
    Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
    Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
    Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
    Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
    Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
    Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in Southwest Asia and Africa.
    Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussin AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics ...
    Full definition
  • Country name > Local short form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press: Compares countries by freedom of the press. The lower the score, the more free the press of that country is. The scores are taken from the Freedom of the Press Index, elaborated by Freedom House, self-defined as "an independent watchdog organization dedicated to the expansion of freedom around the world". The data used in the index come from an annual survey of media independence in 197 countries and territories, assessing the degree of print, broadcast, and internet freedom in each of them.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament: Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber occupied by women.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Embassy: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
  • Democracy and rights > Nationalist vote: Percentage of votes at the most recent national election that went to parties with a nationalist ideology.
  • Democracy > Civil and political liberties: Civil and political liberties
    Units: Index Ranging from 7 (High Levels of Liberties) to 1 (Low
    Units: This is the average of two indicators - civil liberties and political liberties.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • National holiday: The primary national day of celebration - often independence day.
  • Capital > Geographic coordinates: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Democracy > First female parliamentarian: Year first woman elected or appointed to parliament.
  • Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Leaders > President: Government > Leaders > President
  • Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient: Burden of customs procedure, WEF (1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient). Burden of Customs Procedure measures business executives' perceptions of their country's efficiency of customs procedures. The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher score indicating greater efficiency. Data are from the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The 2009 round included more than 13,000 respondents from 133 countries. Sampling follows a dual stratification based on company size and the sector of activity. Data are collected online or through in-person interviews. Responses are aggregated using sector-weighted averaging. The data for the latest year are combined with the data for the previous year to create a two-year moving average. Respondents evaluated the efficiency of customs procedures in their country. The lowest score (1) rates the customs procedure as extremely inefficient, and the highest score (7) as extremely efficient.
  • Democracy > Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Status Index 2006: The Status Index’s overall result represents the mean value of the scores for the dimensions “Political Transformationâ€? and “Economic Transformationâ€?. The mean value was calculated using the exact, unrounded values for both these dimensions, which, in turn, were derived from the ratings for the five political criteria (based on 18 indicators) and the seven economic criteria (based on 14 indicators). The table shows rounded scores for political and economic transformation as well as for the Status Index’s overall result. In some cases, therefore, the overall result differs slightly from the mean value.
  • Red tape > Time required to register property > Days: Time required to register property (days). Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Politics: Country politics.
  • International law organization participation: This entry includes information on a country's acceptance of jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and of the International Criminal Court (ICCt); 55 countries have accepted ICJ jurisdiction with reservations and 11 have accepted ICJ jurisdiction without reservations; 114 countries have accepted ICCt jurisdiction. Appendix B: International Organizations and Groups explains the differing mandates of the ICJ and ICCt.
  • Parliament > Seats held by men: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses.
  • Country name > Local long form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Red tape > Time to resolve insolvency > Years: Time to resolve insolvency (years). Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets.
  • Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Telephone: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Chief of mission: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses.
  • Leaders > President > Summary: Government > Leaders > President > Summary
  • Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel: Date on which Israel was officially recognized as a state. Note that some countries had a “de facto” recognition in place long before the legal recognition.
  • Democracy > Democratic institutions rating: Democratic institutions
    Units: Scale ranging from -10 (autocratic) to +10 (democratic)
  • UN membership date: Date of United Nations Membership
  • Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number: Procedures to build a warehouse (number). Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers.
  • Capital city: The location of the seat of government.
  • Capital > Name: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Legal origin: Legal origin identifies the origin of the Company Law or Commercial Code in each country
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Spending > Expense > Current LCU: Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends."
  • Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days: Time required to get electricity (days). Time required to get electricity is the number of days to obtain a permanent electricity connection. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Registered voter turnout: The proportion of registered voters who actually voted.
  • Legislature (parliament) > People per member: Number of people each member of the legislature represents on average. The number of members of the legislature is the sum of the members of all chambers of parliament, if applicable.
  • Capital > Time difference: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Democracy > Presidential elections > Voting age population: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age
  • Leaders > Prime minister > Profile: Government > Leaders > Prime minister > Profile
  • International relations: Country international relations.
  • Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days per million: Time required to get electricity (days). Time required to get electricity is the number of days to obtain a permanent electricity connection. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Legislature (parliament) > Lower house members: Members of the lower house of the legislature or of the only chamber in a unicameral system.
  • Democracy > Female ministers: Women in government at ministerial level in 2000 (as % of total). Data were provided by states based on their definition of national executive and may therefore include women serving as ministers and vice ministers and those holding other ministerial positions, including parliamentary secretaries.
  • Leaders > Head of state > Term limit for head of state: Head(s) of state.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days: Time required to enforce a contract (days). Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment.
  • Democracy > Female parliamentarians: Seats in parliament held by women (as % of total). Data are as of 8 March 2002. Where there are lower and upper houses, data refer to the weighted average of women's shares of seats in both houses.
  • Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number: Procedures to register property (number). Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Leaders > President > Profile: Government > Leaders > President > Profile
  • Role of head of state: Head of state.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Democracy > Presidential elections > Registered voter turnout: The proportion of registered voters who actually voted.
  • Democracy and rights > Nationalist party (percent of vote): This list shows the percentage of votes obtained by nationalist parties across Europe at the latest  elections held in their respective countries. Note that the percentages show the votes from all the parties combined, and only for general elections (some parties may obtain a quite higher percentage in regional elections). Nationalist parties usually hold right-wing populist views, and among their common demands are a higher control of immigration, extended social/labor rights for country nationals, and a restriction of islamic customs -such as the veil or the construction of mosques-, though their ideologies and goals vary from country to country. Some parties have as their main goal the seggregation of a region from its parent country (with examples in Scotland, Catalonia and Northern Ireland). Most of nationalist parties with elected members in the European Parliament belong to the Europe of Freedom and Democracy group.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
  • Democracy > Presidential elections > Voting age population per 1000: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong: Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit."
  • Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient per million: Burden of customs procedure, WEF (1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient). Burden of Customs Procedure measures business executives' perceptions of their country's efficiency of customs procedures. The rating ranges from 1 to 7, with a higher score indicating greater efficiency. Data are from the World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey, conducted for 30 years in collaboration with 150 partner institutes. The 2009 round included more than 13,000 respondents from 133 countries. Sampling follows a dual stratification based on company size and the sector of activity. Data are collected online or through in-person interviews. Responses are aggregated using sector-weighted averaging. The data for the latest year are combined with the data for the previous year to create a two-year moving average. Respondents evaluated the efficiency of customs procedures in their country. The lowest score (1) rates the customs procedure as extremely inefficient, and the highest score (7) as extremely efficient. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Compensation of employees > Current LCU: Compensation of employees consists of all payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such as social security and pensions that provide benefits to employees."
  • Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU: Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organisations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind."
  • Democracy > Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Management Index 2006: This Index evaluates management by political decision-makers while taking into consideration the level of difficulty. The Management Index’s overall result is calculated by multiplying the intermediate result with a factor derived from the level of difficulty evaluation.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women per million people: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Democracy > Female suffrage: Year in which women received the right to vote. Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial recognition of the right to vote.
  • Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days: Time required to build a warehouse (days). Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Leaders > Prime minister > Summary: Government > Leaders > Prime minister > Summary
  • Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million: Procedures to enforce a contract (number). Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days per million: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to register property > Days per million: Time required to register property (days). Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days per million: Time required to build a warehouse (days). Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million: Procedures to build a warehouse (number). Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Capital > Daylight saving time: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Spending > Interest payments > Current LCU: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Democracy and rights > Votes for nationalist parties: Absolute number of votes at the most recent national election that went to parties with a nationalist ideology.
  • Democracy > Bertelsmann Transformation Index>Political Transformation: Political Transformation The score for â€?Political Transformation“ is obtained by calculating the mean value of the ratings for the following criteria: · Stateness · Political Participation · Rule of Law · Stability of Democratic Institutions · Political and Social Integration
  • Foreign relations > Diplomatic representation in the US > Ambassador: Name of ambassador to the USA.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Time required to build a warehouse > Days: Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age
  • Democracy > Female candidacy: Year in which women received the right to stand for election. Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial recognition of the right to stand for election.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents > Per capita: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents per 1000: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Total vote: The total number of votes cast in the relevant election. Total vote includes valid and invalid votes, as well as blank votes in cases where these are separated from invalid votes. More information on valid, invalid and blank votes can be found at aceproject.org
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voter registration: The number of registered voters. The figure represents the number of names on the voters' register at the time that the registration process closes, as reported by the electoral management body.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Turnout: The number of votes divided by the Voting Age Population figure, expressed as a percentage.
  • Time required to enforce a contract > Days: Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number > Per capita: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Procedures to register property > Number: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers.
  • Key ministers > Defence: Minister of Defence, 2005
  • Democracy > Presidential elections > Total vote: The total number of votes cast in the relevant election. Total vote includes valid and invalid votes, as well as blank votes in cases where these are separated from invalid votes. More information on valid, invalid and blank votes can be found at aceproject.org
  • Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members: Members of the lower (or sole) house.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number: Procedures to enforce a contract (number). Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer.
  • Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number per million: Procedures to register property (number). Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Foreign relations > Date of recognition of State of Palestine: Date on which Palestine was officially recognized as a state.
  • Red tape > Management time dealing with officials > % of management time: Management time dealing with officials (% of management time). Time dealing with officials is the percentage of management time in a given week spent on requirements imposed by government regulations (taxes, customs, labor regulations, licensing and registration).
  • Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours: Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Procedures to register property > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Council of EU > 2007 > Country votes: January 1, 2007
  • Key ministers > Justice: Minister of Justice, 2005
  • Council of EU > 2007 > Country leader: January 1, 2007
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > FAX: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Policy uncertainty > % of managers surveyed ranking this as a major business constraint: Policy uncertainty measures the share of senior managers who ranked economic and regulatory policy uncertainty as a major or very severe constraint.
  • Trademarks > Residents > Per capita: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Spending > Interest payments > % of expense: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Spending > Other expense > Current LCU: Other expense is spending on dividends, rent, and other miscellaneous expenses, including provision for consumption of fixed capital."
  • Trademarks > Residents per million: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Procedures to register property > Number per million: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth: Annual percentage growth of general government final consumption expenditure based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. General government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.
  • Time required to register property > Days: Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment.
  • Time to resolve insolvency > Years: Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > %: Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%). Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
  • Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > % of expense: Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organisations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind."
  • Democracy and rights > Next election: Next election.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Parliament > Seats held by men per million people: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Democracy > Presidential elections > Voter registration: The number of registered voters. The figure represents the number of names on the voters' register at the time that the registration process closes, as reported by the electoral management body.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Consulate(s) general: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Foreign relations > Recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia: Statements on the status of Abkhazia and South Ossetia issued by countries who do not recognize their sovereignty.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Expense > % of GDP: Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends."
  • Informal payments to public officials > % of firms: Informal payments to public officials are the percentage of firms expected to make informal payments to public officials to ""get things done"" with regard to customs, taxes, licenses, regulations, services, and the like."
  • Spending > Compensation of employees > % of expense: Compensation of employees consists of all payments in cash, as well as in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, and government contributions to social insurance schemes such as social security and pensions that provide benefits to employees."
  • Spending > Interest payments > % of revenue: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents."
  • Democracy and rights > Last election: Last election.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Council of EU > 2007 > European party of leader: January 1, 2007
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population per 1000: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer.
  • Legislature (parliament) > Total members of parliament: Number of members of the legislature (sum of members of all chambers of parliament where applicable).
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current local currency.
  • Foreign relations > Diplomatic relations with Palestine: Indicates whether or not each country has diplomatic relations with Palestine.
  • Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days per million: Time required to enforce a contract (days). Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • European Union > Council of the European Union votes: Number of votes each member state of the European Union has in the Council of the European Union.
  • Trademarks > Residents: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU: Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded.
  • Republic establishment date: The date on which each country (or its precursor) changed its form of government to a republic. In a republic, the power resides in the country’s people, the government and legislature is elected and the country is ruled according to its laws.
  • Management time dealing with officials > % of management time: Time dealing with officials is the percentage of management time in a given week spent on requirements imposed by government regulations (taxes, customs, labor regulations, licensing and registration).
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Invalid votes: The number of invalid votes, as reported by each country.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Key ministers > Finance: Minister of Finance, 2005
  • Key ministers > Foreign affairs: Minister of Foreign affairs, 2005
  • Capital city > Time difference: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Spending > Goods and services expense > % of expense: Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Other expense > % of expense: Other expense is spending on dividends, rent, and other miscellaneous expenses, including provision for consumption of fixed capital."
  • Ruling party: In power now.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

