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Government > Executive branch > Elections: Countries Compared

DEFINITION: Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election.

COUNTRY DESCRIPTION
AfghanistanAfghanistan the president and two vice presidents elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if no candidate receives 50% or more of the vote in the first round of voting, the two candidates with the most votes will participate in a second round; election last held on 20 August 2009 (next to be held on 5 April 2014)
AkrotiriAkrotiri none; the monarchy is hereditary; the administrator appointed by the monarch
AlbaniaAlbania president is elected by the Assembly for a five-year term and is eligible for a second term (a candidate needs a three-fifths majority of the Assembly's 140 votes (84 votes) in one of the first three rounds of voting or a simple majority in round four or five to become president; up to five rounds of voting are held, if necessary); four election rounds held between 30 May and 11 June 2012 (next election to be held in 2017); prime minister appointed by the president on the proposal of the party or coalition of parties that has the majority of seats in the Assembly
AlgeriaAlgeria president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 9 April 2009 (next to be held in April 2014)
American SamoaAmerican Samoa under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as American Samoa, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 November 2012 with a runoff election held on 20 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2016)
AndorraAndorra Head of Government elected by the General Council (Andorran Parliament) and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held on 3 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)
AngolaAngola president indirectly elected by National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under the 2010 constitution(eligible for a second term)
AnguillaAnguilla the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor
Antigua and BarbudaAntigua+ the monarchy is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
ArgentinaArgentina president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 October 2011 (next election to be held in October 2015)
ArmeniaArmenia president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 February 2013 (next to be held February 2018); prime minister appointed by the president based on majority or plurality support in parliament; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program
ArubaAruba the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed for a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last held on 25 September 2009 (next to be held by September 2013)
AustraliaAustralia the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general
AustriaAustria president elected for a six-year term (eligible for a second term) by direct popular vote and formally sworn into office before the Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung; presidential election last held on 25 April 2010 (next to be held on 25 April 2016); chancellor formally chosen by the president but determined by the coalition parties forming a parliamentary majority; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
AzerbaijanAzerbaijan president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 9 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
BahrainBahrain the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
BangladeshBangladesh president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last election held on 29 April 2013 (next must be held by 2018)
BarbadosBarbados the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
BelarusBelarus president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; first election took place on 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999, however, Aleksandr LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held on 9 September 2001; an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and allowed the president to run in a third (19 March 2006) and fourth election (19 December 2010); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
BelgiumBelgium the monarchy is hereditary and constitutional; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch and then approved by parliament
BelizeBelize the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
BeninBenin president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 13 March 2011 (next to be held in March 2016)
BermudaBermuda the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor
BhutanBhutan the monarchy is hereditary, but the 2008 constitution grants the Parliament authority to remove the monarch with two-thirds vote; election of a new National Assembly occurred in March 2008
BoliviaBolivia president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term and are eligible for re-election once; election last held on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia+ the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for four years) by constituencies referring to the three ethnic groups; the candidate with the most votes in a constituency is elected; the chairmanship rotates every eight months and resumes where it left off following each general election; election last held on 3 October 2010 (next to be held in October 2014); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives
BotswanaBotswana president indirectly elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 October 2009 (next to be held in October 2014); vice president appointed by the president
BrazilBrazil president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held on 3 October 2010 with runoff on 31 October 2010 (next to be held on 5 October 2014 and, if necessary, a runoff election on 2 November 2014)
British Indian Ocean TerritoryIndian Ocean none; the monarchy is hereditary; commissioner and administrator appointed by the monarch
British Virgin IslandsBrit. Virgin Isl. the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor
BruneiBrunei none; the monarchy is hereditary
BulgariaBulgaria president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 and 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 November 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature
BurmaBurma THEIN SEIN elected president by the parliament from among three vice presidents; the upper house, the lower house, and military members of the parliament each nominate one vice president (president serves a five-year term)
BurundiBurundi the president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 28 June 2010 (next to be held in 2015); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by parliament
CambodiaCambodia the king chosen by a Royal Throne Council from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the king
CameroonCameroon president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (with no term limits per 2008 constitutional amendment); election last held on 9 October 2011 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister appointed by the president
CanadaCanada the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general
Cape VerdeCape Verde president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 August 2011 with a second round runoff on 21 August 2011; prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president
Cayman IslandsCayman Islands the monarchy is hereditary; the governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or coalition appointed by the governor as premier
Central African RepublicCentral Africa president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 23 January 2011 (next to be held in 2014 - as specified in the January 2013 Libreville agreement); prime minister appointed by the president