STAT Bulgaria Romania HISTORY
Administrative divisions 28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya (Sofia), Sofiya-Grad (Sofia City), Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol 41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
Capital city > Geographic coordinates 42 41 N, 23 19 E 44 26 N, 26 06 E
Capital city > Name Sofia Bucharest
Constitution adopted 12 July 1991 several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991
Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address American Embassy Sofia, US Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740 American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
Executive branch > Cabinet Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
Executive branch > Chief of state President Rosen PLEVNELIEV (since 22 January 2012); Vice President Margarita POPOVA (since 22 January 2012) President Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004)
Executive branch > Head of government Prime Minister Plamen ORESHARSKI (since 29 May 2013) Deputy Prime Ministers Zinaida ZLATANOVA (since 29 May 2013) and Tsvetlin YOVCHEV (since June 2013) Prime Minister Victor-Viorel PONTA (since 7 May 2012)
Government type parliamentary democracy republic
Judicial branch independent judiciary comprised of judges, prosecutors and investigating magistrates who are appointed, promoted, demoted, and dismissed by a 25-member Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 members, half of whom are elected by the National Assembly and the other half by the bodies of the judiciary for a 5-year term in office); three levels of case review; 182 courts of which two Supreme Courts act as the last instance on civil and criminal cases (the Supreme Court of Cassation) and appeals of government decisions (the Supreme Administrative Court) Supreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed for three-year terms by the president in consultation with the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor general, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, and 14 judges and prosecutors elected by their peers); a separate body, the Constitutional Court, validates elections and makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, treaties, ordinances, and internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-year terms, with three members each appointed by the president, the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies
Legal system civil law civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat
Political parties and leaders Attack (Ataka) [Volen Nikolov SIDEROV]<br />Blue Coalition [Ivan KOSTOV and Martin DIMITROV] (a parliamentary coalition of center-right parties dominated by UDF and DSB)<br />Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]<br />Bulgaria of the Citizens [Meglena KUNEVA]<br />Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISOV]<br />Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB [Sergei STANISHEV] (coalition of parties dominated by BSP)<br />Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Ivan KOSTOV]<br />Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]<br />Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Lyutvi MESTAN]<br />National Movement for Stability and Progress or NDSV [Hristina HRISTOVA] (formerly National Movement Simeon II or NMS2)<br />Order, Law, and Justice or RZS [Yane YANEV]<br />Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Emil KABAIVANOV]<br />United People's Party or ENP [Maria CAPONE] Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]<br />Civic Force or FC [Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU]<br />Conservative Party or PC [Daniel CONSTANTIN] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR)<br />Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Vasile BLAGA] (formerly Democratic Party)<br />Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]<br />National Liberal Party or PNL [Crin ANTONESCU]<br />National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA]<br />People's Party - Dan Diaconescu or PP-DD [Dan DIACONESCU]<br />Right Romania Alliance or ARD [Vasile BLAGA, Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU, and Aurelian PAVELESCU] (a center-right electoral alliance that includes PDL, FC, PNT-CD)<br />Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor-Viorel PONTA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR)<br />Social Liberal Union or USL [Victor PONTA and Crin ANTONESCU] (an alliance of the PSD, PNL, and PC)
Political pressure groups and leaders Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB<br />Podkrepa Labor Confederation<br /><strong>other:</strong> numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas <strong>other: </strong>various human rights and professional associations
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal 18 years of age; universal
International organization participation Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Country name > Conventional long form Republic of Bulgaria none
Civil law system Civil Law system influenced by Germanic and Roman law systems title=Drept civil. Drepturile reale principale | publisher=C.H. Beck | author=Valeriu Stoica | year=2009 | location=Bucharest | pages=XIII}}&lt;/ref&gt;
Executive branch > Elections president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 and 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 November 2009 with runoff on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in November-December 2014); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
Leaders > Prime minister Plamen Oresharski Victor Ponta
National symbol(s) lion golden eagle
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the pan-Slavic white-blue-red colors were modified by substituting a green band (representing freedom) for the blue three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days 18
Ranked 82nd. 2 times more than Romania
8.5
Ranked 136th.

Country name > Conventional short form Bulgaria Romania
Constitutional form Republic Republic
Transnational Issues > Disputes > International none the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
National anthem <strong>name: </strong>"Mila Rodino" (Dear Homeland)<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> Tsvetan Tsvetkov RADOSLAVOV <strong>name: </strong>"Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
FAX 359 40
Legislative branch > Election results percent of vote by party - GERB 30.5%, BSP 26.6%, MRF 11.3%, Ataka 7.3%; seats by party - GERB 98, BSP 86, MRF 33, Ataka 23 Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 60.1%, ARD 16.7%, PP-DD 14.6%, UDMR 5.3%, other 3.3%; seats by alliance/party - USL 122, ARD 24, PP-DD 21, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 58.6%, ARD 16.5%, PP-DD 14%, UDMR 5.2%, ethnic minorities 2.6%, other 3.1%; seats by alliance/party - USL 273, ARD 56, PP-DD 47, UDMR 18, ethnic minorities 18
Legislative branch > Elections last held on 12 May 2013 (next to be held spring 2017) Senate - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016)
Democracy and rights > Press freedom index 28.58
Ranked 90th. 24% more than Romania
23.05
Ranked 135th.
Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage 22.92%
Ranked 61st. 72% more than Romania
13.35%
Ranked 120th.