ChadChad president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last election held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
ChileChile president elected by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held on 13 December 2009 with runoff election held on 17 January 2010 (next to be held 17 November 2013)
ChinaChina president and vice president elected by National People's Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
Christmas IslandXmas Island the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Australian prime minister; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia for a two-year term and represents the monarch and Australia
Cocos (Keeling) IslandsCocos Islands the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Australian prime minister; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia for a two-year term and represents the monarch and Australia
ColombiaColombia president and vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 30 May 2010 with a runoff election 20 June 2010 (next to be held in May 2014)
ComorosComoros as defined by the 2001 constitution, the presidency rotates every four years among the elected presidents from the three main islands in the Union; election last held on 7 November and 26 December 2010 (next to be held in 2014)
Congo, Republic of theCongo, Republic of the president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 July 2009 (next to be held in 2016)
Cook IslandsCook Islands the monarchy is hereditary; the UK representative appointed by the monarch; the New Zealand high commissioner appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes prime minister
Costa RicaCosta Rica president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held on 7 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2014)
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 October and 28 November 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
CroatiaCroatia president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2014); the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and then approved by the assembly
CubaCuba president and vice presidents elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held on 24 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
CyprusCyprus president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 17 and 24 February 2013 (next to be held in February 2018)
Czech RepublicCzech Republic constitutional amendment passed in 2012 introduced presidential election by popular vote instead of by Parliament; president elected for a five-year term (may not serve more than two consecutive terms); elections last held on 11-12 January 2013 with a runoff on 25-26 January 2013 (next to be held in January 2018); prime minister appointed by the president
Democratic Republic of the CongoCongo, DR. under the new constitution the president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 28 November 2011 (next to be held in November 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
DenmarkDenmark the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch
DhekeliaDhekelia none; the monarchy is hereditary; the administrator appointed by the monarch
DjiboutiDjibouti president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; president is eligible to hold office until age 75; election last held on 8 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
DominicaDominica president elected by the House of Assembly for a five-year term; election last held on 30 September 2013 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister appointed by the president
Dominican RepublicDominican Rep. president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held on 20 May 2012 (next to be held in 2016)
East TimorEast Timor the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); an election was held on 17 March 2012 with a run-off on 16 April 2012; following parliamentary elections, the president appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition as the prime minister
EcuadorEcuador the president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term and can be re-elected for another consecutive term; election last held on 17 February 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
EgyptEgypt presidential election (first round held on 23-24 May 2012; runoff held on 16-17 June 2012 (next election NA)
El SalvadorEl Salvador president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held on 15 March 2009 (next to be held in February 2014)
Equatorial GuineaEqu. Guinea president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (two term limits); election last held on 29 November 2009 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
EritreaEritrea president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); the most recent and only election was held on 8 June 1993 (next election date uncertain as the National Assembly did not hold a presidential election in December 2001 as anticipated)
EstoniaEstonia president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local councils) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest number of votes; election last held on 29 August 2011 (next to be held in the fall of 2016); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
EthiopiaEthiopia president elected by both chambers of Parliament for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections
European UnionEuropean Union the president of the European Commission is designated by member governments and is confirmed by the European Parliament; working from member state recommendations, the Commission president then assembles a "college" of Commission members; the European Parliament confirms the entire Commission for a five-year term; the last confirmation process was held 18 November 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)Falklands the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; chief executive appointed by the governor
Faroe IslandsFaroe Islands the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the Faroese Parliament; election last held on 14 November 2011 (next to be held no later than November 2015)
Federated States of MicronesiaMicronesia president and vice president elected by Congress from among the four senators at large for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 May 2011 (next to be held in May 2015)
FijiFiji under the constitution, president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); in 2007 the Great Council of Chiefs was suspended from its role in electing the president; prime minister appointed by the president
FinlandFinland president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); the parliament elects a prime minister who is then appointed to office by the president
FranceFrance president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 April and 6 May 2012 (next to be held in the spring of 2017); prime minister appointed by the president
French PolynesiaFr. Polynesia French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the French Polynesia government and the president of the Assembly of French Polynesia elected by the members of the assembly for five-year terms (no term limits)
GabonGabon president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held on 30 August 2009 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
GeorgiaGeorgia president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 27 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2018)