Independence 3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire) 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
Executive branch > Election results Rosen PLEVNELIEV elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Rosen PLEVNELIEV 52.6%, Ivailo KALFIN 47.4%; Plamen ORESHARSKI elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 120 to 97 Traian BASESCU reelected president; percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 50.3%, Mircea GEOANA 49.7%
Judicial branch > Subordinate courts appeals courts; regional and district courts; administrative courts; courts martial Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
Basis of executive legitimacy Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
Transnational Issues > Illicit drugs major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; vulnerable to money laundering because of corruption, organized crime; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos
Country name > Local short form Balgariya Romania
Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press 36
Ranked 117th.
41
Ranked 109th. 14% more than Bulgaria
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 22.1%
Ranked 40th. 97% more than Romania
11.2%
Ranked 109th.

Diplomatic representation from the US > Embassy 16 Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, District 1, Bucharest, 015118
Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number 4
Ranked 154th.
5
Ranked 128th. 25% more than Bulgaria

Democracy and rights > Nationalist vote 7.3%
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than Romania
1.5%
Ranked 10th.
Democracy > Civil and political liberties 4.5
Ranked 48th.
5
Ranked 36th. 11% more than Bulgaria
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ 4.95 billion$
Ranked 55th.
9.77 billion$
Ranked 45th. 97% more than Bulgaria

National holiday Liberation Day, 3 March Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December
Capital > Geographic coordinates 42 41 N, 23 19 E 44 26 N, 26 06 E
Democracy > First female parliamentarian 1945 (elected) 1946 (elected)
Time required to start a business > Days 32 days
Ranked 95th. 3 times more than Romania
11 days
Ranked 156th.

Leaders > President Rosen Plevneliev Traian Basescu
Democracy > Gender Parity Index in primary level enrolment 0.982
Ranked 88th.
0.984
Ranked 83th. About the same as Bulgaria

Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office Supreme Court of Cassation and Supreme Administrative judges elected by the Supreme Judicial Council or SJC (consists of 25 members with extensive legal experience) and appointed by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court justices elected by the National Assembly and appointed by the president and the SJC; justices appointed for 9-year terms with renewal of four justices every 3 years High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, an 11-member body mostly of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 3-year renewable terms; Supreme Constitutional Court members appointed - 6 by Parliament and 3 by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient 3.6
Ranked 96th. 20% more than Romania
3
Ranked 133th.

Democracy > Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Status Index 2006 7.98
Ranked 17th. 1% more than Romania
7.89
Ranked 19th.
Red tape > Time required to register property > Days 14
Ranked 150th.
20
Ranked 132nd. 43% more than Bulgaria

Politics Inconclusive elections in May 2013 resulted in the formation of a government of technocrats Traian Basescu has been president since 2004. In May 2012, Victor Ponta became Romania&#039;s third prime minister in less than six months. He leads a centre-left government
International law organization participation accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Parliament > Seats held by men 185
Ranked 52nd.
357
Ranked 20th. 93% more than Bulgaria

Country name > Local long form Republika Balgariya none
Red tape > Time to resolve insolvency > Years 3.3
Ranked 42nd. The same as Romania
3.3
Ranked 41st.

Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million 0.548
Ranked 111th. 95% more than Romania
0.281
Ranked 137th.

Diplomatic representation from the US > Telephone [359] (2) 937-5100 [40] (21) 200-3300
Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery None None
Diplomatic representation from the US > Chief of mission Ambassador Marcie B. RIES (since 5 September 2012) Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Duane BUTCHER
Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission Ambassador Elena POPTODOROVA (since 4 August 2010) Ambassador Iulian BUGA
Parliament > Seats held by women 55
Ranked 48th. The same as Romania
55
Ranked 47th.

Leaders > President > Summary President Plevneliev has overseen several changes of government President Basescu is a former sea captain
Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel None
None
Democracy > Democratic institutions rating 9
Ranked 34th. 29% more than Romania
7
Ranked 51st.
UN membership date 14 Dec. 1955 14 Dec. 1955
Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number 18
Ranked 43th. 20% more than Romania
15
Ranked 77th.

Capital city Sofia Bucharest
Capital > Name Sofia Bucharest
Legal origin <a href=/country/gm>German</a> <a href=/country/fr>French</a>
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita 639.29$ per capita
Ranked 53th. 42% more than Romania
451.6$ per capita
Ranked 63th.

Spending > Expense > Current LCU 20.62 billion
Ranked 69th.
170.19 billion
Ranked 47th. 8 times more than Bulgaria

Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days 130
Ranked 51st.
223
Ranked 15th. 72% more than Bulgaria

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Registered voter turnout 66.6%
Ranked 87th. 2% more than Romania
65.3%
Ranked 94th.
Legislature (parliament) > People per member 31,693
Ranked 78th.
36,562
Ranked 70th. 15% more than Bulgaria
Capital > Time difference UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Democracy > Presidential elections > Voting age population 6.44 million
Ranked 32nd.
18.6 million
Ranked 14th. 3 times more than Bulgaria
Leaders > Prime minister > Profile <p>Plamen Oresharski was confirmed new prime minister at the head of a Socialist-backed technocrat government in May 2013, ending months of political impasse. </p> <p>Bulgaria had been without a permanent administration since the previous February, when street protests against low living standards toppled a government led by the centre-right GERB party.</p> <p>Mr Oresharski, a professor of finance at Sofia&#039;s University for National and World Economy, was put forward by the Socialists as a Bulgarian version of Italy&#039;s respected former technocrat prime minister Mario Monti, after snap elections.</p> <p>Former premier Boyko Borisov&#039;s GERB party, which won the vote, had failed to find partners to govern, leaving the second-placed Socialists to name a new prime minister.</p> <p>Assuming office, Mr Oresharski warned that Bulgaria is &quot;in a deep institutional crisis, continuing economic depression and worsening disintegration of society&quot;.</p> <p>But as Oresharski&#039;s government quickly lost support amid allegations of corrupt ties with business groups, anti-government protests continued.</p> <p>Protesters&#039; anger against Mr Oresharski&#039;s government were inflamed by the appointment - later reversed by parliament - of controversial media mogul Delyan Peevski as head the national security agency. Some accuse the cabinet of being backed by a &quot;Red Mafia&quot;.</p> <p>A finance minister in a Socialist-led coalition between 2005 and 2009, Mr Oresharski won praise for implementing a key reform in Bulgaria&#039;s taxation system.</p> <p>He was also part of the team that oversaw the introduction of an IMF-led currency board regime in 1997 - pegging the national currency, the lev, to the euro at a fixed rate - that stabilised the economy and is still in place.</p> <p>Victor Ponta became Romania&#039;s third prime minister in less than six months when his left wing-dominated Social Liberal Union (USL) alliance took charge in May 2012 after toppling its predecessor in a confidence vote. </p> <p>Mr Ponta&#039;s party, which came to power by capitalising on mounting discontent over austerity policies, won a landslide victory at parliamentary elections in December 2012.</p> <p>The USL won nearly 60% of the vote, against 17% for the coalition of parties backed by President Basescu, who had threatened to use his power as president to nominate the prime minister to block Mr Ponta&#039;s return to office.</p> <p>Mr Ponta has proved popular with Romanians, but he has faced criticism from some abroad who accuse him of disregard for democratic norms and the rule of law.</p> <p>In his very first months in office, he courted controversy by launching a campaign to impeach President Basescu in the midst of the economic crisis, having already ousted the heads of both houses of parliament and the ombudsman. Senior European politicians and officials have criticised these steps, which threaten to isolate Romania within the European Union.</p> <p>Mr Ponta also faces accusations - which he denies - that he plagiarised part of his doctoral thesis. </p> <p>On coming to power, Mr Ponta promised to stick to a deal with international lenders while seeking to &quot;correct social imbalances&quot;. Romania obtained a 20-billion-euro ($26-billion) rescue package from the IMF, the EU and the World Bank in 2009, in exchange for steps to cut public spending, which helped it emerge from recession.</p> <p>In October 2013 his government faced further scandal when his deputy, Liviu Dragnea, was charged along with 74 other people with trying to rig the 2012 referendum that failed to oust President Basescu.</p> <p>Mr Ponta replaced Mihai-Razvan Ungureanu, who in February 2012 succeeded Emil Boc, who in turn had resigned amid violent protests at his government&#039;s drastic public-spending cuts.</p>
International relations Bulgaria joined Nato in 2004 and the EU in 2007. It is not part of the EU&#039;s passport-free Schengen zone Romania joined Nato in 2004 and the EU in 2007
Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days per million 17.8
Ranked 79th. 70% more than Romania
10.46
Ranked 96th.

Legislature (parliament) > Lower house members 240
Ranked 44th.
412
Ranked 26th. 72% more than Bulgaria
Democracy > Female ministers 12.5%
Ranked 60th. 15% more than Romania
10.9%
Ranked 71st.
Leaders > Head of state > Term limit for head of state 5
Ranked 55th. The same as Romania
5
Ranked 54th.
Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days 564
Ranked 93th. 10% more than Romania
512
Ranked 109th.