GermanyGermany president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention, including all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held on 19 February 2012 (next to be held by June 2017); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Parliament for a four-year term; Federal Parliament vote for Chancellor last held after 22 September 2013 (next to be held September 2017)
GhanaGhana president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 December 2012 (next to be held in December 2016)
GibraltarGibraltar the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
GreeceGreece president elected by parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 February 2010 (next to be held by February 2015); president appoints leader of the party securing plurality of vote in election to become prime minister and form a government
GreenlandGreenland the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister elected by parliament (usually the leader of the majority party)
GrenadaGrenada the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
GuamGuam under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Guam, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (can serve two consecutive terms, then must wait a full term before running again); election last held on 2 November 2010 (next to be held in November 2014)
GuatemalaGuatemala president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 11 September 2011; runoff held on 6 November 2011 (next to be held in September 2015)
GuernseyGuernsey the monarchy is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch; chief minister elected by States of Deliberation
GuineaGuinea president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held on 27 June 2010 with a runoff election held on 7 November 2010
Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18 March 2012 with a runoff between the two leading candidates scheduled for 22 April 2012; prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the legislature
GuyanaGuyana president elected by popular vote as leader of a party list in parliamentary elections, which must be held at least every five years (no term limits); elections last held on 28 November 2011 (next to be called by December 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
HaitiHaiti president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 28 November 2010; runoff on 20 March 2011 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly
Holy See (Vatican City)Vatican City pope elected for life, or until voluntary resignation, by the College of Cardinals; election last held on 13 March 2013 (next to be held after the death or resignation of the current pope); Secretary of State appointed by the pope
HondurasHonduras president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held on 29 November 2009 (next to be held in November 2013)
Hong KongHong Kong chief executive elected for five-year term by a 1,200-member election committee; on 25 March 2012 LEUNG Chun-ying [C.Y.LEUNG] was elected chief executive by a 1,193-member election committee; he took office on 1 July 2012; (next to be held in March 2017)
HungaryHungary president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 May 2012 (next to be held by May 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 May 2010
IcelandIceland president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (no term limits); election last held on 30 June 2012 (next to be held in June 2016)
IndiaIndia president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held in July 2012 (next to be held in July 2017); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held in August 2012 (next to be held in August 2017); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held April - May 2009 (next to be held no later than May 2014)
IndonesiaIndonesia president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; presidential election last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
IranIran supreme leader appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts; president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term and additional nonconsecutive term); election last held on 14 June 2013 (next presidential election to be held in June 2017)
IraqIraq president elected by Council of Representatives (parliament) to serve a four-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential election in parliament last held on 11 November 2010 (next to be held in 2014)
IrelandIreland president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 October 2011 (next to be held in October 2018); taoiseach (prime minister} nominated by the House of Representatives (Dail Eireann) and appointed by the president
Isle of ManIsle of Man the monarchy is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch; the chief minister elected by the Tynwald for a five-year term; election last held on 11 October 2011 (next to be held in December 2016)
IsraelIsrael president largely a ceremonial role and is elected by the Knesset for a seven-year term (one-term limit); election last held 13 June 2007 (next to be held in 2014 but can be called earlier); following legislative elections, the president, in consultation with party leaders, assigns the task of forming a governing coalition to a Knesset member whom he or she determines is most likely to accomplish that task
ItalyItaly president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament
JamaicaJamaica the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general
JapanJapan Diet, the bicameral legislature, designates the prime minister; constitution requires that the prime minister commands parliamentary majority; following legislative elections, the leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition in House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister; the monarchy is hereditary
JerseyJersey ministers of the Cabinet including the chief minister are elected by the Assembly of States; the monarchy is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch
JordanJordan the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
KazakhstanKazakhstan president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 3 April 2011 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president, with Mazhilis approval
KenyaKenya president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving a simple majority of votes, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote in at least five of Kenya's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2018); vice president appointed by the president
KiribatiKiribati the House of Parliament nominates the presidential candidates from among its members following parliamentary elections and then those candidates compete in a general election; president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held on 13 January 2012 (next to be held in 2015); vice president appointed by the president
KosovoKosovo the president is elected for a five-year term by the Kosovo Assembly; election last held on 7 April 2011
KuwaitKuwait none; the amir is hereditary; the amir appoints the prime minister and deputy prime ministers
KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstan president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held on 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister nominated by the parliamentary party holding more than 50% of the seats; if no such party exists, the president selects the party that will form a coalition majority and government
LaosLaos president and vice president elected by National Assembly for five-year terms; election last held on 30 April 2011 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister nominated by the president and elected by the National Assembly for five-year term
LatviaLatvia president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 June 2011 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by Parliament
LebanonLebanon president elected by the National Assembly for a six-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 25 May 2008 (next to be held in 2014); the prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly
LesothoLesotho according to the constitution, the leader of the majority party, or coalition of parties, in the Assembly automatically becomes prime minister; the monarchy is hereditary, but, under the terms of the constitution that came into effect after the March 1993 election, the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" with no executive or legislative powers; under traditional law the college of chiefs has the power to depose the monarch, determine who is next in the line of succession, or who shall serve as regent in the event that the successor is not of mature age
LiberiaLiberia president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 11 October and 8 November 2011 (next to be held in 2017)
LibyaLibya prime minister and National Congress president elected by the National Congress
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Landtag usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Landtag usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch if there is a coalition government
LithuaniaLithuania president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2014); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
LuxembourgLuxembourg the monarchy is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
MacauMacau chief executive chosen by a 300-member Election Committee for a five-year term (current chief executive is eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 July 2009 (next to be held in July 2014)
MadagascarMadagascar president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 December 2006 (next to be held 20 December 2013); prime minister appointed by the president(first-round) in which there was no decicive winner, a secound round is scheduled for 20 December 2013 along with parliamentary elections
MalawiMalawi president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2014)
MalaysiaMalaysia kings are elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; selection is based on the principle of rotation among rulers of states; elections were last held on 14 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); prime ministers are designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands the support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister (since independence this has been the leader of the UMNO party)
MaldivesMaldives president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election held on 7 September 2013 was annulled by the Supreme Court; rerun of first round held on 9 November 2013 and runoff held on 16 November (next election to be held in 2018)
MaliMali president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); the election scheduled for 29 April 2012 and delayed following the March 2012 coup took place 28 July 2013 and a runoff election was held on 11 August 2013; prime minister appointed by the president
MaltaMalta president elected by a resolution of the House of Representatives for a five-year term; election last held on 12 January 2009 (next to be held by April 2014); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president for a five-year term; the deputy prime minister appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
Marshall IslandsMarshall Isl. president elected by Nitijela (legislature) from among its members for a four-year term; election last held on 3 January 2012 (next to be held in 2016)
MauritaniaMauritania president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 18 July 2009 (next to be held by 2014)
MauritiusMauritius president and vice president elected by the National Assembly for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 21 July 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president, responsible to the National Assembly
MayotteMayotte French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; president of the General Council elected by the members of the General Council for a six-year term; next election to be held in 2014
MexicoMexico president elected by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held July 2018)
MoldovaMoldova president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 16 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2016)
MonacoMonaco the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government
MongoliaMongolia presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 June 2013 (next to be held in June 2017); following legislative elections, leaders of the majority party or a majority coalition usually elect the prime minister of the State Great Hural
MontenegroMontenegro president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
MontserratMontserrat the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes premier
MoroccoMorocco the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch following legislative elections
MozambiqueMozambique president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for three terms); election last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister appointed by the president
NamibiaNamibia president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if no single candidate receives a majority of the vote in the first round of voting, a run-off election is scheduled between the two candidates with the greatest vote count; election last held on 27-28 November 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
NauruNauru president elected by parliament for a three-year term; election last held on 11 June 2013 (next to be held in 2016)
NepalNepal president elected by Parliament; term extends until the new constitution is promulgated; president elected on 21 July 2008; date of next election NA
NetherlandsNetherlands the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers appointed by the monarch
Netherlands AntillesN. Antilles the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch for a six-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually elected prime minister by the Staten; election last held 27 January 2006 (next to be held by 2010)
New CaledoniaNew Caledonia French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the government elected by the members of the Territorial Congress for a five-year term (no term limits)(next to be held in June 2016)
New ZealandNew Zealand the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
NicaraguaNicaragua president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 6 November 2011 (next to be held by November 2016)
NigerNiger president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); candidate must receive a majority of the votes to be elected president; a presidential election to restore civilian rule was held 31 January 2011 with a runoff election between ISSOUFOU Mahamadou and Seini OUMAROU held on 12 March 2011
NigeriaNigeria president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)
NiueNiue the monarchy is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held on 16 May 2011 (next to be held in 2014)
Norfolk IslandNorfolk Island the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia for a two year term and represents the monarch and Australia
North KoreaNorth Korea last election held in April 2012; date of next election NA
Northern Mariana IslandsN. Mariana under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in the Democratic and Republican party presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 November 2009 with a run-off election held on 23 November 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