Democracy > Female parliamentarians 26.2%
Ranked 15th. 3 times more than Romania
9.3%
Ranked 96th.
Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number 7
Ranked 48th.
8
Ranked 30th. 14% more than Bulgaria

Leaders > President > Profile <p>Rosen Plevneliev won the presidential elections in a run-off in October 2011, beating Socialist candidate Ivaylo Kalfin. </p> <p>He took office in January 2012 for a five-year term in a post that carries few real powers. </p> <p>As the candidate of the then-ruling centre-right GERB party, Mr Plevneliev&#039;s victory was expected to bolster the government&#039;s push for painful economic reforms. </p> <p>When the government of Boyko Borisov collapsed in February 2013 following mass protests over high electricity prices, Mr Plevneliev appointed a caretaker government before fresh elections in May resulted in the formation of a technocratic government headed by Plamen Oresharski.</p> <p>Before becoming president, Mr Plevneliev was construction minister in the GERB-dominated government of Boyko Borisov. Prior to that, he ran his own building and development company.</p> <p>Traian Basescu, a former sea captain and mayor of Bucharest, first became president following elections in 2004. </p> <p>He gained a second endorsement from the electorate in a May 2007 referendum when they rejected an attempt by parliament to impeach him. MPs had decided by a large majority to remove him from office, accusing him of exceeding his constitutional powers. </p> <p>The attempt to impeach the president followed tension between him and the government of then Prime Minister Calin Tariceanu over the pace of reforms. </p> <p>Mr Basescu won the December 2009 presidential election by a very narrow majority over the opposition Social Democrats&#039; Mircea Geoana. </p> <p>Since he came to power, Mr Basescu has drawn international praise for his anti-corruption efforts and for preparing Romania to join the EU. </p> <p>He has faced frequent challenges to his authority from his opponents in government, and has been suspended from office twice pending efforts to impeach him - in 2007 and July 2012.</p> <p>In 2005 Mr Basescu started the process of opening the files of the feared communist-era secret police - the Securitate. Researchers cleared him of accusations that he collaborated with the Securitate. </p> <p>Mr Basescu was 53 at the time of his election. He was transport minister between 1996 and 2000. </p> <p>His predecessor, Ion Iliescu, had dominated Romanian politics since the fall of communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu in 1989. Under his Social Democrats, Romania entered Nato and moved towards EU membership. </p>
Role of head of state Ceremonial Executive
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 639.29$
Ranked 53th. 42% more than Romania
451.6$
Ranked 62nd.

Democracy > Presidential elections > Registered voter turnout 54.9%
Ranked 75th.
56.6%
Ranked 69th. 3% more than Bulgaria
Democracy and rights > Nationalist party (percent of vote) 7.3%
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than Romania
1.5%
Ranked 10th.
Start-up procedures to register a business > Number 9
Ranked 87th. 80% more than Romania
5
Ranked 153th.

Democracy > Presidential elections > Voting age population per 1000 823.19
Ranked 4th.
855.39
Ranked 1st. 4% more than Bulgaria
Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong 8
Ranked 25th. The same as Romania
8
Ranked 24th.

Red tape > Burden of customs procedure, WEF > 1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient per million 0.493
Ranked 65th. 4 times more than Romania
0.141
Ranked 102nd.

Spending > Compensation of employees > Current LCU 3.78 billion
Ranked 69th.
33 billion
Ranked 46th. 9 times more than Bulgaria

Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU 12.39 billion
Ranked 63th.
102.41 billion
Ranked 41st. 8 times more than Bulgaria

Democracy > Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Management Index 2006 6.51
Ranked 21st. 3% more than Romania
6.33
Ranked 24th.
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.186$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 44th. 88% more than Romania
0.099$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 119th.

Parliament > Seats held by women per million people 7.88
Ranked 51st. 3 times more than Romania
2.52
Ranked 109th.

Foreign relations > Nepal > Date of Establishment April 15, 1968 April 20, 1968
Democracy > Female suffrage 1944 "1929 ,1946"
Political pressure groups and leaders > Other numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas various human rights and professional associations
Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days 104
Ranked 142nd.
287
Ranked 17th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Leaders > Prime minister > Summary Plamen Oresharski became prime minister in the midst of a severe crisis Victor Ponta has been accused of undermining the rule of law
Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million 5.2
Ranked 91st. 3 times more than Romania
1.5
Ranked 140th.

Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days per million 2.46
Ranked 88th. 6 times more than Romania
0.445
Ranked 146th.

Red tape > Time required to register property > Days per million 1.92
Ranked 118th. 2 times more than Romania
0.938
Ranked 142nd.

Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days per million 14.24
Ranked 103th. 6% more than Romania
13.46
Ranked 104th.

Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million 2.46
Ranked 85th. 4 times more than Romania
0.703
Ranked 133th.

Capital > Daylight saving time +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Spending > Interest payments > Current LCU 568.77 million
Ranked 71st.
3.15 billion
Ranked 57th. 6 times more than Bulgaria

Democracy and rights > Votes for nationalist parties 258,481
Ranked 19th. 2 times more than Romania
108,911
Ranked 27th.
Democracy > Bertelsmann Transformation Index>Political Transformation 8.45
Ranked 17th. 3% more than Romania
8.2
Ranked 20th.
Foreign relations > Diplomatic representation in the US > Ambassador Poptodorova, Elena Elena Poptodorova Vierita, Adrian Cosmin Adrian Cosmin Vierita
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita 356.31 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 49th. 2 times more than Romania
151.06 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 69th.

Time required to build a warehouse > Days 226 days
Ranked 54th.
242 days
Ranked 47th. 7% more than Bulgaria

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population 6.39 million
Ranked 61st.
18.6 million
Ranked 30th. 3 times more than Bulgaria
Democracy > Female candidacy 1,944
Ranked 103th. 1% more than Romania
1,929
Ranked 122nd.
Trademarks > Nonresidents > Per capita 0.14 per 1,000 people
Ranked 26th. 3 times more than Romania
0.055 per 1,000 people
Ranked 41st.

Trademarks > Nonresidents per 1000 0.14
Ranked 26th. 3 times more than Romania
0.055
Ranked 41st.