NorwayNorway the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
OmanOman the Ruling Family Council determines a successor from the Sultan's extended family; if the Council cannot form a consensus within three days of the Sultan's death or incapacitation, the Defense Council will relay a predetermined heir as chosen by the Sultan
PakistanPakistan president elected by secret ballot through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister selected by the National Assembly
PalauPalau president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2016)
PanamaPanama president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms (president not eligible for immediate reelection and must sit out two additional terms (10 years) before becoming eligible for reelection); election last held on 3 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2014)
Papua New GuineaPapua NG the monarchy is hereditary; the governor general nominated by parliament and appointed by the chief of state; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general acting in accordance with a decision of the parliament; Peter Paire O'NEILL elected prime minister by parliament on 3 August 2012 by a vote of 94 to 12
ParaguayParaguay president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018)
PeruPeru president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive reelection); presidential and congressional elections last held on 10 April 2011 with runoff election held on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
PhilippinesPhilippines president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election held on 10 May 2010 (next election to be held in May 2016)
Pitcairn IslandsPitcarn the monarchy is hereditary; governor and commissioner appointed by the monarch; island mayor elected by popular vote for a three-year term; election last held in November 2013 (next to be held not later than December 2016)
PolandPoland president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 June and 4 July 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm
PortugalPortugal president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 January 2011 (next to be held in January 2016); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president
Puerto RicoPuerto Rico under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Puerto Rico, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican party presidential primary elections; governor elected by popular vote for a four-year term (no term limits); election last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2016)
QatarQatar the position of amir is hereditary
Republic of MacedoniaMacedonia Rep. president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election: first round held on 22 March 2009, second round held on 5 April 2009 (next to be held in March 2014); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections; the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister
RomaniaRomania president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 November 2009 with runoff on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in November-December 2014); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
RussiaRussia president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018)
RwandaRwanda president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 9 August 2010 (next to be held in 2017)
Saint BarthelemySt Barthelemy French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council elected by the members of the Council for a five-year term
Saint HelenaSaint Helena none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da CunhaSaint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch
Saint Kitts and NevisSt Kitts+ the monarchy is hereditary; the governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia the monarchy is hereditary; the governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Saint MartinSaint Martin French president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council elected by the members of the Council for a five-year term
Saint Pierre and MiquelonSt Pierre+ French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council elected by the members of the council
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSt Vincent+ the monarchy is hereditary; the governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
SamoaSamoa chief of state elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 20 July 2012 (next to be held in 2017); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually appointed prime minister by the chief of state with the approval of the Legislative Assembly
San MarinoSan Marino co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Grand and General Council for a six-month term; election last held on 17 September 2013 (next to be held in March 2014); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Grand and General Council for a five-year term; election last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)
Sao Tome and PrincipeSoa Tome+ president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 July and 7 August 2011 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president
Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia none; the monarchy is hereditary
SenegalSenegal president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a second round runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
SerbiaSerbia president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
Serbia and MontenegroSerbia+ president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
SeychellesSeychelles president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held on 19-21 May 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 November 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
SingaporeSingapore president elected by popular vote for six-year term; election last held on 27 August 2011 (next to be held by August 2017); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by president
SlovakiaSlovakia president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 March and 4 April 2009 (next to be held no later than April 2014); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president
SloveniaSlovenia president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 November and a runoff on 2 December 2012 (next presidential election to be held in 2017); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly
Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of parliament for up to five years (eligible for a second term); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually elected prime minister by parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of parliament; Gordon Darcy LILO elected on 16 November 2011
SomaliaSomalia president elected by the National Parliament; election last held 10 September 2012
South AfricaSouth Africa president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 May 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
South KoreaSouth Korea president elected by popular vote for a single five-year term; PARK Geun-hye elected on 19 December 2012; next election to be held in December 2017; prime minister appointed by president with consent of National Assembly
South SudanSouth Sudan president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held on 11-15 April 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
SpainSpain the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held in November 2015); vice president and Council of Ministers are appointed by the president
Sri LankaSri Lanka president elected by popular vote for a six-year term, eligible for a second term; election last held on 26 January 2010 (next to be held in 2016)
SudanSudan election on 11-15 April 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
SurinameSuriname president and vice president elected by the National Assembly or, if no presidential or vice presidential candidate receives a two-thirds constitutional majority in the National Assembly after two votes, by a simple majority in the larger United People's Assembly (893 representatives from the national, local, and regional councils), for five-year terms (no term limits); election last held on 19 July 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
SvalbardSvalbard none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice
SwazilandSwaziland none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
SwedenSweden the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
SwitzerlandSwitzerland president and vice president elected by the Federal Assembly from among the members of the Federal Council for a one-year term (they may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 5 December 2012 (next to be held in early December 2013)
SyriaSyria president approved by popular referendum for a second seven-year term (no term limits); referendum last held on 27 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2014); the president appoints the vice presidents, prime minister, and deputy prime ministers
TaiwanTaiwan president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 14 January 2012 (next to be held in January 2016); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier
TajikistanTajikistan president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (technically eligible for two terms); election last held on 6 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
TanzaniaTanzania president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 31 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
ThailandThailand the monarchy is hereditary; according to the 2007 constitution, the prime minister is elected from among members of the House of Representatives; following national elections for the House of Representatives, the leader of the party positioned to organize a majority coalition usually becomes prime minister by appointment by the king; the prime minister is limited to two four-year terms
The BahamasThe Bahamas the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
The GambiaThe Gambia president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 24 November 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
TogoTogo president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 4 March 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
TokelauTokelau the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; administrator appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade in New Zealand; the head of government chosen from the Council of Faipule and serves a one-year term
TongaTonga the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the members of parliament and appointed by the monarch
Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad+ president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 February 2013 (next to be held by February 2018); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives
TunisiaTunisia president elected by Constituent Assembly; election last held on 12 December 2011(next to be held in 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
TurkeyTurkey president elected directly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term; election last held on 12 February 2012 (next to be held February 2017)
Turks and Caicos IslandsTurks+ the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is appointed premier by the governor
TuvaluTuvalu the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the members of parliament following parliamentary elections
UgandaUganda president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
UkraineUkraine president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 January 2010 with runoff on 7 February 2010 (next to be held in October 2015)
United Arab EmiratesUAE president and vice president elected by the FSC for five-year terms (no term limits) from among the seven FSC members; election last held 3 November 2004 upon the death of the UAE's Founding Father and first President ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan (next election NA); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president
United KingdomUnited Kingdom the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
United StatesUnited States president and vice president elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state; president and vice president serve four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2012 (next to be held on 8 November 2016)
UruguayUruguay president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 29 November 2009 (next to be held in October 2014)
UzbekistanUzbekistan president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to seven years and changed back to five years in 2011); election last held on 23 December 2007 (next to be held in early 2015); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president
VanuatuVanuatu president elected for a five-year term by an electoral college consisting of parliament and the presidents of the regional councils; election for president last held on 2 September 2009 (next to be held in 2014); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by parliament from among its members; election for prime minister last held on 23 March 2013 (next to be held following general elections in 2016)
VenezuelaVenezuela president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for unlimited reelection); election last held on 3 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2012)
VietnamVietnam president elected by the National Assembly from among its members for five-year term; last election held 25 July 2011 (next to be held in July 2016); prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister; appointment of prime minister and deputy prime ministers confirmed by National Assembly
Virgin IslandsVirgin Islands under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as the Virgin Islands, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in the Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 November 2010 (next to be held in November 2014)
Wallis and FutunaWallis+ French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; high administrator appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the Territorial Government and the Territorial Assembly elected by the members of the assembly
YemenYemen president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term based on constitution; however a special election was held on 21 February 2012 to remove Ali Abdallah SALIH based on a GCC-mediated deal during the political crisis of 2011 (next election to be held in 2014); vice president appointed by the president but position is vacant; prime minister appointed by the president
ZambiaZambia president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 September 2011 (next to be held in 2016); vice president appointed by the president
ZimbabweZimbabwe presidential candidates nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); elections last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership

Citation

"All countries compared for Government > Executive branch > Elections", CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011. Aggregates compiled by NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Government/Executive-branch/Elections

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