Foreign relations > Croatia > Date of Establishment August 13, 1992 August 29, 1992
National anthem > Name "Mila Rodino" (Dear Homeland) -
Parties in the European Council during 2011 > Leaders > 1 January 2011 > Votes 10
Ranked 14th.
14
Ranked 6th. 40% more than Bulgaria
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Total vote 4.61 million
Ranked 51st.
11.56 million
Ranked 29th. 3 times more than Bulgaria
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voter registration 6.92 million
Ranked 52nd.
17.7 million
Ranked 30th. 3 times more than Bulgaria
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Turnout 72.1
Ranked 45th. 16% more than Romania
62.2
Ranked 60th.
Time required to enforce a contract > Days 440 days
Ranked 95th. 31% more than Romania
335 days
Ranked 128th.

Start-up procedures to register a business > Number > Per capita 1.17 per 1 million people
Ranked 82nd. 5 times more than Romania
0.232 per 1 million people
Ranked 140th.

Parties in the European Council during 2010 > Leaders > 1 January 2010 > European party <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_People%27s_Party">EPP</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_People%27s_Party">EPP</a>
Procedures to register property > Number 9
Ranked 18th. 13% more than Romania
8
Ranked 31st.

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number 22
Ranked 29th. 29% more than Romania
17
Ranked 79th.

Key ministers > Defence Nikolai Svinarov (SNM) Teodor Atanasiu (NLP)
Democracy > Presidential elections > Total vote 3.78 million
Ranked 30th.
10.02 million
Ranked 15th. 3 times more than Bulgaria
Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members 4
Ranked 128th. The same as Romania
4
Ranked 127th.
Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number 38
Ranked 90th. 19% more than Romania
32
Ranked 153th.

Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number per million 0.958
Ranked 74th. 3 times more than Romania
0.375
Ranked 111th.

Foreign relations > Date of recognition of State of Palestine 25 November 1988 24 November 1988
Red tape > Management time dealing with officials > % of management time 10.6%
Ranked 18th. 15% more than Romania
9.2%
Ranked 25th.

Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours 616 hours
Ranked 17th. 3 times more than Romania
198 hours
Ranked 106th.

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ 2.76 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 55th.
3.27 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 50th. 19% more than Bulgaria

Procedures to register property > Number > Per capita 1.17 per 1 million people
Ranked 58th. 3 times more than Romania
0.371 per 1 million people
Ranked 109th.

Procedures to enforce a contract > Number > Per capita 4.42 per 1 million people
Ranked 80th. 2 times more than Romania
2 per 1 million people
Ranked 116th.

Council of EU > 2007 > Country votes 10
Ranked 15th.
14
Ranked 7th. 40% more than Bulgaria
Key ministers > Justice Anton Stankov (SNM) Monica Luisa Macovei (<a href=/encyclopedia/decay-product>DP</a>)
Council of EU > 2007 > Country leader Sergey Stanishev Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu
Diplomatic representation from the US > FAX [359] (2) 937-5320 [40] (21) 200-3442
Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX [1] (202) 234-7973 [1] (202) 232-4748
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant LCU 6761661000 36954900000
Policy uncertainty > % of managers surveyed ranking this as a major business constraint 27.42%
Ranked 13th.
35.26%
Ranked 6th. 29% more than Bulgaria
Trademarks > Residents > Per capita 0.768 per 1,000 people
Ranked 16th. 62% more than Romania
0.475 per 1,000 people
Ranked 27th.

Parties in the European Council during 2011 > Leaders > 1 January 2011 > National party <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizens_for_European_Development_of_Bulgaria">GERB</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_Liberal_Party_%28Romania%29">PD-L</a>
Spending > Interest payments > % of expense 2.76%
Ranked 63th. 49% more than Romania
1.85%
Ranked 73th.

Spending > Other expense > Current LCU 1.22 billion
Ranked 63th.
13.57 billion
Ranked 39th. 11 times more than Bulgaria

Trademarks > Residents per million 768.27
Ranked 16th. 62% more than Romania
474.89
Ranked 27th.

Procedures to register property > Number per million 1.17
Ranked 58th. 3 times more than Romania
0.371
Ranked 110th.

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million 2.86
Ranked 71st. 4 times more than Romania
0.787
Ranked 119th.

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth 3.8%
Ranked 50th.
10%
Ranked 9th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Time required to register property > Days 19 days
Ranked 136th.
150 days
Ranked 25th. 8 times more than Bulgaria

Trademarks > Nonresidents 1,086
Ranked 26th.
1,193
Ranked 23th. 10% more than Bulgaria

Time to resolve insolvency > Years 3.3 years
Ranked 57th.
4.6 years
Ranked 26th. 39% more than Bulgaria

Council of Europe > Date joined 5/7/1992 10/7/1993
Parties in the European Council during 2010 > Leaders > 1 January 2010 > National party <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizens_for_European_Development_of_Bulgaria">GERB</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_Liberal_Party_%28Romania%29">PD-L</a>
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > % 24.6%
Ranked 56th. 85% more than Romania
13.3%
Ranked 126th.

Parties in the European Council during 2008 > Leaders > January 1 > 2008 > European party <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Party_of_European_Socialists">PES</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Liberal_Democrat_and_Reform_Party">ELDR</a>
Parties in the European Council during 2007 > Leaders > January 1 > 2007 > European party <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Party_of_European_Socialists">PES</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Liberal_Democrat_and_Reform_Party">ELDR</a>
Spending > Subsidies and other transfers > % of expense 60.05%
Ranked 27th.
60.17%
Ranked 26th. About the same as Bulgaria

Parties in the European Council during 2009 > Leaders > January 1 > 2009 > Leader Sergey Stanishev Emil Boc
Democracy and rights > Next election May 2017 December 2016
Parliament > Seats held by men per million people 26.5
Ranked 61st. 62% more than Romania
16.38
Ranked 91st.

Parties in the European Council during 2008 > Leaders > January 1 > 2008 > Votes 10
Ranked 14th.
14
Ranked 6th. 40% more than Bulgaria
Parties in the European Council during 2010 > Leaders > 1 January 2010 > Votes 10
Ranked 14th.
14
Ranked 6th. 40% more than Bulgaria
Democracy > Presidential elections > Voter registration 6.89 million
Ranked 27th.
17.7 million
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than Bulgaria
Diplomatic representation in the US > Consulate(s) general Chicago, Los Angeles, New York Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Date of transition to republican system of government > Republic since November 29, 1945 November 29, 1945
FAX > Consulate(s) general Los Angeles, New York Los Angeles, New York
National anthem > Note adopted 1964; the anthem was composed in 1885 by a student en route to fight in the Serbo-Bulgarian War adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million 1.17
Ranked 81st. 5 times more than Romania
0.232
Ranked 140th.

Flag description > Note the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe, has been removed now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
Foreign relations > Recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia Foreign Ministry spokesperson Dimitar Tsanchev said, "The decision of Russian authorities to recognise the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia is causing serious worry. Bulgaria once again re-iterates its unconditional support for the independence, sovereignty and internationally recognised borders". The Foreign Ministry issued a statement saying that "This unilateral, regrettable and legally unfounded act can affect the situation in the area, as well as the perspectives of solving the region's conflicts. As an EU and NATO member, Romania will plead inside the international organisations it belongs to, as well as in bilateral relationships with the countries in the region for a solution that will respect the territorial integrity of Georgia".
Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million 4.42
Ranked 79th. 2 times more than Romania
1.99
Ranked 116th.

Spending > Expense > % of GDP 30.91%
Ranked 37th.
33.77%
Ranked 30th. 9% more than Bulgaria

Informal payments to public officials > % of firms 8.51%
Ranked 39th.
9.75%
Ranked 35th. 15% more than Bulgaria

Spending > Compensation of employees > % of expense 18.35%
Ranked 54th.
19.39%
Ranked 51st. 6% more than Bulgaria

Spending > Interest payments > % of revenue 2.27%
Ranked 63th. 14% more than Romania
2%
Ranked 67th.

Democracy and rights > Last election May 2013 December 2012
Council of EU > 2007 > European party of leader <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Party_of_European_Socialists">PES</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Liberal_Democrat_and_Reform_Party">ELDR</a>
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population per 1000 817
Ranked 8th.
855.39
Ranked 3rd. 5% more than Bulgaria
Procedures to enforce a contract > Number 34
Ranked 79th.
43
Ranked 40th. 26% more than Bulgaria

Legislature (parliament) > Total members of parliament 240
Ranked 48th.
588
Ranked 22nd. 2 times more than Bulgaria
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU 7789000000 28466500000
Foreign relations > Diplomatic relations with Palestine Yes Yes
Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days per million 77.21
Ranked 89th. 3 times more than Romania
24.01
Ranked 139th.

European Union > Council of the European Union votes 10
Ranked 15th.
14
Ranked 7th. 40% more than Bulgaria
Trademarks > Residents 5,978
Ranked 21st.
10,298
Ranked 14th. 72% more than Bulgaria

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number > Per capita 2.86 per 1 million people
Ranked 72nd. 4 times more than Romania
0.789 per 1 million people
Ranked 120th.

Spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU 2.67 billion
Ranked 71st.
22.87 billion
Ranked 45th. 9 times more than Bulgaria

Republic establishment date September 15, 1946 December 30, 1947
Management time dealing with officials > % of management time 2.79%
Ranked 29th. 91% more than Romania
1.46%
Ranked 36th.
Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Invalid votes 0.9%
Ranked 93th.
6.2%
Ranked 20th. 7 times more than Bulgaria
Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone [1] (202) 387-0174 [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
Key ministers > Finance Milen Velchev (SNM) Ionel Popescu (NLP)
Key ministers > Foreign affairs Solomon Pasi (SNM) Mihai-Razvan Ungureanu (Ind)
Capital city > Time difference UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Spending > Goods and services expense > % of expense 12.92%
Ranked 42nd.
13.44%
Ranked 38th. 4% more than Bulgaria

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita 356.32 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 49th. 2 times more than Romania
151.06 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 68th.

Spending > Other expense > % of expense 5.92%
Ranked 45th.
7.97%
Ranked 27th. 35% more than Bulgaria

Parties in the European Council during 2010 > Leaders > 1 January 2010 > Leader Boyko Borisov Emil Boc
Parties in the European Council during 2011 > Leaders > 1 January 2011 > Leader Boyko Borisov Emil Boc
Ruling party Socialist /Coalition Social Liberal Union

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; Wikipedia: List of national legal systems (Civil law); British Broadcasting Corporation 2014; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).; Wikipedia: List of countries by system of government (Alphabetical list of countries); All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia: Censorship by country (Censorship by country) ("Press Freedom Index 2013" , Reporters Without Borders, 30 January 2013); United Nations Statistics Division; "2012 Freedom of the Press Data" , Freedom House, 1 May 2012; World Development Indicators database; Wikipedia: List of active nationalist parties in Europe (National); Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2000-2001, New York: Freedom House, 2001; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva.; Source: Millennium Development Goals Database | United Nations Statistics Division; World Economic Forum, Global Competiveness Report and data files.; Bertelsmann Transformation Index online, 2006; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. 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